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ACADEMIC STUDIES
ENGLISH

Support Materials and Exercises
for

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

PARTS OF SPEECH

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The following persons have contributed to the development of this learning material:
Content and Structure:
Curriculum Developer(s)

Leslie Childs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Curriculum Content Expert
New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . . . . Bathurst

Project Supervision/Co-ordination:

Angela Acott-Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Co-ordinator
New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

Kay Curtis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literacy Co-ordinator
New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

This document is available full-text on the World Wide Web thanks to
the National Adult Literacy Database.
http://www.nald.ca/CLR/search/
The financial support for this learning materials project was provided by
the National Literacy Secretariat of Human Resources Development Canada.
Fall 1998

This support module may be used with BAU-ENG 6.5,Parts of Speech, and IAUENG 2.1 Parts of Speech.
BAU-ENG 6.5

PARTS OF SPEECH

OBJECTIVE
Upon successful completion of this unit, the learner will be able to
1. identify the eight parts of speech in simple sentences.
2. explain the function of each part of speech.
TEACHING POINTS
Noun

Pronoun

Verb

1

common and proper

3/4

2

singular and plural

3/4

3

possessive nouns (with ‘s)

3/4

4

used to name people, places, things

3/4

5

personal, indefinite, interrogative

3/4

6

use to replace nouns

3/4

7

identify verbs and verb phrases (e.g. walk, walks, walked,

3/4

8

Adjective

Level

is walking, has walked, has been walking, etc .)

3/4

9

singular and plural forms of “to be” (present, past, future)

3/4

10

singular and plural forms of “to have” (present, past, future)

3/4

11

use of basic verb tenses (past, present, future)

3/4

12

principal parts of common irregular verbs

3/4

13

uses to express action and state of being

3/4

14

used to describe nouns and pronouns

3/4

15

comparison of adjectives

5/6

16

use of “er” ending to compare two things

5/6

17

use of “est” ending to compare two or more things

5/6

18

use of “more” and “most” with longer adjectives

5/6

19

comparison of irregular adjectives e.g. good, better, best

5/6

Adverb

20

used to describe verbs: where, why, when, how, how much

3/4

21

usually end in “ly”

3/4

22

comparison of adverbs: e.g. quickly, more quickly, most
quickly

5/6

Preposition

23

used to show space and time relationship between nouns

5/6

Conjunction

24

used to join complete thoughts

5/6

Interjection

25

used to express surprise, horror, or other strong emotions

3/4

Learners should be encouraged to use their own writing as well as traditional exercises to
identify parts of speech.

IAU-ENG 2.1

PARTS OF SPEECH

OBJECTIVES

Upon successful completion of this unit, the learner will be able to
1. identify the eight parts of speech in written and oral communications..
2. describe the function of each part of speech.
TEACHING POINTS

Nouns
(naming)

Pronoun
(naming)

Verb
(stating:
action/existence)

Lev
el

1
2
3

Types: common & proper
concrete & abstract
singular & plural

4
5
6
7
8
9

possessive (with boy’s, boys’ and Charles’
Types: personal (gender, number, person, case)
interrogative, indefinite
reflexive, reciprocal, demonstrative, emphatic
relative
Type: action & linking

10
11
12

17

helping (auxiliary) & main = verb phrase
active & passive voice
Principal parts: regular & irregular
Tense: simple (past, present, future)
perfect (past, present, future)
progressive (past, present, future)
perfect progressive (past, present, future)
Types: common & proper

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

demonstrative
articles (a, an, the)
Comparison of adjectives: regular and irregular
Types: regular (“ly”) & irregular
negative (e.g. not, never); quantitative (e.g.
Comparison of adverbs: regular & irregular
Types: simple & compound (e.g. in/in front of)
Types: co-ordinate (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so)
correlative (either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also)
conjunctive adverb (e.g. therefore, thus, etc.)
subordinate conjunction: (e.g. because, if, when,
relative pronoun (e.g. that, which, who, etc.)

13
14
15
16

Adjective
(describing)

Adverb
(describing)
Preposition(joining)
Conjunction(joining)

7
7
7

7
7
7
8
8/9
7
7
9
7
7
7
7
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8/9
9

Interjection

30

expressing horror, surprise, etc.

Practice is the key to developing mastery of this objective. Practice sentences can be found in every
grammar text, in newspapers and magazines, as well as in the learner’s own writing. Learners should
develop a “hands-on” approach to identifying parts of speech by regularly using their own writing as a
source of practice material.

7

NOTE TO FACILITATORS AND LEARNERS:
1.

The first grammar module,Parts of Speech, presents information and exercises to
accompany the objectives of BAU-ENG 6.5., Parts of Speech and IAU-ENG 2.1, Parts of
Speech.

2.

Sections of this module marked with an asterisk (*) should be completed by learners
wanting to complete the BAU-ENG 6.5 objectives.

