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အရွင္ဉာဏသိဒၶိ စကားလက္ေဆာင္ .pdf



Nom original: အရွင္ဉာဏသိဒၶိ စကားလက္ေဆာင္.pdf

Ce document au format PDF 1.7 a été généré par Adobe InDesign CS5 (7.0) / Adobe PDF Library 9.9, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 25/07/2012 à 02:26, depuis l'adresse IP 203.81.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 628 fois.
Taille du document: 313 Ko (29 pages).
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D

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rSmyg&ap tdkrdwfaqG
'kv’budk oknrjzpfapeJU
tpeJUtqHk;
txufwef;pm;
bk&m;ylaZmf
w&m;awmfem
oHCmudkcsOf;
apmifhjcif;oDv
'getvSL
owfjcif;
cdk;jcif;
umarok
rkom;
ok&m
tem*wf&JUw&m;cH
tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (1)
tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (2)
tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (3)
tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (4)
tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (5)

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tqif;&JqHk;rSonf tcsrf;omqHk;qDodkY 21

rsufvHk;rSdwfNyD;apmifhMunfhprf;yg 22

D

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owd a&SYwGifvrf;cGJ&Sdonf 24
'gayr,fh ...
25
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26
rodbl;
27
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28
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29
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b0ukefonf
31
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32
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wpfzufodkY
34
rsdK;½dk;*kPf
35
arhaeMuaom tusdK;ay;
36
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uHrukef&if jyefqHkr,f
38
oHa,mZOfawG jzwfMuygpdkY
39
&SmyHkawmf rif;om;BuD;
40
bmoma&; vdkufpm;ol
41
tlr rawmifhvnf; oDvapmifhyg 42
taysmf tysuf
43
tojym tawG;
44

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D

rmwdum

pum; ESm

vlrodatmif
wlrSaumif;r,f
rlzsuf&if vlysufbJ
vSatmifjyifyg
armf',frsm;odkY rSmwrf;
taqmif ta,mif
tzdk; tzGm;
om;eJY orD;
rdbESpfyg;udk &SifjyKyg
pufewf
r[kwfbm
aiGay;í tvdrfcHjcif;
aus;Zl;urÇm taemf&xm
rif;apmvl;vdk vlpm;
Ak'¨*g,m
vufpGJawmf"m;
e,fcsJYoHk;a,muf
&wem (1)
&wem (2)
&wem (3)
&wem (4)
&wem (5)

45
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D

rmwdum

pum; ESm

&wem (6)
&wem (7)
t½HI;rjy NyHK;Mu&atmif
xl;rjcm;em;
tarh qE´
ausmufMunfh"mwfrD;
Mum;vm; ¿
tv,fuvl
b0qnf;qm
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ryl&atmif
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½Gmjyefvufaqmif (2)
wpfajrxJrSm
wm0ef
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uHtvkyfESifh ÓPftvkyf
aus;Zl;w&m;
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twåESifhy&

67
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pOf
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rmwdum

D

C

pum; ESm

ab;
&du©mESifhodu©m
w&m;&SmMu&mwGif
rsufuyfrSef
omoemESifhbmom

90
91
92
93
94
okwåefw&m; vkyfBuHxm;wmr[kwfyg 95
t&if;r½HI;ygapeJY
96
jyKjyifjcif;\ed*Hk;
97
Copy 98
olwdkYvdkrsm;
99
udpöoHk;ck BudK;pm;jyKyg
100
'dkY raocif
101
vkyf&yfay:rlwnfw,f
103
oif vljzpfNyDvm; ¿
104

F
C

D

D

F

F
C

D

F

C

(1)

D

C

(2)

D

'kv’budk oknrjzpfapeJU
omoemwGif;om; jzpfaecdkuf
omoemwGif;w&m; &atmif,l
vlUtoGifyHkpH &aecdkuf
vlUtrSeftuefjzpfatmifBudK;pm;
o'¨gtnpf igpGJeJU raeeJU
o'¨gtppf igqdkwm cGmypfNyD;
,HkMunfEdkifatmifajymif;vJ
xl;uJwJh&[ef;b0udkvnf;
orkwf&[ef;rS
t[kwf&[ef;jzpfatmifusifh
em&cJwJhw&m;yGJ awGUBuHKaeqJrSm
taysmfw&m;emb0rS tazmfw&m;
&atmif&Sm
‘'DvdkrS rvkyfEdkifygvQif
‘'kv’bu oknjzpfoGm;r,faemf

rSmyg&ap tdkrdwfaqG
þpum;vufaqmifpmpkudk
a&;om;&mwGif avmuta&;udk
“"r®tawG;jzifh wifjyxm;ygojzifh
ajz;ajz;ESifh awG;NyD;zwfyg /

“"ar®mo"-t&SifÚmPod'¨d (rHka½G;)

F
C

(3)

D

tpeJYtqHk;

F
C

(4)

D

txufwef;pm;


'Domoemtp Ak'¨bma[mcJhovJ
]a'G ar bdu©a0} vdkU
“"r®puúy0wåeokwfrSm
a[mxkwfcJhwm Mum;zl;rSmaygh
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owday;NyD;
&ifat;p&m vrf;omr*¾if
oloGefoifjy tm;&p&maumif;vdkufwm
aemufqHk;Ak'¨ acrmr<urDrSm
a0ae,smwdkUtwGuf u½kPmoufNyD;
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'Dawmh. 'Dawmh.
tpw&m; OD;wnfxm; yGm;Mur,fqdk&if
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tpGef;ESpfyg;udk z,f
tv,fvrf;udk
owdeJUavQmuf

Ak'¨bmom0ifwpfa,muf[m
uHESifh uHtusKd;ay;om
em;vnfNyD; auseyfae&if
rlvwef;tqifhyJ
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vu©PmqdkwJh tedpöoabm?
‘'ku©oabm? tewåoabmawGudk
avmu"HBuHKwdkif;qifjcif
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tv,fwef;ydkU&rSmaygh
uHeJU vu©Pm omru
'ku©tppfudk ÓmPfzGifhvSpf&Sm
awGUwmr*¾ ‘'D'ku©jzpfaMumif;
aumif;aumif;BuD;od
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rjzpfvdkUcsrf;om
tJ'grS wu,fh Ak'¨bmom
txufwef;pm; jzpfatmifBudK;pm;yg

F

F

C

(5)

D

C

(6)

bk&m;ylaZmf

w&m;awmfem

od'¨wårif;om;&JU ESvHk;om;rSm
ÓmPfbk&m;yGifhcJhvdkU
avmurSm
toGifwkxm;
oP²mefawmfbk&m;qdkwm ay:cJhwmyJ
oP²mefawmfbk&m;udk
ypönf;eJUylaZmf&if ukodkvf&r,f
ÓmPfbk&m; ESvHk;om;yGifh&if edAÁmef&r,f
ESvHk;om;rSm ÓmPfbk&m;yGifhzdkUqdkwm
bk&m;tBudKufqHk;
w&m;jzifh ylaZmfrS jzpfrSmaemf

Ak'¨bmom0ifawG
usif;yMuwJh w&m;yGJ
tm;cJNyD; emMu
trsm;pk oabmuswmu
om"uç Zmwuç [mo
obm0qdkwJh udk,fhcE¨mhtaMumif;
waphwapmif;avmufa[mvQif
tdyfcsifMuç idkufcsifMuç xjyefMu
oef;a0Mu
'ku© 'ku© cE¨mh 'ku©
rkcs jrifatmifa[mMum;
wu,fh opömw&m; emrS
oHo&mu vGwfrSmaemf

F
C

(7)

D

F
C

(8)

oHCmudkcsOf;

apmifhjcif;oDv

oHCmhxHarSmuf
0ifa&mufumoGm; 'um? ‘'umrrsm;a&
r½kdrao rqufqHacseJU
tajymtqdk rydkapeJU
oHCmhypönf; tqdyfoD;uGJU
wynfhvdr®m q&mtmywfvGwfowJh
vSLp&m&Sdwm vSL
todynm,lp&m&Sdwm ,l
avQmufxm;p&m&Sdwm avQmuf
abmufaomufpum; ravQmufxm;eJU
w&m;omvQif t"du
rdrd&& &atmif ,l
tylNidrf;at; opömaq;w&m;
emMum;zdkUom csOf;uyfyguG,f

Oykof ausmif;udk oGm;Mur,f
ausmif;'umBuD; (trBuD;)
om;orD;awG tdrfrSmxm;
pdwfcs&yghrvm;
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jyefumawG;rd owday;r,faemf
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olay;oDv udk,fusifhoDv qdkNyD;
ESpfrsKd;&Sdw,f
bkef;BuD;ay;vdkU,lxm;wm olay;oDv
udk,fhudk,fudk apmifhxdef;wm
udk,fusifhoDv
oDv&SdrS orm"d&SdrSmrdkU
oDvcH,laqmufwnfNyD;&if
w&m;rxl; tpm;BuL;wJh bD;vl;Oykof
rjzpfapeJU
w&m;ryGm; ttdyfrsm; e*g;Oykof
rjzpfapeJU
w&m;rzuf pum;yGuf quf&ufOykof
rjzpfapeJU
w&m;eJUa0; tdrfjyefajy; pmuav;Oykof
rjzpfapeJU
edAÁmef&nfrSef; oDvyef; qifjref;EdkifrS
wu,fhoDvaemf

F

D

D

F

C

(9)

D

C

(10)

'getvSL

owfjcif;

pGefUBuJwm ay;urf;wm vª'gef;wmvdkU
b,fvdkyJ trnfwyfwyf
tqHk;owfMuawmh
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ay;vdkuf&NyD; r,lwwf&if
b,frSmtjrwfxGufygawmhrvJ
enf;onf rsm;onfu t"dur[kwf
tESpfcsKyfu vªwwfç ,lwwfzdkUyJ
b0awmifhwvª&if oHo&mvnfr,f
edAÁmefawmifhwvª&if oHo&mrSmxnfNyD;
wu,fudktoHk;us axmufray;rSm
rvGJbl;aemf
'ghaMumifh
vªcsifwmu emrf
vªwJh[efu ½kyf
olr[kwfç igr[kwf vª'gef;aewm
emrf eJU ½kyf
emrfç ½kyfESpfoif; tjrif&Sif;
vª'gef;&if;eJU tvkyfvkyfyguG,f

ygPmwdygwmudk
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BudKufvdkUowfwm avmb
rBudKufvdkUowfwm a'go
avmb a'go[m
tukodkvfawGygvm;vdkU rodwm.. arm[
avmbça'goçarm[ &Sifoefaeoa&GU
towfcH&rSmu udk,fhb0
'Dawmh udk,fut&if
OD;atmif owfvdkufyg

