DNA Damage and Genotoxicity
Markova et al.  reported that GSM signals affected chromatin conformation and
gama-H2AX foci that colocalized in distinct foci with DNA double strand breaks in
Narasimhan and Huh  reported changes in lambdaphage DNA suggesting single
strand breaks and strand separation.
Nikolova et al.  reported a low and transient increase in DNA double strand break
in mouse embryonic stem cells after acute exposure to 1.7- GHz field.
Paulraj and Behari  reported an increased in single strand breaks in brain cells of
rats after 35 days of exposure to 2.45 and 16.5 GHz fields at 1 and 2.01 W/kg.
Phillips et al.  found increase and decrease in DNA strand breaks in cells exposure
to various forms of cell phone radiation.
Sun et al.  reported an increase in DNA single strand breaks in human lens
epithelial cells after 2 hrs of exposure to 1.8 GHz field at 3 and 4 W/kg. The DNA
damages caused by 4 W/kg field were irreversible.
Zhang et al.  reported that 2450-MHz field at 5 mW/cm2 did not induce DNA and
chromosome damage in human blood cells after 2 hrs of exposure, but could increase
DNA damage effect induced by mitomycin-C.
Zhang et al.  reported that 1800-MHz field at 3.0 W/kg induced DNA damage in
Chinese hamster lung cells after 24 hrs of exposure.
II B. DNA studies that reported no significant effect:
Chang et al.  using the Ames assay found no significant change in mutation
frequency in bacteria exposed for 48 hrs at 4W/kg to an 835-MHz CDMA signal.
Hook et al.  showed that 24-hr exposure of Molt-4 cells to CDMA, FDMA, iDEN
or TDMA modulated RF radiation did not significantly alter the level of DNA
Lagroye et al. [2004a] reported no significant change in DNA strand breaks in brain cells
of rats exposed for 2 hrs to 2450-MHz field at 1.2 W/kg.
Lagroye et al. [2004b] found no significant increases in DNA-DNA and DNA-protein
cross-link in C3H10T(1/2) cells after a 2-hr exposure to CW 2450 MHz field at 1.9
Li et al.  reported no significant change in DNA strand breaks in murine
C3H10T(1/2) fibroblasts after 2 hrs of exposure to 847.74 and 835.02 MHz fields at
Maes et al. [1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2006] published a series of papers on in vitro
genotoxic effects of radiofrequency radiation and interaction with chemicals. Their
mostly found no significant effect.
Malyapa et al. [1997a,b, 1998] reported no significant change in DNA strand-breaks in
cells exposed to 2450-Hz and various forms of cell phone radiation. Both in vitro and
in vivo experiments were carried out.
McNamee et al. [2002a,b, 2003] found no significant increase in DNA breaks and
micronucleus formation in human leukocytes exposed for 2 hrs to 1.9 GHz field at
SAR up to 10 W/kg.