3.

Learners working in IAU-ENG should complete all sections of this module. If they have
previously completed the BAU-ENG programme, those sections marked with an asterisk
should be reviewed.

4.

Facilitators are free to use any support materials appropriate to their learners’ needs.

5.

Additional resource materials may be required for those wanting more information on this
topic or for those needing more practice mastering certain areas.

6.

Alternate support materials may be appropriate.

7.

Learners should be very familiar with the parts of speech before they attempt Module 6,
Parts of the Sentence.

8.

Grammar terms are not always consistent. Where possible, this module indicates alternate
terminology and ways of handling specific grammar situations. Learners should be
familiar with these, so that a wider variety of source materials are accessible to them.

9.

The accompanying Practice Booklet contains exercises and an answer key in support of
specific teaching points. Many exercises may, however, be used to practice identifying a
variety of parts of speech.

10.

Practice is essential to mastery of parts of speech. Learners will benefit from using their
own writing, newspapers, magazines, and novels as a source for practice sentences.

11.

The real purpose for learning grammar is to help learner write and speak as effectively as
possible.

12.

Do NOT write in this module. Please make your notes and complete the exercises in your
own notebooks so that other learners may also use these booklets.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37
42
47
48

A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

1

GRAMMAR: PART I

PARTS OF SPEECH
I

INTRODUCTION•

This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar
you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a
lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read,
write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they
learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things
(vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and
they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they
would be understood and get what they wanted.

A.

WHAT IS GRAMMAR?•

Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the
forms and structure of words (morphology1), their arrangement in phrases and
sentences (syntax2), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech).
Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it
really is.
Look at this picture, and then write a simple
sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see.
Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook.

1

The root word “morph” means form.

2

The etymology of “syntax” shows it meanings “putting together”.

2

Your sentence probably looks something like this.
1. The man is throwing the ball.
2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball.
You might even have written
3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher.
Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word
that meant a man. You certainly didn’t write
Ball throwing man the the is.
That wouldn’t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be
confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and
use the basic rules of grammar.
Here’s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you
saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then
you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them
(syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each
word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably
started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation).
You see you really do know lots about grammar!

B.

WHY STUDY GRAMMAR?•

Although you do write “good sentences” most of the time, you may make a
few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that
you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding
grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and
more persuasive.
Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first
impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we
say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use

3

the language. For example, some people say “He sure done good!” or “He should
of went to the dance” or “Hunters didn’t shoot a big amount of deer this year.”
While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage
others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn’t have much “schooling” or
else isn’t very good at expressing him/herself.
This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes
you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be
unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.

C.

WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH?•

Although English has hundreds of thousands of words, every one can be
placed into at least one of eight groups, or classifications. The system of classifying
words based on their function is known as the parts of speech.
The eight parts of speech are
noun
pronoun
verb
adjective
adverb
preposition
conjunction
interjection
Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the
grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to
correct them.
Because some words can be used in several different ways, you have to look
at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its
part of speech). For example, look at these sentences.
He ran fast so he wouldn’t be late. (describes how he ran...adverb)
They will fast to raise money for UNICEF. (tells about an action...verb)
Their fast lasted for three days. (names a thing...noun)

4

The word “fast” is spelled the same, but it functions differently in each sentence.
II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH•
A.

NOUNS•

Words that name people, places and things are called nouns. The following
table lists a variety of nouns.
EXAMPLES OF NOUNS
PEOPLE

cashier

Carol

boys

PLACES:

province

New Brunswick

lake

THINGS: ANIMALS:

cat

Dalmatian

bug

OBJECTS:

fork

television

car

SUBSTANCES:

iron

air

gold

ACTIONS:

(a) race

(the) dance

(the) hits

MEASURES:

kilogram

centimetre

day

happiness

honesty

beauty

QUALITIES:

Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence, and most sentences contain several
nouns. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a, an, the. The naming
word that comes after them is probably a noun. Sometimes nouns appear without
these little words, but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of
the sentence.
Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions.
Paul is a noun that names a person.
Children name people
continent names a thing
Africa names a place
lions names a thing.

Can you find 10
nouns in this
picture?

5

Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can
identify the nouns in most sentences.
Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants.
Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year.
Finish your work before the big game starts on TV.
The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to
town.
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, and Fredericton is the capital of this
province.
Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need.
French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario.
Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your
answers in the Answer Key. If you made more than one or two mistakes, you
should do more exercises from other textbooks. You may also choose to use any of
the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns.

B.

PRONOUNS•

Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people, places, and
things) that have already been mentioned, or that the speaker/writer assumes are
understood by the listener/reader. For example, “I want you to read this again.”
The words I, you, and this are pronouns. In this sample sentence, it isn’t necessary
to actually see the nouns (writer, reader, and sentence) because the
writer’s/speaker’s meaning is obvious
Examine the sentences below. For each pronoun printed in bold type, think of a
noun it could replace.
She saw it when they bought it.
(e.g. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog.
Everybody was glad when it was over.
The candy that we gave them was made last year.
What did you buy from them?

