Chapitre 2 Units .pdf


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Chapitre 2 : Units
7 Unités SI :

Length – meter

Mass- kilogram

Time –second

Electric current –ampere –A

Thermodynamic temperature –kelvin –K

Amount of substance –mole –mol

Luminous intensity –candela –cd
Découle 22 dérivées de ces unités.
Préfixes pour facteur :
24
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
10 : yotta Y 10 :zetta Z 10 :exa E 10 :peta P 10 :tera T 10 :giga G 10 :mega M 10 :kilo k
-6
-9
-12
-15
-18
-21
-24
10 :micro
10 : nano
10 :pico 10 : femto 10 : atto 10 : zepto 10 :yocto

Temperature: °C = (°F -32)5/9 et K=°C + 273.16

Linear measurement –length :
o 1 inch : 2.54 cm
o 1 foot = 12 inches
o 1 yard = 3 feet
o 1 fathom = 6 feet
o 1 knot =15.43m
o 1cable = 1/10 nm = 100 fathoms
o 1 nautical mile = 1852 m
o Shackle = 15 fathom = unit used to express the length of chain to be used when anchoring
Baselines, international and national waters
Baseline à partir d’où the territorial seas are measured (low water line : ligne définit à marée basse).
National waters : waters subject to the territorial sovereignty of coastal and island nations, with certain navigable rights
reserved to the international community.
1. Internal waters: landward of baseline
2. Territorial seas: generally 12nm from baseline
3. Archipelagic waters: groupings of islands, base line around.
International waters: seaward of territorial seas, freedom of navigation and over-flight.
1. Contiguous zones (zone avoisinante): nation has right to control, prevent, or punish infringments of its customs,
fiscal, immigration and sanitary laws -> 24 nm or less
2. Exclusive Economic Zone: nation controls natural resources of water and seabed -> 200nm or less
3. High seas: seaward of EEZ or territorial waters
4. Continental shelf: out to continental shelf or 200nm. Nation has sovereign rights of exploration/exploitation of
natural resources of seabed and subsoil.
5. Safety zone: upto 500m around installation on continental shelf to provide for safe navigation
6. Security zone: a non-recognized zone that limits operations of military units beyond the territorial seas.
Nautical mile: most important nautical linear measurement = the lengths of 1 minute of arc measured on the meridian of
the observer, so it varies with the latitude caused by the flattening of the earth.
Approximation: the length of one minute of arc of a meridian measured at 45° latitude. Meridien measures
40000km donc un nm = 1852m. (known as the ‘international nautical mile’ since 1929)

Volume:
o 1 US barrel = 158.987 liter
o 1 cubic meter = 6.28981 US barrel

Units of density
o Density, it is a measure of mass per unit volume (SI: kg / m3 ) the most useful : kg/l
o True density: weight per unit of volume in vaccum
o Apparent density: weight per unit of volume in air
o Density and volume change with the temperature

Weight = force
o Mass= measure of the quantity of material in a body
o Weight = force with which a body is attracted to the earth and varies from place to place with the
acceleration of gravity.
o Weight = Mass * g (9.81)
o The weight in air is often converted to weight in vacuum
o Archimedes’ ations: chaque pièce qui est immerge ds un liquid a une force qui est égal au volume d’eau
déplacé par le navire -> important pour la limite de transport, poids = force d’archimède











Viscosity : resistance of a fluid to change in shape or movement of neighbouring portions relative to one another :
o Dynamic viscosity expressed in pascal second
o Kinematic viscosity: in centistokes =cm²/s
Concentration
o Ppm=parts per million (106)
o Ppb = parts per billion (109)
o Ppt = parts per trillion (1012)
Power: Watt, Joule/s, Nm/s
Pressure:
o SI-Unit = N/M² = Pascal = P
o Atmosphere = 101325 Pa
o Kg/cm²
o Bar = 100 000 Pa
o mmHg = mm mercury -> 750 mmHg=1bar
o PSI : Pounds per Square inch (14.5 PSI = 1 bar)
Energy : joule
Time : second
Speed: m/s ; km/h ; knot


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