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DNA Damage and Genotoxicity

Dr. Lai

Markova et al. [2005] reported that GSM signals affected chromatin conformation and
gama-H2AX foci that colocalized in distinct foci with DNA double strand breaks in
human lymphocytes.
Narasimhan and Huh [1991] reported changes in lambdaphage DNA suggesting single
strand breaks and strand separation.
Nikolova et al. [2005] reported a low and transient increase in DNA double strand break
in mouse embryonic stem cells after acute exposure to 1.7- GHz field.
Paulraj and Behari [2006] reported an increased in single strand breaks in brain cells of
rats after 35 days of exposure to 2.45 and 16.5 GHz fields at 1 and 2.01 W/kg.
Phillips et al. [1998] found increase and decrease in DNA strand breaks in cells exposure
to various forms of cell phone radiation.
Sun et al. [2006] reported an increase in DNA single strand breaks in human lens
epithelial cells after 2 hrs of exposure to 1.8 GHz field at 3 and 4 W/kg. The DNA
damages caused by 4 W/kg field were irreversible.
Zhang et al. [2002] reported that 2450-MHz field at 5 mW/cm2 did not induce DNA and
chromosome damage in human blood cells after 2 hrs of exposure, but could increase
DNA damage effect induced by mitomycin-C.
Zhang et al. [2006] reported that 1800-MHz field at 3.0 W/kg induced DNA damage in
Chinese hamster lung cells after 24 hrs of exposure.

II B. DNA studies that reported no significant effect:
Chang et al. [2005] using the Ames assay found no significant change in mutation
frequency in bacteria exposed for 48 hrs at 4W/kg to an 835-MHz CDMA signal.
Hook et al. [2004] showed that 24-hr exposure of Molt-4 cells to CDMA, FDMA, iDEN
or TDMA modulated RF radiation did not significantly alter the level of DNA
damage.
Lagroye et al. [2004a] reported no significant change in DNA strand breaks in brain cells
of rats exposed for 2 hrs to 2450-MHz field at 1.2 W/kg.
Lagroye et al. [2004b] found no significant increases in DNA-DNA and DNA-protein
cross-link in C3H10T(1/2) cells after a 2-hr exposure to CW 2450 MHz field at 1.9
W/kg.
Li et al. [2001] reported no significant change in DNA strand breaks in murine
C3H10T(1/2) fibroblasts after 2 hrs of exposure to 847.74 and 835.02 MHz fields at
3-5 W/kg.
Maes et al. [1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2006] published a series of papers on in vitro
genotoxic effects of radiofrequency radiation and interaction with chemicals. Their
mostly found no significant effect.
Malyapa et al. [1997a,b, 1998] reported no significant change in DNA strand-breaks in
cells exposed to 2450-Hz and various forms of cell phone radiation. Both in vitro and
in vivo experiments were carried out.
McNamee et al. [2002a,b, 2003] found no significant increase in DNA breaks and
micronucleus formation in human leukocytes exposed for 2 hrs to 1.9 GHz field at
SAR up to 10 W/kg.

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