Write a sentence about this
picture. Use pronouns
instead of nouns.

6

It barked loudly and then wagged its tail.
Some of this is important to me
When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed.
We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves.
Who bought those from you?
Fill it up, please.
Many signed up, but few were chosen.
We planted them, but the birds ate everything.
Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. If you need more
practice, find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the
Practice Booklet itself.

C.

VERBS•

The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb, one of the main parts
of every sentence. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb.
Verbs usually tell about an action.
Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences.
Verbs may consist of one word.
Verb phrases3 may have up to five words.
Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not, never, always.
Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times.
For example, We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the
action happening in the future. We will walk to the store tomorrow. The
word walked became will walk; therefore, they are verbs.

Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. Notice that some verbs have
more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part
of the verb.

3

Phrase...a group of words that belong together.

7

The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher.
The runner flew down the race track.
The farmer used all the water in his pond.
The dog was chasing its tail.
I have finished the laundry.
Have you written that letter?
They had already bought her present.
I have never seen anything like that before.
Paul can do anything.
Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York.
My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more.
She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge.
Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives.
Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show
any action. When you find the words am, are, is, was, and were used in a sentence
between two nouns, you have found one of these special kinds of verbs.
My sister is a nurse; I am a teacher; our father was a millwright.
Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to
describe a quality.
Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks.
She is beautiful and talented.
They were always honest.
Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. Complete Exercises 5, 6, and 7 in
the Practice Exercise Booklet. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until
you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences.

D.

ADJECTIVES•

To talk or write about a person place or thing, you use nouns like girl, house,
or tree. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of
what you mean, you add “detail” words in front of the noun like little, blue, rich,
old. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives.

8

An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. A
modifier is a word that limits, changes, or alters the meaning of another word.
Therefore, an adjective limits, changes, or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun.
Adjectives are usually placed before the noun.
the white, puffy clouds
a happy, carefree child
some tall, stately trees
a rich dark chocolate layer cake
five huge leafy bushes
Here’s another way of thinking of adjectives.
Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. Your boss tells
you, “Give this piece of paper to the woman”. The only problem is that there are
twenty-three women in the room. To which one should you give the paper? Your
boss might have said “the tall woman”. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat
helpful, as only six of the women are tall. To which tall women should you give the
paper? Perhaps your boss said, “the tall, blond woman with the red dress”. The
words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a
large group. In other words, these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific
person.
The group of words “with the red dress” is also a form of adjective that helps
limit the meaning to one particular person. You will learn about these groups of
words later in this module. Examine the sample sentences below for a better
understanding of adjectives.
I have a car.

I have a blue car. I have a small dark blue car.

The first sentence does not tell anything about my car, only that I have one. The
second adds the adjective blue. This descriptive word makes the sentence more
interesting and helping the reader “see” your car in his/her mind’s eye. The
meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only
those that are blue. The third sentence adds even more details. Other adjectives
like shiny, new, cool, powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning
of the word car or tell what kind it is.

9

One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives),so the
reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind’s eye.
Adjectives also tell how many, as in many people, several candies, and four
children. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also
adjectives. Such adjectives include this, that, these, and those, as in this car, that
coat, these boots, and those houses. These are demonstrative adjectives.
This book belongs to Pete; those pencils are Ted’s.
This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and
pencils. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils.
The words this, that, these, and those can be used as either adjectives or
pronouns. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use
as adjectives and pronouns.
This belongs to Pete; those are Ted’s. (pronouns)
Pete bought this Ford, and Ted bought that Chevy. (adjectives)
This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the
sentence for them to modify. The nouns they “stand for” or replace were probably
mentioned in an earlier sentence. In the second sentence, this modifies the proper
noun Ford; that modifies the proper noun Chevy.
Compare the meaning of these two sentences.
I have a blue car.
I have the blue car.
The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. Although some grammar
books call them indefinite (a, an) and definite articles (the), others called them
adjectives. Either is correct.

10

A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES:

L

an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun;

L

an adjective tells what kind, as in old man, new clothes, bad taste, and
cold day;

L

an adjective tells how many, as in many days, few hours, couple of
dollars, and two cities;

L

an adjective tells which one or ones, as in those books, this restaurant,
these computers, that building;

L

articles are also adjectives - a, the, and an.

Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. Glass, kitchen, and school are
usually nouns. Used in the following ways, however, many grammar books call
them adjectives:
I could see that he had a glass eye.
Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator.
Do you know the value of that school book?
In cases like these, if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass,
kitchen, or school, there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective.
Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives.
The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees.
Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. A good “trick” to remember is that
adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify.

11

Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who
cannot see the picture. Underline all the adjectives you used.

Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Find
more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint
adjectives in most sentences.

12

E.

ADVERBS•

You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Another type of
describing word or modifier is the adverb. Adverbs limit, change, or alter the
words they modify.
1.

ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS•
He is driving.

This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. If an adverb is
added, you will find out how he is driving, where he is driving, or when he is
driving.
How is he driving?
Where is he driving?
When is he driving?
2.

He is driving quickly.
He is driving away.
He is driving now.

ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES

In the following sentence, the noun sunset is described as beautiful. What
part of speech is the word beautiful.
The campers saw a beautiful sunset.
Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. If you want to tell how
beautiful it was, you can add something in front of the adjective.
The campers saw a very beautiful sunset.
The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset.
When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was, or to
what extent it was beautiful, that word is called an adverb. Thus very and truly are
adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful.

13

Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives.
extremely
somewhat
a little
completely
really
tremendously
particularly
especially
perfectly
unusually
3.

ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS
Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs.
The dog ate quickly.

The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. By
adding another adverb, we can find out how quickly the dog ate, as follows:
How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.
WORDS ENDING IN “LY”•
Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective.
ADJECTIVE

ADD -LY

bright
easy

brightly
*first, change y to i

soft
full

ADVERB

easily
softly

*first, change ll to l

fully

careful

carefully

quick

quickly

* Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word.

14

WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS•
Some words can only be used as adverbs, never as adjectives. A list of these
words follows. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them, and
learn to recognize them in sentences.
well4
quite
very
almost
always
usually

often
surely
not
never
so (He was so happy.)

In the section on verb phrases, you learned that some small words can be
found in the middle of verb phrases, but they are not verbs. Those words are
adverbs.
He was always asking questions.
He will never tell another lie.
Eric will not shop on Sundays.
I have often wondered about the moon.
WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES
A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. Three examples of such
words are early, fast, and late.
The train arrived early. (adverb)
Penny drives fast. (adverb)
A student is late. (adverb)

It was an early train. (adjective)
Penny is a fast driver. (adjective)
There is a late student. (adjective)

Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Find
more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can
accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences.

4

usually an adverb - can be an adjective to describe a person's health

15

F.

PREPOSITIONS•

Preposition are joining words, sometimes called connectives, which are used
to show a time, place, or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun
and a verb. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always
grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit, called prepositional phrases.
preposition
Time:
after
Place:
under
Ownership: of

+
+
+
+

noun or pronoun
the party
the table
our town

= prepositional phrase
= (after the party)
= (under the table)
= (of our town)

Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. Prepositional
phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. The following sentence gives no
details about the person or her actions:
The girl walked.
Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building:
The girl walked around the building.
The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the
girl walked and the building. Other prepositions show different relationships
between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions.
The girl walked through the building.
The girl walked into the building.
The girl walked behind the building.
The girl walked to the building.
The girl walked beside the building.
The girl walked near the building.
In each sentence above, the prepositional phrases give more information
about the verb “walked” by telling where she walked. Adverb phrases can also be
used to tell how, in what way, when. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb;
therefore, these prepositional phrases, telling where she walked, are called
prepositional adverb phrases.

16

Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or
pronoun.
The colour of that paint is just right.
The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible.
The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans.
The books in that bag are yours.
Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday.
They rented the house on the corner.
The presents under the tree were delivered this morning.
In each example above, the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun.
Because these phrases function as adjectives, they are called prepositional adjective
phrases.
Here are some common prepositions:

about
above
across
after
against
along
among
at
before
below
beneath
beside
between

beyond
by
down
during
except
for
from
in
inside
into
of
off
on

out
outside
over
past
since
through
toward
under
until
up
with
without
within

Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet.
Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately
pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences.

17

G.

INTERJECTIONS•

Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. An interjection
is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. It can be an actual
word, or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma.
Unlike all the other parts of speech, the interjection is not linked in any way to any
other word in the sentence. Following are some examples of interjections:
Wow!

Oh!

Oh, no!

Ouch!

Never!

Fabulous!

Fantastic!

Ah!

No!

Wow!

Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet.
H.

CONJUNCTIONS•

Conjunctions, like prepositions, are also joining words or connectives.
Conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, or clauses5. Conjunctions can be
found in any position in a sentence except the very end. Before you can really
understand clauses, you will need to work through Module 6, Part of the Sentence.
For the purpose of this module, you can use the elimination method to find
conjunctions. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence, those
that are left over are probably conjunctions. Look at these examples.
When lightning struck the old barn, it burned quickly
ù
ù
ù
ù ù
ù
ù
ù
ù
?
noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb
The word when looks like it might be an adverb, but does it tell you at what time?
No, the word itself doesn’t add any new information. What it does do is introduce a
group of words that tells specifically when something happened.

5

Clauses are “mini-sentences stuck into ‘real’ sentences” and which need special joining
words (conjunctions) to attach them..