F
C

(11)

D

F
C

(12)

cdk;jcif;

umarok

udk,fhypönf; ESajrm&if
olUypönf;udk rcdk;eJY
cdk;w,fqdkwm vdkcsifvdkUav
vdkcsifwmu avmb
avmbBuD;vm&if vk,ufr,f
r&&if owf,lr,f
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aemufb0vJ raumif;bl;
r&Sd&if r&SdovdkyJ aewwfatmifBudK;pm;
raewwf&if ½kd;om;pGm&Sm
olUOpömcdk;w,fqdkwm
raumif;zl;aemf

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rawmfwa&mf cH&NyDqdk&if
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olUr&D;? olUta':tay:
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pOf;pm;
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raMumufbl;vm;
a,musfm;rdef;rawG vlUobm0rSm
udk,fydkifumr &SdMuwmyJav
tydkrvdkcsifygeJUuG,f
tydkqdkuwnf;u rvdktyfvdkUygaemf

F

D

D

F

C

(13)

D

C

(14)

rkom;

ok&m

rkom;ryg vuFmracsm
b,fvdkajymMuajymMu t"duuawmh
vdrfwmyJ
usdefwmudk vdrfwmvdkUajym&ifrBudKuf
rdkufNyD;awmh ajymMu
þavmu urÇmrSm
rkom0g'[m raumif;rIuHygvdkU
rcH,lEdkifoa&GU b,faeUrS
trSef&SmrawGUEdkifbl;
b0ul;&ifvJ raumif;
pum;ryD oGm;rnDeJU NiDykwfeHUa&m
vlawmwdk;vdkU aumif;yghrvm;
rSefwmudkom ajymprf;yg
t&om&Sdygw,f
at; ‘'gayr,fh
tusKd;&Sdr,fhpum;jzpfzdkU vdkw,faemf

t&ufqdkwm ao&nfvdkUac:w,f
bmawGaowmvJ
b0awGç ynmawGç &mxl;awGç
OpömawGç *kPfodu©mawG
oufwrf;awGudkaygh
t&omudk Munfhprf;
zefç ylç pyfNyD;
jyefvnf;tefwwfygw,fuG,f
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pvG,fodkif;oGm;wJh olUudk
&yf&GmurBudKuf
trdkufxdyfacgif tmacgifjcpfNyD;
atmfcsif&matmf qJcsif&mqJ vJcsif&mvJ
uGJcsif&muGJ NyJcsif&mNyJ
olUaqGrsKd;awGpdwfxJ 0ifMunfhawmh
rsufESmi,fMu&SmrSmaygh
olao&if tyg,fus vljzpf&vJ ½l;
trl;orm; rjzpfapeJUaemf

F
C

(15)

D

F
C

(16)

tem*wfomoem&JYw&m;cH

tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (1)

ax&0g' Ak'¨bmomrSm
rygwJh udk;uG,frI ylaZmfrI yorI
usifhBuHrI tpkpk[m
rd½kd;zvmqdkwJh t,lwpfckaMumifh
tarSmifhya,m*yrm
jzpfvm&wmyg
]ysuftpOf jyifcP} wJh
t&ifurSm;cJhwm tomxm;
tckqufrSm;ae&if aemifvJrSm;OD;rSmyJ
uJ b,fhES,fhvkyfMurvJ
uav;awGtonf;xJ
'Dt,lpGJawG ay;cJhrSmvm;
'Duav;awGu vlBuD;jzpfvmrSmaemf
uav;aumif;rS vlBuD;aumif;rSmaygh
tem*gwf omoemrSm
wpfcgvm 'gyJ qdk&ifawmh
w&m;cHtppf[m b,foljzpfrvJ

tumudk tESpfxif
tESpfudk tumxm;
aoaocsmcsm rodrIw&m;awGaMumifh
wdkUwpfawG[mav
rSm;wmawG,l rSm;wmvkyf
trSm;ZmwfxkyfawGcif;cJhMuvdkU
tvif;r&cJhMuzl;av
trSm; tm½kHawGusufpm;
aysmfyg;NyD;aeoa&GUawmh
wu,fhtESpfom&
udk;yg;aom "r®
b,f&yghrvJuG,f

F

D

D

F

C

(17)

D

C

(18)

tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (2)

tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (3)

tqHudk vdkcsif&if tcGHudkcGgyg
tumudkjypf tESpfudk&Sm
rSefwmudk,l rSefwmudkvkyf
Zmwf½Iyfudk&Sif;
tvif;&atmif BudK;pm;wJholrSom
wu,fhtESpf om&tppfjzpfwJh
avmukwå&m udk;yg;udk
trSefjrif trSefvkyf t,kwfwdk;yGg;
tusKd;rsm;oGm;awmhwmaygh

avmurSm vljzpfvm&if
vlwef;aph pm;Edkif 0wfEdkif aeEdkifzdkU
toGiftrsKd;rsKd; p½kduftaxGaxG
rem;rae &SmaeMuwm txift&Sm;yJ
awmifol,mvkyf “"g;rckwfutp
ukefonfyGJpm;tqHk;
w½kH;½kH;eJU &SmorQ
"e qdkwJh Opöm aocsmawG;Munfhprf;
y&rf;ywm a&ab;aMumifhvnf; qHk;½IH;
w0kef;0kef; rD;aMumifhvnf; ysufpD;
rif;BuD;&JU ab;uvnf; oifh
tcGifhcHpm; tarGcHrsm;aMumifhvnf; wpfarSmifh
rvdkolaMumifh wpfoG,f a[m
b,frSmvJ cdkifNrJrIom& r&Sdygvm;uG,f
wu,fawmh
wpfb0toHk;cs 'D"eOpömudk
toHk;cs'ge tESpfom&tjzpfajymif;
raumif;bl;vm;uG,f

F
C

(19)

D

F
C

(20)

tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (4)

tumudkypf tESpfudk&Sm (5)

'DcE¨m[mav
arG;vmNyD;&if b,fcE¨mrqdk
toGiftrsKd;rsKd;eJU &Smpm;&w,f
&Smpm; &Smpm;&if;eJU
emvdkuf zsm;vkduf ukvdkuf ovdkuf
jyifvdkuf qifvdkuf auR;vdkuf axG;ydkuf
b,fvdkyJ *½kpdkufpdkuf
tdkwJhbufudk tNrJvdkufaewmaemf
tdk½kHwif&yfaewmvm; r[kwfbl;aemf
tdk&mrS em em&mrS ao
jyefMunfhavav tESpfom&
rcdkifNrJavyJ
uJ tESpfom& &SmMunfhMu&atmif
cE¨m&cdkuf trdkuf"r®udka&Smif&Sm;NyD;
oDvrD;xGef;vdkufwmurS
wu,fhcE¨mtum&JU tESpfom&aygh

toufqdkwm apmifha&Smufwwfaom
w&m;
½kyfZD0dw emrfZD0dw ESpfrsKd;&Sdw,f
½kyfudkapmifha&SmufrI emrfudkapmifha&SmufrI
awmufavsmuftouf&Sifaew,f
qdkwm ½kyfemrfawGtpOfwef;aewmudk
ajymwm
a&SU½kyfemrf csKyf aemuf½kyfemrf
tpm;rxdk;&if aowmyJ 'Dawmhav
wdkUtoufu rcdkifNrJ tESpfom&rS
r[kwfyJaemf
‘'ghaMumifh
usefaewJhoufwrf;udk toHk;cs
tESpfom& &SmMupdkUqdk&if
0dyóemtm;xkwfrIu tESpfyJ
tumxJrSm tESpf&Sm
cE¨may:rSm ÓmPfa&mufatmif
BudK;pm;vdkufygaemf

F

D

D

F

C

(21)

D

C

(22)

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F
C

(23)

D

F
C

(24)

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F

D

D

F

C

(25)

D

C

(26)

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F
C

(27)

D

F
C

(28)

rodbl;

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rodbl;
b,ftcsdefavmufrSm aorSmvJ
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F

D

D

F

C

(29)

D

C

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F
C

(30)

(31)

D

C

(32)

b0ukefonf

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F

D

F
D

F

C

(33)

D

C

(34)

aemufqkwfr&aomajcvSrf;rsm;

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F
C

(35)

D

F
C

(36)

rsdK;½dk;*kPf

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F

D

D

F

C

(37)

D

C

(38)

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F
C

(39)

oHa,mZOfawGjzwfMuygpdkY

D

D

F
C

(40)

D

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F

avmurSm ouf&Sdvlom;trsm;pk[m
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w&m;qdkwm udk,frSm&Sm jzpfysufjrifvmrS
wu,fhtm;udk;&m csrf;omudkawGUrSmaygh

F

C

(41)

D

C

(42)

bmoma&;vdkufpm;ol

tlr rawmifhvnf; oDvapmifhyg

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oDvapmifhyg

F
C

(43)

D

F
C

(44)

taysmf tysuf

tojymtawG;

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&SifjyK&[ef;cH armifESHr*Fvm
b,f[mrSra&G;
taysmfav;eJUrS vkyfcsifMuwmxHk;pH
Akef;rSefrSef; olwdkUrod
taysmf\aemuf tysufa&mufum
vkyfief;rSmvpf[if;
udk,fwGif;vnf; rusef;rm
0ifaiG[mvnf; r&
aysmfae&wmeJU tcsdefukef
ysufpD;rItzHkzHkudk rawG;
&ifav;p&m rBuHKcif
a&Tb0if tonf;cdkuf aysmfvkdufMuol
rsm;AdkvfvlawG&JUaemuf
tvkyfpD;yGm; usef;rma&;
tysufa&mufvm&if
rNidKjiif&bl;aemf

vlUavmutawG;
pm;0wfaea&; tqifrajyvQif
oHa0*0ifum &Sif&[ef;jyKcsifMu
obm0 ayghaemf
&[ef;tcsKdUtawG;
vmbfvmbaiGaMu;
wajz;ajz;rsm;vmvQif
vlxGufcsifMu ‘'gvJ obm0yJaemf
'DtoGifESpfck ajymif;vJrIrSm
tojymayg&Sm; oabmoGm;aMumifh
uarmufur tawG;p0ifMuwmyJ
'ghaMumifh tojymaiG 0ifaESmifharGí
tajzmifhb0vrf; yifyef;wwfw,f
owd&SdyguG,f

