Starch and packaging BERTHIER SORARUFF FOURNIER .pdf



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Starch nanocrystals,
Innovation for packaging

Summary


Introduction



Different polymers for packaging



Starch


Starch polymerization



Hydrolysis and starch nanocrystals



Starch nanocrystals



Incorporation into matrices



Improvement with addition of starch nanocrystals



Conclusion

Introduction








Innovation for packaging from
renewable ressources
Nanotechnology and barrier
properties
High demand for flexible
packaging
Biodegradability and reduction of
dependy on petroleum resources

Different polymers for packaging
PLA (PolyLactic Acid)
nC3H6O3 → [C3H4O2]n + nH2O
acid → polyester

Lactic Acid
PLA

Lactid

PLA

Different polymers for packaging




PHB: polyhydroxyl buteric acid


a polyester produced by
micro-organism ( as a
form of energy storage)



Sold under the name
Biopol

Ecoflex:


copolyester based on
petrochimical raw
materials



produced by BASF
poly(butylene adipateco-terephtalate)

Different polymers for packaging


Ecovio:






a bend of different
polymers:


Ecoflex (55%)



PLA (45%)

A polyester produced by
BASF

LDPE (low density polyethylene) :


Thermoplastic



Free radical
polimerization

Starch








Second most abondant biomass
material in nature
Natural, renewable,
biodegradable polymer
Formula : -(C6H10O5)nNo single structure, but a
predominant one :
semi-crystalline multiscale
structure



Composition : Amylose and
Amylopectin (glucosidic
polymers)

Starch polymerization




Amylose

+ Amylopectin

+

+

+

enzyme →

??

Starch





Example of the amylose polymerization :



(ATP + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate → diphosphate + ADP-glucose



ADP-glucose + (1,4-α-D-glucosyl)n → ADP + (1,4-α-D-glucosyl)n+1)

Hydrolysis and Starch
nanocrystals


Few works on it



Particles of a few tens of nanometers in diameter



Two step during the hydrolysis :


a rapid one



A second slower step



Reaction of elimination



Process :


Starch granules (14.69wt%/acid) + 3.16 M of H2SO4 at 40°C
and 100 rpm



After 5 days, then centrifugations with distilled water and
treatment with homogenizer (2min, 13000 rpm) →
« stable » supension

Starch nanocrystals

Incorporation into matrices


Hydroxyl groups → hydrophilic surface → aqueous solutions



Surface treatment → wide range of organic solvents


Alkenyl succinic anhydrid (ASA) (70°C)



Phenylisocyanate (PI) (70°C)



Incorporation

Improvement with addition of
starch nanocrystals


Mechanical Properties:


An hight reinforcing effect according to the filler content ( weight
percent).


Improving the resistance to traction:
● Young's modulus
● Strength
● Strain and Break

╚►new type of network allowed by hydrogen bondings

Improvement with addition of starch
nanocrystals


Physical Properties:


creation of a percolation filler network



increase or decrease of water uptake
═►changing behavior of material ╗
╠═► according to filler content (wt %)

═►affect mechanical properties ╝


natural rubber matrix displayed the lowest water uptake (WU)
after 20 wt% creation of geometrical percolation effect
═►creation of diffusion pathway

Improvement with addition of
starch nanocrystals


Barrier Properties:


starch nanocrystals morphology: platelet
═► creation of tortuous pathway



many hydroxyl groups
═► hydrophilic nature of starch nanocrystals



Water vapor permeability: WVP



O2 permeability

Conclusion :


Promising fillers



Advantages :







Cost



Purity



Mechanical and barrier properties

Negative points :


Reinforcing capabilty



Duration of the hydrolysis process

However, research continues to improve
these caracteristics


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