BIO 10 2009 .pdf



Nom original: BIO-10_2009.pdf
Titre: BIO-10 2009.ppt
Auteur: Olivier Peulen

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22/03/10


From Unicellular Organisms…..


…To pluricellular Organisms


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Advantages of multicellularity

Specialization of cells

More resistant to aggressors


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Adaptation Needed

Cell-cell adhesion

Extracellular Matrix

Cell-Matrix adhesion

Tissues organization

Cell communication

• 
molecular

• 
electric


Functions to be sustain:

Nutrition

Respiration

Elimination

Communication

Defense


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Cell-cell adhesion


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Cell-cell adhesion


Cell-cell adhesion


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Cell-Matrix Interactions


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ZOOM ON THE PLANT CELL


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ZOOM ON THE PLANT CELL


Cell Wall

Plasts

Vacuola

Totitopotency


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Cell Wall

Primary cell wall

Secondary cell wall

•  Cellulose

•  Hemicellulose

•  Pectin


Cell Wall


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Cellulose


Cellulose is probably the single most abundant
organic molecule in the biosphere.

It is the major structural material of which plants
are made. Wood is largely cellulose while cotton
and paper are almost pure cellulose.


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Cell Wall


Cell Wall


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Cell Wall


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Cell Wall


Cellulose


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Potassium Flux as a regulator of turgency


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PLASTS


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The plant kingdom contains multicellular
phototrophs that usually live on land. The earliest
plant fossils are from terrestrial deposits, although
some plants have since returned to the water. All
plant cells have a cell wall containing the
carbohydrate cellulose, and often have plastids in
their cytoplasm.

The plant life cycle has an alternation between
haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte)
generations. There are more than 300,000 living
species of plants known, as well as an extensive fossil
record.


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Cooksonia is a typical early vascular
plant. It was less than 15 cm tall, with
stems that dichotomously branched.
Dichotomous branching (where the stem

divides into two ewqual branches)
appears a primitive or ancestral trait in
vascular
plants.
Some
branches
terminated in sporangia that produced a
single size of spore.


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Evolution of the Haplo/Diplophasic Cycle


Bryophytes are small, nonvascular
plants that first evolved
approximately 500 million years ago.
The earliest land plants were most
likely bryophytes.

Bryophytes lack vascular tissue and
have life cycles dominated by the
gametophyte phase. The lack of
conducting cells limits the size of the
plants, generally keeping them under
5 inches high. Roots are absent in
bryophytes, instead there are rootlike structures known as rhizoids.
The group includes the hornworts,

liverworts, and mosses.


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Bryophytes


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The vascular plants have specialized transporting cells
xylem (for transporting water and mineral nutrients) and
phloem (for transporting sugars from leaves to the rest of
the plant). When we think of plants we invariably picture
vascular plants.

Vascular plants tend to be larger and more complex than
bryophytes, and have a life cycle where the sporophyte is
more prominent than the gametophyte.

Vascular plants also demonstrate increased levels of
organization by having organs and organ systems.


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The plants most
evolved and adapted
to live on Earth.

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Nude Seeds


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Heterospores


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Mo

t

o
c
no

Dic
ot


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The ovary contains one or more ovules, which in turn
contain one female gametophyte, also referred to in
angiosperms as the embryo sac. Some plants, such as
cherry, have only a single ovary which produces two
ovules. Only one ovule will develop into a seed.


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Pollen grains (from the greek palynos for dust or pollen) contain the
male gametophyte (microgametophyte) phase of the plant. The outer
part of the pollen is the exine, which is composed of a complex
polysaccharide, sporopollenin. Inside the pollen are two (or, at most,
three) cells that comprise the male gametophyte.. Division of the
germ cell can occur before or after pollination.


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