F

D

D

F

C

(45)

D

C

(46)

vlrodatmif

wlrSaumif;r,f

avmurSm raumif;rIqdk&if
vluG,f&mrSm vkyfwwfMuw,f
Oyrm t&uform;wpfa,mufu
olaomufwmvlrodbl;vdkU
ajymMuwm&Sdw,f
vlrodatmif olb,fvdkaomufovJ
vluG,f&mrSmvm;
t&ufaomufoludk,fwdkifubmvJ[if
'ghaMumifh
raumif;rI wpfckckjyK&if
jyKoludk,fwdkif vljzpfaeawmh
vlrodatmif vkyfvdkUr&ygbl;aemf
'gudkrS ZGwfjiif;
twif;ajymvkyfae&ifawmh
tJ'Dajymvkyfol[m
vlr[kwfawmhbl;aygh

bk&m;wnf bk&m;qif;wkç xk&if
bk&m;eJUwlatmifç wnf wlatmifçxk
ausmif;aqmuf&if
ausmif;eJUwlatmif aqmuf
&[ef;jzpf&if
&[ef;eJU wlatmif usifh
vljzpf&ifvnf;
vleJU wlatmifae
rwl&if
bk&m;u *leJUwl
bk&m; tqif;eJU rwl
ausmif;u tdrfeJUwl
ausmif;toGiftjyifeJU rwl
&[ef;u vleJUwl
&[ef;usifh0wfudk r,l
vlu wd&pämefeJUwl
vlU tod&atmifr,l
rwl&if raumif;bl; wlrS
aumif;r,faemf

F
C

(47)

D

F
C

(48)

rlzsuf&if vlysufbJ

vSatmifjyifyg

vljzpfvm&if
toGifcGJjcm; a,mufsm;vm; rdef;rvm;
wpfckckawmh &rSmaocsmayguf
wpfa,mufwpfrl
rwluGJjym; avmuw&m;&JU tpDtrH
uHjyKovdk cH&rSmyJ
'DtxJrSm
&wmudk vufrcH
uajymif;ujyef vkyfus
yk&dou em;awmif;yef
qHyifudkt&Snfxm;
vufonf;rsm;udktvSqif
a,musfm;toGif b,frSmvJ
rdef;ruJawGudk Munfhprf;ygOD;
zHk;xm;tyforQ tukefazmf
qHawmfudktwdkjzwf Zdk;Zdk;ZufZufeJU
rdk;wdk;rwfwwf abmif;bD&SnfawG0wf
'DacwfeJUtNydKif bD,mqdkifxkdifMu
rdef;rrlawGaysmuf
'ku©udkraMumufzl;vm;
rlw&m;udk t,lrSm;&if
vlUtpOftvmudkzsuf
vlysufvdkUac:&rSmyJ

jALwDygvmqdkwm NrdKU&Gmwdkif;rSm&Sdw,f
b,fvdkXmevJar;&if tvSjyifwJhXme
'Dqdkifu jyifEdkifwm ½kyftqif;
'gawmif e*dk &SdrS e*dkif;xGufwmaemf
½kyfawGb,favmuf vSvS
pdwfxm; rvS&if b,folurS rcspf
oHo&mvnf; epf&rSm aocsmaygufyJ
½kyf rvScsifae pdwfxm;av;
vSaevdkUuawmh
cspfcifoluayg oabmuvnf;jzLqdk&if
oHo&m wpfcGifrSm
rylyif&zl;aygh
‘'ghaMumifh
½kyftqif;jyifqifrIudk
vdktyfoavmufomjyKjyifyg
pdwfvSzdkUuawmh rjzpfrae jyKjyifyg

F

D

D

F

C

(49)

D

C

(50)

armf',frsm;odkY rSmwrf;

taqmif ta,mif

'DaeUacwfudk ]armf',facwf} wJh
bdGKif; eJU *Jvf udk aemufuquf
touf0ifvmwJh 'Dpwdkif
tNydKiftqdkifyGJ uJcsifwdkif;uJ
cGJcsifwdkif;cGJ &GJcsifwdkif;&GJ
wdkcsifwdkif;wdk qdkcsifwdkif;qdk
uydku½kdeJU tydkypönf;awGvJwyf
½SyfwyfwyfeJUaysmf ay:csifwdkif;ay:
azmfcsifwdkif;azmf arQmfcsifwdkif;arQmf
atmfcsifwdkif;atmf rawmfwa&mf
uay:uacsmf tarQmftac:
ay:ay:wifwifETJaeMuwJhacwf
'Dacwf armf',facwf
tjrifopfeJUajymr,faemf
armfuwpfvHk; ',fuwpfvHk;
oHk;Munfhr,f pdwfrqdk;eJU
igrSig igh[mrS igh[m
ighpwdkifurS tydkif
NydKifqdkif&if;rme armf MuvdkUuawmh
',f qdkaom i&Jtdk;
apmufxkd;usrSmpdk;w,fuG,f

&yfa0;aejcm; rdwfaqGrsm;
c&D;oGm;yrm udk,fhqDa&mufvm&if
udk,fh\aexdkifrI tqifhudk
toifhawmfqHk;jyKjyif
a&mufvmol&ifoyfarmatmif
taqmifjzifh {nfhcHyg
udk,fuc&D;oGm; wpfjcm;a'oudk
a&mufawmhrnfqdkygvQif
udk,fhtoGifudk jyefMunfh
ta&mif&Sd&JUvm; r&Sdao;&ifaocsmjyif
tqifvSvS awmufyta&mif
udk,füaqmifaomf vlrSmt0wf
awmif;tuGwfrdkU
armif;vTwf&JrSmr[kwfygbl;

F
C

(51)

D

F
C

(52)

tzdk; tzGm;

om;eJYorD;

oGm;usKd; qHjzL
i,frlawGpGefU ta&wGefUum
Z&mzdpD; tzdk;BuD;tzGm;BuD;t&G,fawGudk
i,f&G,fol om;ajr;wpfpku
*g&0jyK ylaZmfrIeJUtwl
pum;vufaqmifav;
ar;yg&apaemf
tzdk;tzGm;wdkU
oGm;awGusKd;cJhovdk
rmeawG usKd;NyDvm; ?
qHawGjzLcJhovdk
pdwfawGaumjzLNyDvm; ?
ta&awGwGefU cJhovdk
raumif;rIvkyf&ef wGefUNyDvm; ?
oGm; qH ta& usKd;jzLwGefUaevnf;
rme rusKd; pdwfqdk;npfykwf
raumif;rIvkyfae&ifawmh
tzdk;tzGm; tusKd;rrsm;Edkifzl;aemf

rdbtwGuf om;[m “"g;yrm yg;yg;vSD;
rESdyfpufygeJU
rdbtwGuf orD;[m rD;yrm
ravmifNrdKufygapeJU
om;[m rdbtwGuf tm;jzpfygap
orD;[m rdbtwGuf xD;jzpfygap
om;a,musFm;&SdwJhtdrf awmifhwif;&r,f
orD;rdef;uav;&SdwJhtdrf oefU&Sif;&r,f
om;orD;raumif; rdbacgif;ay:
a&mufwwfw,f
om;udk&SifjyK orD;udkem;o
rdbwdkif;u rNiD;rjiL
MunfjzLpGmjzifh jyKMuw,f
'DuaeU vlUtjzpftouf&Sifae&wm
rdbESpfyg;aMumifh tarmifhtr,f
tdrfaxmifonfb0txd
wm0ef,l&Jwm rdb
uJ udk,fhtvSnfhusvmNyD
om;wdkU orD;wdkUa&
rdbESpfyg;udk raorcsif;
wm0ef,l&J&JUvm;

F

D

D

F

C

(53)

D

C

(54)

pufewf

jrifhrdk&fawmifeJU yrmjy&if
teEÅ *dkPf;0if rdcifzcif&JU arwåm[m
ydkNyD;BuD;rm;w,f
om;orD; oaE¨cuwnf;u
rdcifa&m zcifyg *½kpdkufNyD;vmcJhMuwm
arG;NyD;vmjyefawmh z0g;vufESpfvHk;
ycHk;vufESpfopf 0g;zufawmf uZDESpfeJU
vljzpfatmifarG;
om;av;orD;av;BuD;vm&if
&SifjyK? em;o&atmifqdkNyD; rjiD;rNiL
aeylyl rdk;&Gm&Gm BudK;pm;vmwJh rdb
'DuaeU tdrfaxmifusonfhwdkif
0wå&m;ausyGefcJhwJh rdb
'Drdb ESpfyg;udk om;orD;qdkwJh
'dk hwpfawGu jyefNyD; ]&SifjyKay;MuzdkU}
vdkw,faemf
olwpfjyef udk,fwpfvSnfh
rEGJUMupwrf;aemf
rdbESpfyg;udk
&Sifwkef;rSm jyKpkyguG,f

tif*sifwpfvHk;
0,f,lNyD;oHk;NyDqdk&if ewfyGJjyifNyD;wifMu
ewfpifudkoGm;jyMu
tjzLteDpawG qGJMuESifh
pHkaeatmif vkyfaewmudkjrifawmh
ajym&OD;rSmaygh
tif*sif rjzpfcifu
oH&nfusKdwkef;uvnf; oH&nfylxJ olwdkUryg
yHkpHavmif;wJh yHkpHcGufxJrSmvnf; olwdkUr&Sd
wpfppDwyfqif tif*sifvHk;awmhvnf; olwdkUrul
0,foHk;r,fqdkumrS yGJjy&wmbmoabmvJ
'Dpuf 'Dum; 'D,mOfrsm;ysuf&if0g;a&SmhydkU&
b,fewfurS rul tjzLteDuvJ rç r
cGusus ajymw,fxifxif
'Dtif*sifoHk;wJhol wu,feifwwf&if
ewfwifp&mrvdkbl;
udk,f'l;udk,fcRef udk,fjyKjyif&wm
r[kwfvm;
'Dawmh pufrSmygwJhewf pufewfudk
aocsmusyf t&pftywf racsmfapeJU
acsmifvGef; usyfvGef; rjzpfapeJU
cGudkifNyD;aocsmusyf 'Dewfraumif;&if
'ku©a&mufr,faemf