18

Joe and Mike followed the young cub, but they
ù ù
ù
ù
ù
ù
ù
ù ù
noun ? noun verb
adj adj noun ? pro

could not catch it.
ù
ù
ù
ù
verb adv verb pro

The words and and but are conjunctions. And joins two nouns; but joins two
complete ideas.
Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice
Booklet. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module.

Evaluate your learning so far! Which
statement below best describes you?

I understand parts of speech.
I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly.
I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech.
I am a little confused about parts of speech.
I am totally lost.







Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech, what do you
think you should do next?
Review?
Start again?
Do more practice work?
Go on to the next section?






19

III

A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS
Nouns are words that name a person, place, or thing in a sentence.

A.

TYPES OF NOUNS
Nouns are classified according to their meaning.

1.

COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS•
A word which names a person, place or thing in general is called a common
noun.
Examples: waiter, dog, province, girl, house, car, and city.
When a word names a particular, or the only, member of a class or group it is
called a proper noun. Proper nouns are always capitalized.
Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ),
Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog),
New Brunswick (the name of a particular province), and
Ottawa (the name of a particular city).
Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet.
2.

CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS•
If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses, it is called
a concrete noun. Nouns like table, house, car, brain, cloud, sky are concrete
nouns. On the other hand, if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real
world and cannot be felt, tasted, seen, heard or touched, they are categorized as
abstract nouns.
Examples: honesty, pride, beauty, swiftness, friendship, height, speed, faith

Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet.
3.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS
Collective nouns name groups or collections of people, places and things.
Examples: team, crowd, herd, flock, audience, jury, committee, panel.
Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee, six
committees.
Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries.

20

Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as
a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). Here are two
examples that illustrate this point.
The jury is announcing its decision.
The jury are stating their opinions.
In the first sentence, the jury is acting as a single unit; everyone agreed on one
decision. In the second case, each juror is acting as an individual, and there are
many different opinions.
The team is buying new uniforms.
The team are buying new uniforms.
In the second set of examples, the first sentence describes a situation where the
team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the
clothes. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for
and buy the uniform him/herself.
Do Exercise 19.
4.

MASS NOUNS
Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples, steaks, miles,
chairs, bracelets, dollars, and are, therefore called count nouns. Mass nouns,
however, are similar to collective nouns, but refer to non-living things which cannot
be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many
items. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns.
Examples: meat, land, furniture, jewellery, money, food, timber, gold, clothing,
equipment.
Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns.
an amount of jewellery (non-count)
a number of rings (count)
a little meat (non-count)
a few steaks (count)
some furniture (non-count)
several chairs (count)
less clothing (non-count)
fewer shirts (count)
Here are some examples of correct usage.
The farmer bought a large number of cows, so he needed a huge amount of grain.

21

His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating
equipment.
We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture.
My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town.
Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each
type of noun.

B.

FORMS OF NOUNS

Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make
as they perform different functions in a sentence.
1.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL•
Nouns may be singular referring to one, or plural, referring to more than
one. Most nouns change their form by adding “s” when they are plural. However,
there are exceptions to every rule - and exceptions for the exceptions. Module 4,
Spelling, explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals.
2.

POSSESSIVE NOUNS•
Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive
nouns. A possessive noun shows ownership, belonging, or that something is part of
something else. They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an
apostrophe (’).

Libby’s front teeth
Eva’s big smile
Greg’s tiny nose

22

RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS
Conditions

Possessive Form

Examples

If a noun is
singular and does
not end in “s”

add an apostrophe (')
plus s to the noun

- the neighbour's car
- the child's toys
- Gloria's career
- New Brunswick's art

If a noun is
singular and ends
in “s”, be guided by
the way you say the
word

- if a new syllable is
formed in the
pronunciation of the
possessive, add an
apostrophe plus “s”

- Doris's store
- my boss's approval
- Dennis's car
- witness's description

- if adding an extra “s”
would make the word
seem awkward or hard
to pronounce, add
only an apostrophe

- John Hastings' store
- Jesus' parables
- Phillips' farm
- Mary Parsons' garden

If a noun is plural,
and already has an
s at the end

add only an
apostrophe (')

- students' lounge
- witnesses' story
- librarians' club
- the Jones' party
- the ladies’ room

If a noun is plural
and does not end
in “s”

add apostrophe (') s

- oxen's hooves
- men's choir
- women's wear
- children's toys

Now examine the following phrases:
the boy’s bicycles

the boys’ bicycles

Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell?
If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun, it indicates that one
person owns the item. If it follows the plural form of the noun, it shows that several

23

people own it. Examine these phrases. How many people own the house?
The party is going to be at my friends’ house.
Look at the word with the apostrophe. It was already plural before the apostrophe
was added, so the house is owned by two or more friends. Now examine these
phrases:
the lady’s room

the ladies’ room

Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom?
Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public
restrooms?
Look at the illustration below. Which phrase correctly describes the man?

the babies’ grandfather
the baby’s grandfather

How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the
best description of the whole picture?
The books’ covers are different colours.
The book’s covers are different colours.

