أسس الاشتراكية العربية .pdf



Nom original: أسس الاشتراكية العربية.pdfTitre: <4D6963726F736F667420576F7264202D20C7D3D320C7E1C7D4CAD1C7DFEDC920C7E1DAD1C8EDC9>Auteur: al-taleaa

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 ‫א‬K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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 
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‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١٩٥٧
‫א‬‫א‬،١٩٥٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ – –‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١٩٥٨‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ، ١٩٥٨   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬    W   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،  ، 
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬      ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
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 K
، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬،،W‫א‬،
      K ‫א‬     ‫א‬    
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
?   ‫א‬   K   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –?‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
   ‫א‬   ،      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬        K  ‫א‬  ،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬ –‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،  ، ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ، ‫א‬   
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K 
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫؛‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
?   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   W   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K ? ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
 – –K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
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،‫א‬  K 
‫א‬    K   ‫א‬ ،     ‫א‬
  ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
،‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫؛‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
      ‫א‬        ، ‫א‬
 K
‫؛‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 –‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،    ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ،  ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬   E ‫א‬ F ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?W ١٩٦٣?‫א‬‫א‬?
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ?K ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬
?K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   KK ‫א‬‫א‬  
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‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K،
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ? ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F
،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؛‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K      K  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،   
K‫א‬
‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
 K
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  K       ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬
‫א‬  K   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     K     ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫؛‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬   ،    ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
      ‫א‬      ،  ‫א‬  K 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
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‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫؛‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ W   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K،
 K‫א‬K?‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٩٥٩‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
K ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ K 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، ١٩٦٣‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
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K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K  
  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ، ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 GGG
  K  ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ١٩٥٧‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،      ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬ K 
    ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W 
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬       ‫א‬   K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬       ، ‫א‬‫א‬   
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      K      ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬
 ? W  ،    ، ‫א‬    ،  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ، ١٩٦٣   ،     ، 
  ‫א‬   
،‫א‬ ٣٩‫א‬K?‫א‬ –‫א‬?‫א‬
       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬–‫א‬?،
،K‫א‬
،‫א‬٣٩‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬
 ١٩٦٥١٥‫א‬
 
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 
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫؟‬KK‫؟‬‫א‬
 
  J١ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ K ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ،   KK ‫؟‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬       ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬
??‫א‬‫א‬،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬     ، ‫א‬     ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 –‫א‬ –،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –
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،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K?،?‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ،  ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K
K?،?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?،?‫א‬‫א‬?‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬––K?‫א‬‫א‬
––‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، – –‫א‬‫א‬
  F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬        
KE‫א‬
،،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬        ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬     – ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، K
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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، ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،     ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ?  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬
?‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬– J‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬  
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ? W  K ١٨٤٨  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ?  
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  –   –  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K?‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،     ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K     ،    ‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
  ? K ?    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
 ? K ? ‫א‬   
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
  K ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?K?‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ?K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،
    ‫א‬   ? ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
    K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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  K ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W ‫א‬
 ‫א‬?K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   K‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬W??،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬?K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ K      ، ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ?    ‫א‬   K   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
 K?‫א‬?
 ?   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
–‫א‬?،?K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  J٢ J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٣F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F
‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E٩F‫א‬‫א‬E٨F‫א‬E٧F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ –
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –
،١٨٤٢?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬??‫א‬،‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?K
‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١٨١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬١٠١٧‫א‬
–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ،       ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،
?،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،   ،      
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬
?W‫א‬??،‫א‬?‫א‬?
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫؟‬?‫א‬?W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫؟‬?‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬          
 K‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬  J–
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K 
   
K ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬
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‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬
K‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
   ‫א‬      K ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
??‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K
 K
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،   
    
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫؛‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ١٢L٤  ١٢L٥  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K١٢L٣
‫א‬      ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
   ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،W
K‫؟‬‫א‬K‫א‬
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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
–‫א‬،K‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬
١٨٤٨‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
٢٥‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ١٨٤٨‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ – –‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬١٨٤٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬?
    K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ،   
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K ‫א‬
،?‫א‬??‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬  – ‫א‬ – ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬?
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K      ، ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ،    ‫א‬‫א‬  
    – ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ? W ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ – ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     
  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫؟‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬
–K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K??‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬ – –‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ – –K?‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬،
،     ، ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬
?‫א‬K،‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬ K   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
 K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  – ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
    ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬K‫א‬??
 K،‫א‬
K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬ –‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،    ،  ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   –  ‫א‬‫א‬   K ‫א‬  
 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫؛‬  
 K
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ?  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ? W ‫א‬  
 K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
??‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
     K ‫א‬    ‫א‬   
     ‫א‬   K ‫א‬     K  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬?،??،??،
‫א‬??K?‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬
‫א‬ ?  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
، ١٨٤٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬?? J١
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 K‫א‬‫א‬?? J٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?? J٣
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬    K         ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   K     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  J٣ J
 ? ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،    ‫א‬    ?  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬––‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
،    ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬‫א‬   K   W ‫א‬ ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬
 K‫א‬K?،،?‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K ‫א‬
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 –‫א‬‫א‬ – –‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
     ‫א‬ K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،   – ‫א‬
F،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬FE‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
  J٤ J
،‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬     ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬? ‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
      ،           K ? ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬    
   ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ K  ‫א‬       ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ،      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫؛‬ ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ –    ‫א‬  – 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
   ،      ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،