F
C

D

rdbESpfyg;udk &SifjyKyg

(55)

D

F
C

(56)

r[kwfbm

aiGay;í tvdrfcHjcif;

avmurSm
csrf;omcsif ab;uif;csifvdkU
aA'ifar;Muwmaemf
tvum;r&bl;
ÓmPfylaZmfc taqmifceJU ,Mwmzdk;
uefawmhyGJxdk;&eJU
'ku© 'ku© csrf;om&&JUvm; ?
rar;cifu ab;uif;ao;&JU
ar;rdumrS Zmwmuraumif;
ESpfa[mif;ukefavmufrS
rvdkcsifatmif&r,fwJh
'DMum;xJ b,fvdkae&ygh
aomuç uwdk; ab;qdk;a&mufjyefa&m
‘'ghaMumifh t&if;ppfwGufMunfhawmh
rdrdomvQif t"du
uH ÓmPf 0D&d, udktm;udk;
tusKd;r,kwfygbl;
tckawmh rsufpdvnfNyD;tvkyf½Iyf
r[mbkwf qdkwm
]r[kwfbm} bl;uG,f

wpfaeUwmyef;avorQ
wpfnwmtyef;ajzMu&eftwGuf
ZmwfuGuf Zmwfvrf;
qef;qef;axGaxGawGudk
ZmwfyGJ½kyf&Sifobif wDAD ADpD'Dru AD'D,dk
'DAD'DtqHk; tifwmeufay:w½kef;½kef; ]csuf}
wNyHK;NyHK; w&,f&,feJU aeMuwm
MumcJhygNyD
'DuaeUjyefawG;
a&;wJhZmwfvrf;uvJ vkyfZmwf
t[kwfrSwfaewJh ZmwfaumifawGuvnf;
trnfajymif;
aygif;jywJh vifr,m;uvnf;
wu,fr[kwf
wkwfueJuswJh rsuf&nfuvnf;twk
bmwpfckrS tppfryg
vdrfaeMuwmyguG,f

F

D

F

C

(57)

D

C

(58)

aus;Zl;urÇm taemf&xm

rif;apmvl;vdk vlpm;

ppfrSefwJh 0dbZÆ
ax&f&0g' Ak'¨omoem
'DArmjynf odzdkUta&;
vrf;jyay; t&Sift&[Hudk
OD;xdyfyefNyD;
t&nf;BuD; t&nf;i,f
rxD;BuD; rxD;i,fawG
a0;a0;z,f a&Smif&Sm;
tmPmtm; “"r®tm;
ESpf”"g;tNydKif pGJumudkifNyD;
&if;ESD;cJhwJh omoem a0a0jzmwnfcJh
'dkUvufxuf ‘'dkUacwfcg
a&mufvmum acwfawGul;
olUaus;Zl; 'DurÇm arhr&yg
yk*HrS vGrf;&ygNyD
rSef;qonf aus;Zl;&SifodkU

yk*H&mZ0if
i,fpOfu oifcJh tawG;e,fcsJUum
ajymcsifw,f
rif;usefppfeJU rif;apmvl;
ESpfOD;i,f&G,fpOf twl,SOfumBuD;cJh
&ufpufwJh i&refuef;u
apmvl;udkzrf; tusOf;pcef;rSm
xm;pOfuaygh
u,fwif&Sif rif;usefppfwpfa,muf
&J&Jawmuf pGrf;yum;
&efolMum;rSm rem;om
BudK;pm;vdkU u,fcJhwm odw,faemf
'Dae&mrSm apmvl;rif;om;
tawG;rSm;NyD; &if;ESD;oludk&efol
&efrloludk rdwfaqGvdkU ,l
atmfvdkufwm qlvdkUqdkbJ
tckvJ tdk rdwfaqG
rSm;aewmawG vGJaewmawG
wGJaewmawG pGJaewmawG[m
r[kwfvdkUjyifay;&if
cifoludk olcdk;vdkU[pf cspfoludktxifrSm;
rif;apmvl;vdk
vlpm; awGvdkUajym&if rSm;rvm; ?

F
C

(59)

D

F
C

(60)

Ak'¨*g,m

vufpGJawmf"m;

bk&m;yGifh&ma'oudk
Ak'¨*g,mvdkU ac:Muw,faemf
'dk hjrefrmjynfrSm ax&0g'Ak'¨omoem
pyGifh&ma'oudkvJ Ak'¨*g,mvdkUac:&if
rSm;rvm; ?
omoemESpf 1601 rSm
ax&ft&Sift&[H yk*Hudka&mufum
rif;&mZmaemf&xmeJUawGUNyD;
t&nf;BuD;rlawGudkazsmuf
Ak'¨rl ta&mifawmufatmif
pGrf;aqmifcJhMuvdkU
,ckigwdkU BuHKawGUae&wJh omoem
'Dq&m'um&JU aus;Zl;aMumifhaygh
'Dawmh jrefrmjynf&JU Ak'¨*g,m[m
yk*HygvdkU ajym&if rrSm;yg
'ghaMumifh jynfwGif;uAk'¨*g,m
ADZmrvdk a':vmryg
MunfndKumzl;zdkUta&;
awG;umazmfjy oabmusygapuG,f

]owdwref ÓmPfajruwkwf
ynmpGef; cRef;ESifhtkyf} qdkwJhpum;
Mum;zl;w,f r[kwfvm;
tJ'g vlrdkufawGMum;
wdkUtm;xm;&r,fh w&m;awGyJ
rvTJra&SmifomvdkU olwdkUeJU qufqH&&if
owdu wrefawmf a&SUoGm;
todÓmPfudk udk,fcHtaqmifxm;NyD;
uRrf;usifrI ynmtm;udk “"g;yrmxm;NyD;
olUudk cyfyg;yg;vSD;jy&r,faemf

F

D

D

F

C

(61)

D

C

(62)

e,fcsJYoHk;a,muf

&wem (1)

b0cE¨m tdkemao xyfum xyfum
vSnfhvnfaewm oHo&m
oHo&m qGJrqefUcsifygeJUuG,f
&Sifjcif;tp tdkemu tv,f
aojcif;0,frqHk;cif toHk;0ifatmif
'DcE¨mudktoHk;csvdkufyg
oHo&mrqHk;atmif b0abmifudkcsJU
wu,fh&efol oHk;yg;
jrwfbk&m;a[mcJhw,fav
e,fcsJUwwfvS yyOöwJh
wPSmuylqm cav;yrmaygh
rmeu&SmazG zatvdkayghuG,f
'd|duodrf;ydkuf p½kdufurdcifvdk
olwdkUoHk;a,mufqHkNyD qdk&if
oHo&mcGif us,fNyDomrSwf
owduyfNyD; ppfrD;avmifawmuf
olUvufatmufu vGwfatmifawmfvSef
olUuRefrcHeJUaemf

]wefzdk;vnf;BuD; t&enf;í
uHBuD;olom okH;xdkufwm
rSwfyg&wem}
‘'Dpum; pOf;pm;Munfh&if
&wemqdkwm
wefbdk;BuD;rm; vlom;wdkif;r&
ukodkvfuHBuD;olawGom
okH;xdkufwm aocsmw,f
&wemu rsufpdvnfNyD;
rolawmfvuf0,fa&mufvJ cPyJ
&wem[m &wem½Sd&myJaeavU½Sdovdk
Avcsm[m Avcsm½Sd&myJaeavU½Sdw,f
uJ oifu &wemvm;¿
Avcsmvm;¿
&wemqdkwm pdwfESvkH;udk
Munfvifapwwf ESpfouftyfvdkU
&wemac:wmwJU
oifvnf; oifUtwGufeJU
olwpfyg;pdwfMunfvifESpfoufatmif
pGrf;aqmifxm;ygvm;[if

F
C

(63)

D

F
C

(64)

&wem (2)

&wem (3)

oufrJYeJUouf½Sd
b,fvdkyJMunfhMunfh
wefzdk;½Sdudk oifodrSmyg
toufeUJpD;yGm;
pnf;jcm;NyD; rvkyf&if
toufyifqkH; vljzpf½IH;½kHyif
ouf½Sd&wem ½SifoefzdkUtwGuf
oufrJU&wemudk BudK;pm;½Sm
raocifumvrSmomokH;&NyD;
aoqkH;NyD;qdk&if ,liifr&
ylyifaomu &ifxJjzpf
b0opfrSm tusKd;ay;
awma',s acG;jzpfovdk
oufrJUudkcif Mur®miifí
raocif½Sm aorygordkU

tdyfr,fçpm;r,fçaysmfyg;r,f
‘'DokH;r,fudk oabmus
wd&pämefouf½SdawG&JUb0
ouf½Sdjcif;awmhwl
‘'gayr,fU oifu vlav
vlqdkwm taMumif;tusKd;
taumif;tqkd;
[kwfonf r[kwfonf
ukodkvfçtukodkvfudkod
todÓmPf½SdwJU ouf½Sd&wem
‘'gUaMumifU ouf½Sdcsif;twlwl
vleJUwd&pämef
todÓmPfuydkif;jcm;
&wemwpfyg;yrmwlonfh
ynmqdkwmr½SdvdkUuawmh
bmxl;rSmvJ¿
todynm&wemudk
&atmif½SmyguG,f/

avmbb&dwfudk tkyfMupdkU/

F

D

D

F

C

(65)

D

C

(66)

&wem (4)

&wem (5)

ouf½Sdvlom;
&wemtm; ESpfyg;cGJod
a0zefMunfhaygU
rdef;rça,musfm;ESpfOD;om;wGif
bk&m;pifppf wu,fjzpfwm
a,musfm;ygaemf
rdef;rb0 atmufusvSí
uaeUqkyef aumif;rIuHaMumifU
aemufaemifb0 yk&dojzpfatmif
pGrf;aqmifaeMu olwdkUb0
‘'gqdk&if
a,musfm;jzpf&if
a,musfm;yDoatmifvkyf
a,musfm;yDoatmifajym
a,musfm;tawG;awG;
‘'DvdkrS rvkyfçrajymçrawG;vdkUuawmh
rdef;rawGxufatmufusNyD;
aemufb0rSm *ef'l;
oifjzpfOD;rSmaemf/

a,musfm;csif;twlwl
tdrfaeolESifUausmif;aeol
rwl&wem uGJjym;yg\
vlUabmifeJU&[ef;abmif
ta&mifcsif;vnf;rwl
taqmifjcif;vnf;rwl
tvkyfjcif;vnf;rwl
t½Iyft½Sif;vnf;rwl
ork',aESmifzGJU&pfywf
BuKd;txyfxyfudk
wpfOD;uywf wpfyg;ujzwf
wpfa,mufuigydkifjzpfa&;
wpfyg;u rydkifigjzpfa&;
tawG;csif;rwl
ta&;csif;rwl
wpfa,mufu wdk;yGm;atmif½Sm
wpfyg;utusKd;rsm;atmif½Sm
½Smwmcsif;rwl
tmomcsif;rwl
tdk b,fvdkrSrwlawmU
vla,musfm;&wemxufjrwf
&[ef;oHCmvdkU rSwf&rSmaygU/