Babies’ grandfather is correct
The books’ covers is correct

24

Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it
gives you important information about who owns the item(s).
Hints for Using Possessive Nouns
1.

2.

3.

4.

The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants
and non-living objects. For example, it is better to write "the legs of the
table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the
tree's leaves."
However, it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions
referring to time and measurement, such as
two weeks' vacation
five dollars' worth
one hour's time
Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. Here’s an
example:
Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale.
The above sentence contains 3 possessives. Only one is acceptable. A better
version of the sentence would look like this:
The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale.
Examine the following sentence. Then, create a rule to explain what you
found.
Mary and Susan’s mother arrived yesterday.
You should have written something like this: “When two or more people
“own” something together, you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is
mentioned last.”

5.

If both nouns are possessive, each one owns a separate thing.
Mary’s and Susan’s houses are on the same street.

Do Exercises 22, 23, and 24 in the Practice Booklet.

25

IV

A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS•

Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. The following
paragraph contains no pronouns.
Our cat’s name is Spot. Our cat is black and white. Our cat’s
body is mostly white. Our cat has four black paws. Our cat has
a long black tail. Our cat purrs a lot. Our cat never scratches.
Our cat likes to play. My mother, my father, two brothers, and
three sisters love our cat.
What’s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a
whole book that was written like this? Why not?
When the paragraph is rewritten, using pronouns to replace some nouns, it
sounds more natural and interesting, and less repetitive.
Our cat’s name is Spot. It is black and white. Its body
is mostly white but its four paws are black. It has a
long black tail. We call our cat Spot. It purrs a lot, and
it never scratches. Spot likes to play. Everyone in our
family loves the cat.

TYPES OF PRONOUNS•
Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how
they are used in a sentence.

It is for you!

26

A.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS•
Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and
speaking more interesting.
These Personal Pronouns

CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF:

I, me, my, mine

your name

we, us, our, ours,

your name and the names of other people

you, your, yours

the name of someone else you are addressing

he, him, his

boy, man, male

she, her, hers

girl, woman, female

it, its, they, them, their, theirs

plants, objects, actions, substances, and other
things you would not refer to as "he" or "she"

they, them, theirs, their

people

Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet.
Personal pronouns can be classed by number, person, gender, and case. The
grammar term number means singular or plural. The pronouns I, you, he, she, it
are singular forms; the words we, you, they are plural.
Pronouns are also grouped by person. I and we are first person pronouns
and refer to the writer/speaker, obviously the “most important person(s)” in the
message. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present.
He, she, it, and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred
to is not present.
Person

Singular

Plural

1st person

I, me, my, mine

we, us, our, ours

2nd person you, your, yours

you, your, yours

3rd person he, him, his, his
she, her, hers
it, its

they, them, their, theirs

27

* If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person, then it is considered singular. (I
want you to close the door.) If, on the other hand, you is used to designate a group
of people, it is considered plural (Class, I want you to be on time.)
The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. Nouns which name a male
person are called masculine: waiter, actor, aviator. Nouns which name a female
person are called feminine: waitress, actress, aviatrix. The pronouns he, him, his
show masculine gender, and she, her, hers show feminine gender. The pronoun it
which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants, animals, and
inanimate objects which are singular. In English, plural pronouns, we, you, they,
etc. are used to replace plural nouns, regardless of gender.
Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns
needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. Module 6, Grammar:
Part 2, explains case in greater detail.
Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet.
Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership.
my, mine
your, yours
his, his
her, hers,
its, --our, ours
their, theirs
whose, ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns.
Mary is standing by the door. That coat belongs to Mary.
The sentence could be rewritten, using the possessive pronoun hers to replace
the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to.
Mary is standing by the door. That is her coat.
OR
Mary is standing by the door. That coat is hers.

28

Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the
spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. The words it’s, you’re, and
they’re are not possessive pronouns; they are contractions of it is, you are, and they
are. Examine these sentences and learn the difference.
It’s always funny when the dog chases its tail.
You’re going to be surprised when you see your new sister.
Their apartment will be for rent when they’re transferred to Saint John.

1. PRONOUN SELECTION•
What do you think is wrong with the following sentence?
People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school.
The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. Both pronouns replace
People, a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of
speaking. Of course, the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people, but they
must be present. The people referred to in this sentence are , however, not present
at the time of speaking. The pronouns, therefore, do not match, but they should
match. The sentence should be corrected.
A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school.
Here’s another common error in pronoun selection.
My mother and me rushed into the house.
The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. The sentence should read:
My mother and I rushed into the house.
An easy way to select the right personal pronoun, (I/me, he/him, she/her,
we/us, they/them is to test the pronoun alone. For instance, you can test the
sentence above by reading it, using only the pronoun.
Me rushed into the house.
You know that does not look right or sound right. It should read
I rushed into the house.