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‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–??،‫א‬
??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬   ‫א‬        K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KKK‫א‬‫א‬
  J٥ J
 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬?K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
K‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
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‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬K
‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ K ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ 
    K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    
‫א‬  
     K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،K
K،‫א‬‫א‬،
?‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬ K  ،
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬?،
 K‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬،،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬?،?‫א‬?
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ?   ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬
،،??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬?
    ‫א‬   K          K 
?‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ – –‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬FK??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬K‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،،
 K‫א‬

http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

٢٨

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬  W ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬??‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ،   ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬–
 ،‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬?‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

٢٩

‫א‬K‫א‬،
 ‫א‬،،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬     ‫א‬       ‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
–    ‫א‬  ‫א‬     –   ‫א‬ K 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K??‫א‬‫א‬??
‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫؛‬  ‫א‬     
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
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‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K
 K
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬?WK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ? K ?  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬   ? ، ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬   ،      KK   
 K?‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K?‫א‬?‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K،K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
  ، ‫א‬ W  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ? K ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 –‫א‬ –،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K،‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬?W‫א‬ –
،‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
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،‫א‬––‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،
، ‫א‬    – ‫א‬  –   ، ‫א‬  
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
 K‫א‬
،،‫א‬
‫א‬،،‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬K
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬،
?‫א‬‫א‬?،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،K‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،?‫א‬?‫א‬K
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬?‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
   – ‫א‬‫א‬        ‫؟‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١
 K‫א‬ J٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٤
‫א‬‫א‬  J٥
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٦
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  J٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ – ١٠
 K‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٨٧٢،١٨٤٨
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،،
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K
?،?‫א‬‫א‬?،?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ‫؛‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ، 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
  J٦ J
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
    K ١٨٤٨      ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،      ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  J٧ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٩١٧
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‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K‫א‬
‫א‬،،،‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ، ? ‫א‬ ?  ? ‫א‬  ?   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬  ‫א‬          ‫א‬ K 
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ – –،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫؟‬‫؟‬ 
    ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 ٨WK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ١٩١٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩١٧١٤
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٢١K‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ١٩٢١ ٢٩K،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ١٩٢١  ١٧  K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١٩٢١ ٧K
  ‫א‬     –    F 
     ‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬١٩٢١١٠،E‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
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،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?WE١٩٢٢F
،،،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K،
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?WK?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?W ١٩٢١‫א‬ ٢٨
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K?‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬١٩٢٢١٣K
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
?‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬        K ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬
    ،    ‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬?‫א‬?،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
     K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬     ،
‫א‬‫א‬      ،   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬،?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?،
‫א‬K??‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬،K‫א‬
،  ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KKK
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ K ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،،،
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٩٦٠١٩٥٧‫א‬
    ،   ‫א‬       ?
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬    ‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ –    – ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬ ? 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  KKK ?
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،
‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ?
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?١٩٦٠
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ?W‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ?  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ?  ‫א‬
‫א‬        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ?  ? ‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬KKK?‫א‬??‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، 
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
          ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
،K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬
   ? ‫א‬ ?  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
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،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    W ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،         ،  
?‫א‬?‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ –‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
F ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E
K،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K٣٨،‫א‬‫א‬٣٨،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،     ‫א‬   K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬??،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،
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?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ،   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
  ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬  
  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫؟‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ? ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?K?‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ KKK ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKK
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨ ٦،‫א‬‫א‬
   ، ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬     ، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
?W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
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‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  ،   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K  ‫א‬    ،    ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
–‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬‫א‬
    K ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    ،   ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ،  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   K ‫א‬
‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،،
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬     ،  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٩٥٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬٤٥‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ –  – ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ?   ، ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
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    K ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  J٨ J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، –‫א‬ –‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ،        
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫؟‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   KK ‫؟‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ 
K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
KK‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬KK‫؟‬
،K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KK‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
  KK ‫؟‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
 ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ KK ‫؟‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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،‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،،‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ، ‫א‬ KKK ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  K  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
??،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  J٩ J
 KK‫؟‬‫א‬
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،   ، 
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،
 ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ? ‫א‬  ?       ‫א‬    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

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–K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?–‫א‬
??W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
١٨٨٨‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٨٧٢
?KK?W?‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬?
‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬ ١٨٤٧K?‫א‬‫א‬
      ،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ،    ،   
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K?‫א‬?
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ KKK     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬١٨٤٧‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?W‫א‬‫א‬
 ?KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،?
?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
   – ‫א‬   ? ‫א‬ ?   ? ‫א‬ ?    
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ – ١٨٨٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬?

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬?،‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬?W?‫א‬
?W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬     ،   ‫א‬   ،   ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬–‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬K?
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ،      ، ? ‫א‬ ? ‫א‬   
‫א‬    ‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،     ‫א‬  ? ‫א‬  ? ،
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  K       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K 
 ‫א‬‫א‬  K    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
، ? ‫א‬  ? ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬W‫א‬
  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     
      ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ،  ‫א‬
‫א‬??‫א‬،‫א‬
  ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

٤٧

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
  – ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ،      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
    ،     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،  
 K
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬       
‫א‬    ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬       
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬ –‫א‬،،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 GGG
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
    K ‫א‬‫א‬     ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬        ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬ –،‫א‬
‫א‬، ،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

٤٨

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬
 K
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 KKK‫؟‬
 GGG
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
http://saifaldawla.al-taleaa.net

٤٩

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
  J١ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬
 ‫؟‬،
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،K
  K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  –  –  ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
، K
 K،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬
،،،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬K،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬K،‫א‬
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