F
C

(67)

D

F
C

(68)

&wem (6)

&wem (7)

aeUcgrSmajr§muf
ncgacsmuf
vefUaMumufp&m &wem
½SifpOfrSm ajr§muf
aocgacsmuf
vefUaMumufp&m &wem
‘'gu avmuD&wemudkajymwm
aeUrSmvnf;aysmf
nvnf;aysmf
ESpfaz:csrf;om &wem
½SifpOfvnf;aysmf
aovnf;aysmf
ESpfaz:csrf;om &wem
‘'gu avmukwå&m &wem
uJ avmuDeJU avmukwf
b,f&wemu ‘'ku©&if;&ovJ
b,f&wemu ‘'ku©uif;&ovJ
&if;&wJU&wemtay:rS
uif;&wJU&wem&atmif½Sm/

jzLpif0if;vQ
vnfwdkifcçom;
ykvJrsm;[m urmrsuf&nf
idka<u;avrS
ausmufpw0Srf; rsuf&nfvTrf;um
&wemtppf ykvJjzpfodkU
igwdkUjzpftif
awG;qifjcifMunfUprf;yg
yifyef;rIudk t&if;wnf
qif;&JrIudk t&if;xm;
tEÅ&m,fMum;rSm rem;om
urmaumifxuftjzpfu qdk;
avmbBuKd;qGJ&m vdkuf
wkH;wdkufwdkuf usm;udkufudkuf
udk,fUxdkufeJU udk,fhuH
pHç&wmenf;enf;
‘'ku©yGJETJ&wmursm;
urmvdkvlom;vdkUajym&if
rSm;rvm;¿

F

D

D

F

C

(69)

D

C

(70)

t½IH;rjy NyHK;Mu&atmif

xl;rjcm;em;

ausmufqdkonfrSm
wGif;xGuf&wem
arSmfqdkonfrSm
vSnfhpm;jcif;
&wemu vSnfhpm;
“"mwfajcmufjcm;NyD;
pdwfrsm;zsm;çem cE¨muEkH;
ypönf;qkH;
½IH;wJholvJ ½Sdzl;ovdk
&wemtxm
arSmfq&m\ ynmvSnfhuGuf
wdrfteufudk
tcsufxdxd blrdab'
ÓmPfrSef;qum
wrf;wvkd&m jrwfOpömudk
azmf,lumokH;
NyKH;wJholvnf;½Sdbl;w,f
½IH;oleJU NyKH;ol
b,fol oifjzpfcsifovJ¿?
uHjypfcs&mcHçpHrSmrdkU
uHMur®maumif;
pkumaqmif;vdkY
arSmfq&mhacgif;udk xkMupdkY

usif;ydkif½Sif aiGolaX;
trnfay;ac:p&m
Mum;&olem;0ifqef;
]avmyef;} wJh &,fp&m
avmbtwGuf olUcrsm
udk,fçpdwfrSmyifyef;
usif;ydkif½Sifb0ifvef;zdkY
ac:MuavpdkY
jynfhrpkHqif;&Jom;
tvkyform; usif;wl;ol
aiG,lzdkYrarh
ac:zdkYrl owfrSwfxm;
usif;om;wJha[h
avmbaMumifhyef;Muol
twlwl vlcsif;
usif;ydkif½Sifpmemoifhw,f
]avmyef;} awGcsif;/

F
C

(71)

D

F
C

(72)

tarhqE´

ausmufMunfh"mwfrD;

ajrBuD;rdcif-rdk;zcifvdkY
yrmwifpm; pHwifxm;&if
pOf;pm;oifhNyD
tarU&ifcGif cdk0ifumem; vlom;rsm;u
avmb&r®uf OD;aqmifcsufaMumifh
xdkESufxl;qG tem&vnf; 0rf;renf;
tarU&iftonf; txJa&mufodwdkif
*vIdifazmufoGm; ESvkH;om;udkxd
rcsdatmifemvnf; 0rf;renf;
&ifxJrS uvDpm BudKufwmudk,l
aysmfaeolwdkY pdkYcsuf½dkufjyif;
,rf;eJUcGif;vJ 0rf;renf;
tarh&ifrSm a0'emjzpf
<uif;usef&pfwJU 'Pf&maumufaMumif;
wGif;a[mif;wGif;opf xyfjzpfaevJ 0rf;renf;
tar0rf;enf;wm ajym&ygvQif
tarU&ifjzpf &wemppfudk
vdkcsifoavmuf rif;wdkYazmuf,l
NyKH;aeolawGu tpm0awmh Xmeudkjyef
usef&pfwJUtarUajr jyefapmif;umavrMunfh
tusKd;½Sdatmifvnf;vkyfroGm;
tvum;om;vdkYajym&if
rif;emrSmvm;¿

toHvIdif;eYJtvif;vIdif;
,lepfwdkif;NyD;avUvm&if
tvif;,lepfuydkNyD;jref
toHuaemuf vQyfpD;vufNyD;rS
rdk;csdef;oHa&mufovdkaygU
tckvJ &wemajr
rm,mawGrsm; yg;pyfzsm;xGuf
]ausmuf}taoG;
ajymoHav;udkaemufxm;
tvif;tm;eJUazmuf
ausmufMunhfwJh”"mwfrD;
jyKqifNyD;ay:vm
cspfp&molwdkYcg;
oGm;av&mtNrJygNyD;
‘'DrD;aMumifh ausmuf&wem
jypfçem ½SmawGUMuovdk
arSmifaewJU vlUb0ausmuf
“"r®tvif;a&mif a&mufygrS
‘'ku©pk jypf temqm
oif aocsmawGUrSmrdkU
opöm”"mwfrD; cE¨mBuD;ay:
xGef;MunfhpdkY/

F

D

D

F

C

(73)

D

C

(74)

Mum;vm;

tv,fuvl

[Jvdk Mum;vm;¿
,rrif;vuf
teufa&mifpum;ajympufwpfvHk;udkif
½kH;xdkifaeykHudk Munfhprf;
[Jvdk bm*Pef;xGufvJ Mum;vm;¿
ESpfvkH;u Z&m
okH;vkH;rSmu r&P
[Jvdk b,ftoif;EkdifoGm;vJ Mum;vm;¿
okceJY'ku©NyKdifvdkufMu
‘'ku©toif;uEdkif
[Jvdk vlom; Mum;vm;¿
----- ------ -----avmuDpD;yGm; wdk;yGm;zdkY½SmaevQif
]aorif;} udktpOfarU
‘'DuaeYpOf;pm;
ajratmufMum;oGm;aewm
avmuDtwGuf toufudkt&if;wnf
aorif;jynfeJUtquftoG,fysuf
oifUvkyf&yfrSefygw,f
'gayr,fU avmukwå&mpD;yGm;
wdk;yGm;zdkU½Smr,fqdk&if owd0if
aocsmawG;MuH reufjzefeJU oHo&m
b,f[mu ydkeD;rvJ¿
[Jvdk ... Mum;vm;¿

ta&mif;ESifUt0,f
tv,fuyGJpm;
ESpfzufoGm; “"m;ay:rSm
csKdoum ysm;&nfudkvdrf;NyD;
udef;*Pef;udk cswGuf
ta&mif;zuf-t0,fzuf
b,fzufrS roufombl;
ta&mif;yGJvJpm; t0,fyGJvJpm;
ESpfyGJpm; ]udkvlvnf} a&U
oHo&mwpfywfvnf&ifawmh
jyefwpfausmhESpfyGJpm;&mb0rS
ESpfpm;yGJESifhjyef
{nfhcHae&OD;r,faemf

F
C

(75)

D

b0qnf;qm

D

F
C

(76)

D

qdkifu,f

rdk;½GmvQiftpdk
aeylvQiftajcmuf
ajratmuf ajray:
aysmf&mrae awmf&maeum
aiG½Sm&wm rvG,fyg
wpfaeukefyifyef;onfh'Pf
tHBudwfcHum qnf;qmtvS
tvkyfvnf;odrf;csdefMua&m
&çvmwJUaiGudkav
tarmajy taMumajzqdkNyD;tokH;cs
‘'ku©eJU&if;cJU&wmudk olwdkYarU
t&nfçtaiGUçtawGUav;awGeUJ
olwdkYaysmf
&r®ufac:&maemuf olwdkYvdkuf
rdkufvdkufonfhjzpfjcif;
reufvif;&iff wpfaeukef½Sm
ncsrf;tcg &çwmtukefjzKef;qdk&if
b,fawmUrSvlrjzpf a&mifjcnfopfrvif;yg
‘'gaMumifUpOf;pm; qnf;qmtvSudkcifNyD;
‘'Dtwdkif;aeoGm;&ifawmU ae0ifoGm;rSmbJ
‘'Dawmh tvSqnf;qmudkarU
‘'DuaeUa½SmifuGif; oifhb0t½kPfusif;
vif;ygvdrfUr,f

b,ftvkyfrqdk
pdwfxm;wwf&if jrwfygw,fuG,f
]u,f&D}qdkwm o,faqmifolwJU
‘'DuaeY ‘'dkUrdkif;½SL;pwdkif
qdkifu,fay:xdkifNyD;aemufuvdkuf
aiGay;vdkuf&ifNyD;wmyJrvkyfygeJU
udk,fvdkwJUc&D;vrf;
ryifyef;yJa&muf aus;Zl;udkvnf;
axmufrSaygU pD;eif;ol&,f
armif;ESifol udkvlacsm tajymav;csKdaemf
tcaMu;qdkwmuawmh twuftus½SdrSmaygU
*,ufxaewJUc&D;Murf;
qkH;cef;wdkifatmifydkU
‘'dkUvkyfaewm*kPf,lMunfh
tylrdc&D;onf vlrodc&D;onf
tcsLrdcJUc&D;onf r,lrdwJUc&D;onf
tdk pkHaewmbJ
‘'gawGudkc&D;qkH;xd cvkyfrxd ql;rNidatmif
‘'dkUydkUaqmifcJUwJUukodkvf[m
oHo&mc&D;Murf; avsmufvSrf;NyDqdk&iftydkifyJ
‘'dkUukodkvf ‘'dkUomqdkifvdkU
u,fEdkifrSmaojcmw,faemf