29

It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is “I”.
Look at this sentence.
Mr. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail.
This sentence may look and sound correct, but it contains a basic grammar
mistake that lots of people, even well-educated ones, make. You can find the error
by imagining that Mr. Smith gave to letter to only one person.
Mr. Smith gave I three letters to mail.
Just as in the example above, you can hear and see that this is not correct. The
pronoun me is the correct form, and the sentence should be corrected like this.
Mr. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail.
The next two examples show a very common error, heard often in speech.
Are yous going to the movie tonight?
The error may seem obvious in print, but be careful when you are speaking. Many
people make this mistake. When speaking to one OR more than one person, the
pronoun you is the correct choice. Yous is not a word.
Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them.
The pronoun them is never used with a noun. The correct word to use in this
sentence is those.
Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them.
Do Exercises 30, 31, 32, and 33 in the Practice Booklet.

30

2.

PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS•
Margaret rode her bike to the mall.
The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the
proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the
noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her.

An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun
“Margaret” is the antecedent of the pronoun “her”.

The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is
to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it
replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this
sentence.
An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer.
What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is
supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun
employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this
sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their
must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match.
There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or
make them both singular.
Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer.
OR
An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each
customer.
Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student,
teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the
singular form of the sentence this way.
An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer.

31

Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential.
Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday.
The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al?
Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its
antecedent, the sentence will read
Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday.
If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect
because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn’t know who his refers to because
the writer hasn’t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is
Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark’s apartment yesterday.
How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al?
Al and Tim actually cleaned Al’s apartment yesterday.
Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not
appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it.
Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.
The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous
sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just
looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents.
Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet.
B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS•
In the following sentence,
Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped.
everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing,
it is an called an indefinite pronoun.
The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a
singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to

32

replace everybody.
Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped.
Even though it may sound “right” because you have heard it so often, it is NOT
correct. The correct version is
Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped.
Other singular indefinite pronouns include
any

everything

anybody

everyone

anything

each

anyone

nobody

everyone

no one

everything

none

everybody

nothing

either

somebody

neither

someone

another

something

A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper
choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite
pronouns include:
several

few

all

some

both

many

Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet.

33

C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear
sentences.
Singular

Plural

this
that
such

these
those
such

Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer
to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or
plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find.
(plural)
Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns.
Give her the book.
Give her this.
Book is the antecedent of this
Eat the pie.
Eat that.
Pie is the antecedent of that.
Give her the books.
Give her these.
Books is the antecedent of these
Eat the pies.
Eat those.
Pies is the antecedent of those.
Take his coat and hat. Take them.
Coat and hat are the
antecedents of them.
Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and
those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are
not demonstrative pronouns.
I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)
Buy those pork chops.
(Not a demonstrative pronoun)
I sold some cakes, but I gave those to Mary. (A demonstrative pronoun)
Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet.

34

D. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
Reflexive pronouns are used when the “receiver” of the action is the same
person as the “doer”. In other words, if someone does something to himself or
herself, the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun.
Tammy cut herself on the broken glass.
The children frightened themselves with ghost stories.
Singular reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. If the
sentence is directed to one person, use the singular form yourself, but if it refers to a
group, use the plural form yourselves.
Andy, you must be careful not to push yourself too far.
Players, watch yourselves out there on the field today.
Although it may sound and look correct, there is no such word as “themself”.
Check the dictionary. Can you find the word “themself”? Can you explain why
not?
E.

EMPHATIC PRONOUNS

Emphatic pronouns6 look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used
to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. For example, when you want to point out
that you did something all by yourself, you might say,
I fixed the car myself. or I, myself, wouldn’t pass judgement on him.
Singular emphatic pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Examples:

6

You, yourself, are better able to answer that question.
They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves.
I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead.

Some grammar texts call this group “intensive pronouns”.

35

F.

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS
There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another.

Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship
improved.
She taught her children to help one another.
Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet.
G. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS•
When you ask a question about someone or something, you often start with
an interrogative pronoun.
Interrogative pronouns: who7, whom8 whose, which, what
Example:

Who is going to the dance next week?
Whom will you ask about the schedule?
Which do you like best, CDs or tapes?
What are you going to wear tomorrow?

You will see the words who, whom, which, that in many sentences. If they are not
used to ask a question, they are not interrogative pronouns.
The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi.
We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale.
Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet.
H.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called
clauses into a basic sentence. The term “clause” really means extra bits of

7

Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly.

8

Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly.

36

information in a sentence, expressed in a special way. Module 6, Parts of the
Sentence explains their use in detail.
Relative pronouns: who, whoever, whom, whomever.....to refer to people
which...............................................to refer to things
that...................................................to refer to people/things
Examples:

The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank.
The teacher whom you met trained in France.
I saw the television program which was banned in the States.
I almost forgot that it was your birthday.
The driver that stopped didn’t get a ticket.
The driver who didn’t stop got a ticket.
We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock.