F

F

C

(77)

D

C

(78)

ryl&atmif

tajcrwl taewl

urÇmUynm½SifawG&JUtajym
‘'Dopfawm ‘'DopfyifawGu
rdk;½GmcszdkUpGrf;tm;ay;
obm0rdk;jzpfa&; vkyfom;awGwJU
&weme,fajrtvS
xm0&wnfzdkYqdk&if
ywf0ef;usifudkxdef;odrf;
pdrf;jrwJUopfyif
t&rf;oifrckwfygeJU
vkyfMuolawGawGU&ifvJajym
obm0awm&dyf
b0tarmawGaxG;odyfzdkU
oifwdkUcdk olUt&dyfudk rcsKd;oifh
tqifUqifUpOf;pm;
vlom; ESifh opfyif
atmufpD*sifeJU[dkuf'½kd
vkdovdkaxmufyHU
tyljyefUrJhumAGefudkxdef;
pdrf;aewJU 'Dopfyif
oifUaus;Zl;½Sifygaemf

aeyl ESif;us rdk;rczdkU
rdk;vnf;rdk; umvnf;um
‘'gUaMumifU ]rdk;um} aygUaemf
&wemarSmf
avmbavSmfum
a&mufvmaeMu olwdkUb0tajc
ae&wmqif;&J
trdk;vnf;'g tumvnf;'g
eD0g0g jymwmwmawG
b,frSmav MunfhMunfh
xdpyfaewm jrif&
roufomvSygvm;aemf
at;av
,m,DqdkawmU jymçeDraygU
armUarmUaMumUaMumUeJUav
tNrJaewJUavmyef;
olUtcef;BunfhawmUvJ rxl;jcm;
trnfyJuGJjym;
oGyfjym;udkrdk;
oGyfjym;udkum
olvJrxl;yg
]rdk;um} ygyJ/

F
C

(79)

D

F
C

(80)

tvnf&yfu

½Gmjyefvufaqmif (1)

jrefrmowåçrGefav;0ESifU
½Srf;rsKd;okH;q,fçajcmufq,fukvm;
vlrsKd;wpf&mUwpfyg;
b,fvdkbJ uGJjym;uGJjym;
ESvkH;om;rSmjzpfwJUavmbw&m;
oabmoGm;u twlwlrdkU
t&,lzdkUjyifqif
rdkif;½SL;ajr &ifcGifrSmqkHMu
EkHtoludk 0dkif;íavSmf
vlay:vlaZmfvkyf EkyfEkyfuav;pif;
tcsif;csif;vnf;vdrf
uvdrfeJUuuspf tnpfeJUtywf
vkyf&yfupdrf;um;
yg;yg;vSD;NyD; yg;yg;vTm
uwkH;ay:rSm xdyfudkuGuf
rsufckH;arT;xuf pBuøoGm;
ESpfzuf"m; okH;zufcRef
tçtvGefolcH vnfolawGpHMueUJ
r[efvSwJUpD;yGm;a&;
jyefawG;vdkU pOf;pm;awmU
tvnf&yfvQif tywfajy
cH&rSmawGudkaMumuf
avmbaemufudk rvdkufcsifygeUJuG,f

rdkif;½SL;&wemajrudka&muf
ig;ESpfavmufaeNyD;rS ½Gmudkjyef
iga&mufoHMum;vQif
cifolawGvmMuum
vufaqmifqdkwmudkawmif;
igUtaMumif; igrSod 0rf;enf;rdNyD
arSmfxJrSmav aysmfaysmfaeum
&wmudkrpk
bmwpfckrSodrf;rxm;
t&nfMum;çtaiGUMum;ç
tawGUMum;rSmomukef
igU½kyfykH rSefxJMunfh
wwdwdeUJydefNcKH;
wajz;ajz;vljzpf½SKH;r,fUa&m*g
rodromvu©Pmu pçaeNyD
‘'ku©vnf;awGU tarUudkowd&
igUb0 raocif
tarU&ifcGif ta&mufoGm;
cdkem;zdkU½Gmudkjyef
igU&JUxHuvufaqmifawmif;olawGudk
taumif;qkH;pum;
ig vufaqmifyg;vdkufr,f
igUvdk rrdkufMuygeJU

F

D

D

F

C

(81)

D

C

½Gmjyefvufaqmif (2)

(82)

tm½kPfvJusif; reufvif;wGif
xrif;csKdifUjyifum ausmufa½G;&moGm;
vljynfhrsm;u vSnfUjyef& ‘'ku©ygvm;[if
tysKdjzpfp olUb0rSm
vSwmudkjrif ol0wfcsifvnf;
&ifxJ0rf;enf; wpfa,mufxJom
rjyifomçrqifomçrwkomçryom
rvdrf;omçrNzD;omçrxifomçrrifomeJU
idkrJUrJUaygU
‘'DuaeUawmU tqifajy
&r®ufayGwJUvlwpfpku
zkxaewJUolUudk,fudkMunfh
tvkyfr½Sduryl&ef aiG&çzdkUzefay;
t&dyfat;atmufrSmae
vmMuolawGukd{nfhcH
pum;oHu MumoHaESm
rsufvTmaMum0,f &r®uf&dyfwyf
tyGwftoyfudk cRwfrwwfcH
wpfaxmifwef txyfvdkuf&
[efMuvdkufwm[,f
tvS0,f t,OfqifU
awmfoifUvdkUtvkyf&yfzdkUBuHwkef;
tysKdb0qkH;&NyD

F
C

(83)

D

rsuf&nfeJUrsufcGuf
vufqufcsifolvnf;r½Sd
tylrdwJU rdunm
½Gmudkomjyef tarUxHa&muf
taruowif;axmufNyD
nnf;a,musfm; nnf;&JUvif
ygvmwm rjrifygvm;wJU¿
rkom;ukdokH; ausmufwl;wkef;aygU
tvkyfjzpfum ausmufyGifUvmrS
aemufuaocsm vdkufvmr,f tar
rdbqdkwm om;orD;vdrfwmcH&wmyJ
rd'ku©wpfa,muf abmufaomufvdrfnm
olUMuif,mu ausmufryGifU
olUAdkufBuD;u pGifUpGifUvmNyD
aemufqkH;awmU
tm;tifukdokH; aorif;ESifUtNyKdif½kef;&if;
&ifwGif;jzpf&wem
om;oufvsmudkarG;
ajz;ajz;av; ajymMum;vm
cav;rSm tazr½Sd
tarodawmU &ifxkidk
rd'ku©crsm xGufoufudktEdkifEkdif½Iduf½l&if;
aemufqkH;ajymwmav;u
]tarUtwGuf ajr;&wemav;yg} wJU/

D

F
C

(84)

D

wpfajrxJrSm

wm0ef

urÇmajrtus,fBuD;rSm
‘'De,fwGif ‘'Dvlpk
,ckvdkpkaeMu&wm
b0a&pufçqkHvmwJUa&puf
rysuf&avatmif
nDaemifom;csif; pdwf&if;udkarG;
tm;ay;ulnD
vlrsKd;wlonf rwlonfudk ab;rSmxm;
vlom;csif;awGyJ r[kwfvm; ?¿
wpfajrxJae wpfa&xJaomuf
wpfa,mufeJUwpfOD; MunfEl;pGmqufqH
trkef;&efawGudkxdef;
olpdrf;vdk raeeJU
wpfa,muf&JUtcuftcJ
vufwGJvdkU&ifqdkif
bmomcsif;vJ rNyKdifMueJU
tmomcsif;vJ rqdkifMueJU
NyKdifqdkifMuwm olpdrf;awGtvkyf
‘'dkUwpfawGu
wpfajrxJae
wpfa&xJaomuf
rdkif;½SL;ausmufawGr[kwfvm;¿?

wm0efESifh0wå&m;udk cGJxm;&ifvnf;&w,f
wGJxm;&ifvnf;&w,f
cGJoleJYwGJol
b,folawGrsm;ovJ ?
tcsdKYu wm0ef½SdNyD; wm0efrodMubl;
wcsdKYu wm0efodNyD; wm0efr½SdMubl;
½SdNyD;rodolu wm0efr,l rauswJholaygh
odNyD;r½Sdolu wm0efudk,l auswJholaygh
vifjzpfvdkY vifhwm0ef
r,m;jzpfvdkY r,m;wm0ef
rdbjzpfvdkY rdbwm0ef
om;orD;jzpfvdkY om;orD;wm0ef
q&mjzpfvdkY q&mhwm0ef
wynfhjzpfvdkY wynfhwm0ef
aus>yefaeMuwmawGu wu,fawmh 0wå&m;awGyg
toif ... vlom;
wm0efod&JYvm; ?