Do Review Exercises 40, 41, and 42 in the Practice Booklet.

37

V

A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS•

The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb, one of the main
parts of every sentence. In fact, a sentence is not a sentence without at least one
verb.
A.

TYPES OF VERBS•
A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being.

1.

ACTION VERBS•

Most verbs are action verbs. They show that something is being done or that
something is happening. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five
senses, such as
The children ran after the dog.
The horse jumped the fence.
The rose grew very quickly.
He caught the ball easily.
She drives very carefully when it’s snowing.
Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. Underline the verbs you
used. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe.
Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed.
She thought about what she had done.
They realized their mistake.
That accounted for his absence.
David decided to move to Woodstock.
You can guess the answer?
Trish really loves her husband.
Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet.

38

2.

STATE OF BEING VERBS•

A very small number of verbs express a state of being. These non-action
verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. They show that
something or somebody exists. Examples of these types of verbs include:
I am here.
We were scared.
You are hungry.
You will be successful.
John is tired.
They were unhappy.
Sherri is an accountant. He was a good friend.
The dog was friendly.
A list of non-action or linking verbs includes
LINKING VERBS
am

was

being

is

were

be

are

has been

had been

have been

will be

will have been

are

become (all forms)

seem (all forms)

Compare these sentences.
I am happy.
I am a student.
I ate the apple.
In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer’s state of being and “happy”
describes how the writer is feeling. This is one way to use a “state of being” or
“linking verb. In the second sentence, the noun student and the pronoun I refer to
the same person, and the sentence means that “I” = “a student”. In other words,
the writer’s state of being is as a student. This is the second use of the “state of
being” or “linking verb”. Module 6, Parts of the Sentence presents more
information on linking verbs.
On the other hand, the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action.
As well, I and apple do not refer to the same thing. The verb ate is an action verb,
not a linking verb.

39

A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. Here are the most
common ones.
smell
grow
taste
sound
feel
look
If these verbs are used to describe a physical action, something that can really
happen or that is observable, they are considered to be action verbs.
Martha tasted the chili.
Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire.
He felt the water before he jumped in.
Tom grew 3 inches last year.
The engineer sounded the locomotive’s horn at the crossing.
The investigator looked carefully at the evidence.
If these same verbs are used to express a state of being, or the fact that something
has certain qualities, they are consider to be linking verbs.
The chili tastes good.
A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and, therefore, cannot perform
the physical action of tasting. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are
used as linking verbs. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with
the verb seem or is or become.)
The smoke smelled stronger now.
The sculpture felt smooth.
The music sounded perfect in the arena.
The evidence looks convincing in this case.
The sky grew dark before the storm.
Do Exercise 44, 45, 46, and 47 in the Practice Booklet.
B.

FORMS OF VERBS•

1.

AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS•
In the previous section, the verbs you identified consisted of only one word.
He walked to school every day.

40

My Aunt Teresa feels sick.
A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word, called a verb phrase.
Within a verb phrase, the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and
the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs.
I will travel to Halifax on the train.
Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating.
We have thought about a vacation this winter.
Did you write that poem?
In the above sentences, will, were, have, and did are helping or auxiliary verb.
Travel, finishing, thought, and write are the main verbs.
Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below.
I am eating my dinner now.
Before calling, I had eaten my dinner.
When you called, I was eating my dinner.
I will eat all the cookies before the sale.
I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o’clock.
Sometimes, will can be a main verb, as in I willed all my property to my children.
When will comes before a main verb, however, it is a helping or auxiliary verb.)
Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs.
has
have
had
would
could
should
may
might
must
can
am
is
are
was
were
has
have
had
shall
will
do
does
did
have been, has been, had been
am being, are being, is being, was being, were being

41

As you have just seen, some sentences have more than one helping or
auxiliary verb.
I will have saved enough money by Christmas.
Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. The main verb is saved.
Although rare, it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb
phrase.
At 5:00 p.m., the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours.
I have never driven in a big city before.
Here tested is the main verb, and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs.
In some sentences, the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs
by other “non-verb”words.
I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift.
The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. Saved is the main verb,
should and have are the auxiliary verbs. Here is a list of some of words that you
may find in the middle of a verb phrase, but which are never part of the verb phrase.
not
never
scarcely
always
usually
sometimes
please
enough
hardly
almost
just
Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet.
2.

VERB TENSES•

Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. In fact, you cannot have a
sentence without a verb. Verbs express states of being or things happening today,
in the present; before today, in the past; as well as what will happen after today, in
the future.
In order to talk about the present, past, and future, we need to use different
forms of verbs, sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs.
Every verb has FOUR main forms, called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB.


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