F

F

C

(85)

D

C

(86)

tNrJwrf;awG;yg

uHtvkyfESifhOmPftvkyf

vlqdkwm tawG;ruif;ygbl;
avmbtawG; a'gotawG; arm[tawG;
twdwfudkjyefawG; tem*wfudkarQmfai;
awG;vdkufMuwJh tawG;awGav
ypöKyÜefrSm awG;oifhwmudk ajymr,faemf
igu bmvJ ?
ig bmvkyfaewmvJ ?
ig b,fae&ma&mufaewmvJ ?
tNrJawG;yg /
(Oyrm) pma&;ol t&Sifqdkygawmh
igu bmvJ ? &[ef;wpfyg;
ig bmvkyfaewmvJ ? w&m;ESifhywfoufaomtvkyf
ig b,fae&ma&mufaewmvJ ? bkef;BuD;ausmif;
'DvdktajzxGuf&ifawmh ...
vlrSef tvkyfrSef ae&mrSef {uef wdk;wufr,f
igu bmrSef;rodbJ
tvkyfvGJ ae&mvGJ ae&ifawmh
rSm;zdkYomjyifayawmh uJ ...
oifubmvJ ?
oifbmvkyfaewmvJ ?
oifb,fae&ma&mufaewmvJ ?
tNrJ ... tNrJawG;Munfhprf;yg/

uHqdkwm apwemaygh
oHo&mudk zefcgcgydkYNyD;
apwemaumif;&if csrf;omr,f
apwemrGJ&if qif;&Jr,f
ukodkvfe,fESifhtukodkvfe,f
uHESpfoG,f'Dvrf;rSm
ukovmudkBudK;pm; t&if;rsm;atmifaygh
tukov vHk;0 r&if;rdapeJY
ÓPfqdkwmu 0dyóem
oHo&mudkjzwf tvnf&yfapwm olYtvkyf
'Dawmh ÓPftvkyfu oHo&m&yfapw,f
uHtvkyfu oHo&mygwfapw,f
ajymcsifwmuav
ÓPftvkyf rvkyfEdkifygvQif
uHtvkyf r,kwfrmrdapeJY /

F
C

(87)

D

D

F
C

(88)

D

aus;Zl;w&m;

tcspfESifhtrkef;

aus;Zl;qdkwm axmufyHhwwfaomw&m;
ygVdvdkoGm;awmh ypöa,maygh
tm&r®Pypöa,m ygVdjzifh
tajzn§djy&&if
tm&r®Pu tm½Hkajcmufyg; "r®w&m;
ypöa,mu axmufyHhay;vdkuf aus;Zl;jyKvdkufwm
jrifpdwf Mum;pdwf eHpdwf pm;pdwf
awGYxdpdwf awG;pdwfawGESifhwuG
apwodufemrfawGyg jzpfvm&wmaygh
'Dypöa,mudkbJ ypönf;vdkYvnf;oHk;w,fav
'Dawmhum; ... a&aomufaeol wpfa,mufvltwGuf
a&cGufqdkwJhypönf;u
vG,fulpGmaomufEdkif&ef
axmufyHhcHypönf; aus;Zl;BuD;wJht&myg
oufrJhbJ jzpfjzpf
ouf&SdbJ jzpfjzpf
rdrdtm; axmufyHhxm;wmrSeforQ
aus;Zl;teÅaygh
aus;Zl;onf axvdkYr& acsvdkYr&
qyfoifhaom"r®yg
aus;Zl;udkrqyfcsifaeyg
ruef;rdygapeJY /

tcspfqdkwm avmbaMumifh jzpfvm&wmyg
trkef;qdkwm a'goaMumifh jzpfvm&wmyg
cspfrdjcif;aMumifh 0efwdkjcif; rpä&d, jzpf&jyefa&m
rkef;rdjcif;aMumifh remvdkjcif; £óm jzpfvm&yga&m
o0efwdkwm cspfvdkYygvdkYajymajym
remvdkwm rkef;vdkYygvdkYajymajym
cspfp&mudk vk&mu 'ku©a&muf
rkef;p&mudk ½kef;&mu 'ku©a&muf
cspfp&meJY uGJuGm&mu 'ku©a&muf
rkef;p&meJY wGJqHk&mu 'ku©a&muf
ajym&OD;r,f
cspfp&mudk cspfrdoGm;&if tjypf&SdNyD
wcsdefrSm cGJcGmjcif;'ku© rkcscH&r,f
rkef;p&mudk rkef;rdoGm;&if tjypf&SdNyD
wcsdefrSm qHk&jcif;'ku© rkcscH&OD;rSmbJ
'Dawmhav ...
oabmusp&mawGYvnf; owdxm;
tcspfryGm;rdapeJY
oabmruswmawGYvnf; owdxm;
trsufryGm;rdapeJY
rcspfrdapeJY rrkef;rdapeJY
aeEdkifyghrvm; ?

F

F

C

(89)

D

C

(90)

twåESifhy&

ab;

twåqdkwmig
a½SYwef;uwifvmNyDqdk&if
vdkcsifaomavmb
r&aomcg a'go usdK;jypfrodaomarm[
tukodkvf&JY rlvw&m;awG
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vrf;qdk;udkazmuf avQmufcJholrSeforQ
'DtwåaMumifhaygh
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pGefYvTwfrItavmb ta'goyGm;arwåm
jyKoifhwmudkodwJh tarm[
ukodkvf&JYrlvw&m;awG udef;umaeaygh
xdkYaMumifhvnf; &mZ0if urÇmwGifwJh ordkif;wpfavQmuf
vrf;aumif;udkazmuf avQmufcJholrSeforQ
tm;usvdkYtwk,l olvdkvljzpfcsifMu
ightwåudkab;z,f avmutv,fwifhw,fatmif
trsm;tusdK; aqmifyguG,f ...

avmbu rD;
a'gou a&
arm[ avwJh
oHk;axGaom"r®awGu oHk;0aomuyf
qdkufatmifvkyfwwfw,f
iwfrGwfaom 'kAÇdu©Å&uyf[m
avmbaMumifh jzpf&wmyg
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a'goaMumifh jzpf&wmyg
a&m*gxlaom a&m*Å&uyf[m
arm[aMumifh jzpf&wmyg
avmbu rD;avmifonfhab;udk jzpfapum
a'gou a&vTrf;onfhab;udk jzpfapum
arm[u avrkefwdkif;ab;udk jzpfapum
urÇmavmutm; qdwfokOf;oGm;atmif
pGrf;aqmifMuvdrfhrnf[k
a½S;ynm&Sdpum; igudk;um;um
ab;b,ma0;apzdkY
igwdkY avQmhMuygpdkYuG,f ...

D

F
C

(91)

D

F
C

(92)

D

&du©mESifhodu©m

w&m;½SmMu&mwGif

b0rSm &du©mu ta&;BuD;ovdk
odu©muvnf; ta&;BuD;wmbJ
todr&Sdaom t[dwfwd&pämefawGrSm
&du©mtwGuf odu©mr&SdMubl;
BuD;Edkif i,fn§if; tcsif;csif;vk
pm;aomufrIawG jyKMuw,f
tod&Sdaom rEkó vlawGMuawmh
&du©mtwGuf odu©m&SdzdkYvdkw,f
odu©mysuf&if
tusifhoDv pm&dwåcsdKY,Gif; tukodkvfpm&if;0ifoGm;r,f
odu©m&Sd&Sd ½dk;½dk;usifh jrifhjrifhBuH
&efrrsm; e,frvkMuygeJY
pm;cGufvkwm vlr[kwfbl;aemf
twlwl MunfjzLvufwGJ
vlawGbJr[kwfvm; ?
b0&du©m&Sm&mwGif
odu©mESifh,SOfMuyg /

Ak'¨bmom0iftm;vHk;
aemufqHk;vdkcsifMuwm trw"r®
'ghaMumifhvJ ½SmMuwmaygh
½Smwmawmh½Sm
awGYatmif½SmzdkY ajymcsifw,f
"r®udk awGYatmif½Smaygh
trsm;olig awGYaeMuwm yk*¾dKvf
xdkyk*¾dKvf bmajymajym bma[ma[m
[kwfaomrSefaom r[kwfaomrSm;aom
bmaomrSrawG; olYab;rSmtcsdefjynfh
yk*¾dKvfeJY awGYaeMuaygh
wpfcsdKYMujyefawmh wpfcg
'dkYq&m b,fvdkusifh
qef;yHkjzifhajymrukef
0dkif;tHkum axmyemjyK udk,fhtrIudkarhNyD;
q&mBuD;tusifh tHhtm;oifhNyD;tcsdefukef
"r®*kPfudkrawGY tusifhESifhawGYaeMuonf
wpfcsdKYu*dkPf; tcsif;csif;EIdif;NyD;a0zef avuef
igwdkYurSef olwdkYurSm; pum;rsm;
"r®w&m;rawGYNyD ajymcsifygonf ...
yk*¾dKvfxJu"r® tusifhxJu0dZÆm
0g'Mum;rSw&m; pDppfÓPfa½SYxm;NyD;
w&m;awGYatmif½SmMuyg /

F

F

C

(93)

D

C

(94)

rsufuyfrSef

omoemESifhbmom

oifhrsuf0ef;eufrSm wPSm rme 'd|dqdkwJh
yyOörsufuyfrSefwyfxm;oa½GY
oiftrSefudk rjrifawGYEdkifbl;
vludkukvm; ujym;w½kwf
usKyfuArm jrifOD;rSmbJ tpGJESifhudk,f
vludkvlvdk jrifzdkYqdk&if arwåm0if u½kPmxm;
rk'dwmyGm; Oayu©mw&m;qdkwJh
jA[®pdk&f rsufuyfrSefudkwyfMunfhyg
vlom;csif;pmemrIqdkwJh
EdkifiHwumulnDrIudk oifjrifawGY&rSmyg
vl[lorQ[m ig;0cE¨mbJ&Sdwmygvm;vdkY jrifcsif&ifawmh
BudK;pm;rI 0D&d, apmifhMunfhrIowd wnfNidrfrI orm"dqdkwJh
orm"drsufuyfrSefudkwyfaygh
cE¨mig;yg; jzpfysufw&m;odkY odcsifjrifcsif&ifawmh
0dyóem ynm tarm[ 0dZÆmrsufuyfrSefudkwyf
'ku©&yf&m csKyfNidrf;&mudk aocsmjrifzdkYuawmh
r*¾rsufuyfrSef wyf&ef&Smyg
'Dawmh .. oifhrsuf0ef;eufrSm
wyfqifxm;wm b,frsufrSefvJ ?
twyfrvGJygapeJY /

omoemqdkwm tqHk;tr
bmomqdkwm pum;
bk&m;&Sif tqHk;tray;cJhw,fav
raumif;aomtrI vHk;0rjyKMueJY
aumif;aomtrI BudK;pm;NyD;jyKMu
rdrdpdwfudk jzLpifatmifxm;Mu
tJh'Dvdk qHk;rcJhwmr[kwfvm; ?
udk,fhudk,fudk jyefpOf;pm;
raumif;rIrsm; a&Smif&Sm;EdkifNyDvm; ?
aumif;rIw&m; BudK;pm;aeaeovm; ?
rdrdpdwfwGif; tnpftaMu;uif;NyDvm; ?
'Dw&m;oHk;yg; udk,fhESvHk;om; rudef;ao;&if
bmompum;udk ouf0if,HkMunfaom
Ak'¨bmom0ifvdkY ac:vdkY&ygawmhrvm; ?
Ak'¨bmom0if jzpfcsif&ifawmh
bk&m;tqHk;tromoem
BudK;pm;ívdkufemyg /

F
C

(95)

D

D

F
C

(96)

D

okwåefw&m; vkyfBuHxm;wmr[kwfyg

t&if;r½HI;ygapeJY

ajymp&m&Sdwmawmh ajym&rSmbJ BuD;awmfa& ...qdkwmvdk
ajym&OD;r,f
a½S;uwnf;u Mum;zl;cJhMuwmav
okwåefuvkyfBuHa[mwmwJh
okwåefw&m;awGu ayghvdkYremcsifbl;wJh
okwåefw&m;awGu ukodkvf&½HkbJwJh
Ak'¨bk&m; a[mMum;cJhwJh a'oemawmfrSm
opömw&m;odzdkY "r®puúy0wåeokwåef
vu©PmodzdkY tewåvu©Pokwåef
w&m;tm;xkwfzdkY owdy|meokwåef
uJ b,fhES,fhvJ ?
bk&m;ubJ vkyfBuHa[mcJhwmvm; ?
bk&m;ubJ ayghyghqq a[mcJhwmvm; ?
bk&m;ubJ ukodkvf&½Hk a[mcJhwmvm; ?
xifwdkif;rajymMuygeJY
okwåefu enf;vrf; rsOf;BudK;aywH
t"dyÜg,fudkod&efvdkY teuf&Sdw,f
okwåefudk ra[mrem&if enf;vrf;r&Sd
rsOf;MudK;aywH wdkif;&efr&Sd t"dyÜg,fudk rodawmhbl;
'gqdk&if ...
vrf;rSm;udkavQmuf ab;udka&mufNyD;
oabmrayguf r*¾ifvrf;udkb,fazmufEdkifyghrvJ ?

'dkYwawGvlYb0 'DuaeY&vmMuwmonf
twdwfuukodkvfuHaMumifhqdkwm
ajymaep&m rvdkygbl;
'Dawmh ...
ukodkvft&if;u ygvmcJhNyD;om;
b0&SifoefvIyf&Sm;&if;eJY
ukodkvft&if;jyKwfrd tukodkvftvkyf rvkyfrdapeJY
'Db0uae ao&NyDqdkvQif
vljyefNyD;topf tusdK;ay;rjzpfbJ
tukodkvfuqGJcs tyg,fusoGm;&&if
t&if;½HI;NyDomrSwf
'ghaMumifh ... udk,fhvkyf&yfawG jyefpOf;pm;
tjrwfrsm;rsm; r&csifae
t&if;r½HI;ygapeJY /

F

F

C

(97)

D

C

(98)

jyKjyifjcif;\ed*Hk;

Copy

vlYobm0tvdk EkysdKcsifMuwm obm0yg
vlYobm0tmom usef;rmcsifMuwm obm0yg
vlYobm0"ar® aecsifMuwm obm0yg
'ghaMumifhvnf;av
EkysdKatmifjyKjyif aeYpOfeJYtrQaygh
usef;rmzdkYjyKjyif aeYpOfeJYtrQaygh
ae&zdkYjyKjyif aeYpOfeJYtrQaygh
aq;0g;tpm 0wfumqifum avhusifhumjzifh
vSyusef;rm ouf&SnfygaMumif; taygif;&SdorQ
jyKjyifMuwmr[kwfvm; ?
odkYaomf ... &aewJhcE¨m aocsmwJhtvkyf
tdkzdkYvdkY emzdkYvdkY aozdkYvkyfaewm
cE¨mhoabmqdkawmh ...
uJ ...jyKjyifjcif;\ed*Hk;u
ysdKzdkYjyKjyif tdkjcif;wGifqHk;&rnf
rmzdkYjyKjyif emjcif;wGifqHk;&rnf
aezdkYjyKjyif aojcif;wGifqHk;&rnf
ed*Hk;raumif;aom jyKjyifrI
owdjzifh½IyguG,f /

Copy qdkaompum;vHk; ajym&OD;r,f

'dkYjrefrmhpum;e,frSm
twkjriftwwfoifwJh twkcdk;wmwJh
b,fvdkbJajymajym Copy oabmudkajymvdkwmu
raumif;wJhtusifhp½dkuf tjyKtrl tajymtqdk
tawG;tBuHawGudk Copy rul;rdapeJY
aumif;aom ½dk;aom jrwfaom
tm;usp&m tjypfuif;aom *kPf&Sdaom
tusifhp½dkuf tjyKtrl tajymtqdk
tawG;tBuHawGudk Copy ul;,lyg
Ak'¨\ t&[H*kPfqdkaom
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udk,fhESvHk;om; Copy yGm;rd&if edAámef&NyD
t&[H qdwfuG,f&m t&yfüyif
raumif;rIudk jyKawmfrrljcif;qdkwmudk
udk,fhpdwfrSm Copy ,lrd&if tukodkvfuif;NyD
t&[H ylaZmftxl;udk cH,lawmfrlxdkufaom*kPftm;
Copy yGm;rd&if trsm;av;pm;atmifaewwfNyD
'ghaMumifh awGYorQ t&rf;ul;r,lygeJY
twk,lp&m aumif;wmav;awGbJ
a½G;cs,fum Copy Muaygh /

F
C

(99)

D

D

F
C

(100)

D

olwdkYvdkrsm;

udpöoHk;ck BudK;pm;jyKyg

oifaexdkif&mtdrf
acgifurSrdk;rvHkawmh wpftdrfvHk;½TJawmhraygh
oifhtdrf&JYn
tvif;&zdkY xGef;n§dp&mudkr&Sdawmh arSmifawmhraygh
oifhpm;0wfaea&;
csufjyKwfp&mtwGuf 0,f&r,fh tojymr&Sdawmh
iwfawmhraygh
0wfqifp&mtwGuf 0,f&r,fhaiGaMu;r&Sdawmh
ta[mif;av;0wfaygh
'gayr,fh oifh&JY[dkbuftdrf
wpfBudrfavmuf vSrf;Munfhprf;yg
rdk;a&rpdk aeYvdkncif; xdefxdefudkvif;aewmbJ
pm;yGJay:udkMunfhvdkufOD;
taumif;qHk;tpm;tpm zG,fzG,f&m&mpHkvdkYbJ
wpfaeYwpfaeY vJvS,f0wfqifaeMuwmuvnf;
r½dk;EdkifatmifbJaemf
jrifNyDr[kwfvm; ?
tqifajyaeMuwmrsm;av
'gawGurqef;ygbl;
olwdkYtdrfu wpftdrfom;vHk;
tvkyfvkyfMuw,fav /

vljzpfvmvQif
a<u;a[mif;udkvnf; qyf&r,f
a<u;opfudkvnf; cs&r,f
a½Ttdk;udkvnf; jr§Kyf&r,f
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aus;rif;ZmwfrSmaygh
udk,fhudkarG;zGm; aus;Zl;BuD;rm;wJh
rdbESpfyg;udk bk&m;vdk½dkaoum
jA[®mvdkudk;uG,f vkyfa<u;Mur,fqdk&if
a<u;a[mif;qyf&ma&mufr,f
rdrdrSarG;zGm; orD;ESifhom;awGudk
vdkovdkcsD;ajr§muf axmufyHhuma<u;arG;r,fqdk&if
a<u;opfudkcs&ma&mufr,f
avmutv,f vSLzG,fwef;zG,f toG,foG,feJY
rsufESmi,fatmufus 'ku©onftpkpk
ulnDrI'gejyKMur,fqdk&if ...
ukodkvfac:wJhjrwfa½Ttdk;tm;
jr§Kyfxm;&ma&mufr,f
oifaum ... a<u;a[mif;qyfNyD;NyDvm; ?
a<u;opfcsNyD;NyDvm; ?
a½Ttdk;jr§KyfNyD;NyDvm; ?

F

F

C

(101)

'dkYraocif

D

ordkif;qdkwmudk vlom;wdkif; todrSwfjyK
wefzdk;xm;wwfMuw,f
'ghaMumifhvnf; urÇmhtpordkif; vlom;tpordkif;
wpfckESifhwpfckcdkif;EIdif;wGufq
NydKifqdkifaeMuwmaygh
Ak'¨ordkif;udk Ak'¨0if omoemhordkif;udk omoem0if
rif;wdkY\ordkif;udk &mZ0if
ponfjzifh 0ifaygif;rsm;pGm&SdaeMuwmaygh
ordkif;qdkwm taxmuftxm;
b,fvdkjzpfyGm; b,fvdkvIyf&Sm; b,fvdkajymMum;
b,fem;rSmwnf b,fem;rSm&Sd a0zefodp&mawGyg
tjcm;ordkif;awG tomxm;
vlom;qdkwm udk,fhordkif;udk,f a&;&wmav
'Dawmh udk,fhordkif; t½dkif;rwGif&pf&atmif
vluaocJhayr,fh ordkif;rao&avatmif
'dkYpGrf;aqmifzdkYvdktyfw,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
0ifhxnfomoem wifhw,fpGmwnfapzdkY
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
½IzG,fom,m ,Ofaus;vdr®mapzdkY
igwdkYjyK&r,f

C

(102)

'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
rsdK;*kPfxnf0g xdrf;odrf;um jrwfEdk;vmaprI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
Eke,fcav; today;um rrSm;apatmif ysdK;axmiftrI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
ouf½G,fBuD;rm; bdk;bGm;rsm;tm; av;pm;*½k ulnDrI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
wdkif;e,fwpfyg; usifhqdk;rsm;tm;
rvdkufpm;atmif a&Smif½Sm;wm;rI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
odr<u,ftm; bmomjcm;rS qG,fjim;pkpk wm;qD;rI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
a&mif;0,fazmufum; aq;0g;rl;,pf rusef&pfatmif
0dkif;usdK;aqmifrI
igwdkYjyK&r,f
'dkYraocif 'dkY&yfcGif0,f
aumif;zG,fpkpk igwdkYjyKrS 'dkYao&vQif ordkif;wGif& woo
rkcsaumif;vdrfhrnf
uJ ... oifhordkif;u oifa&;wJhtwdkif; usef&pfrSmqdkawmh
oifraocif aumif;atmifjyifum
a&;cJhygvdkYajymcsifw,f /

F
C

(103)

vkyf&yfay:rSmrlwnfw,f

D

D

F
C

(104)

D

oifvljzpfNyDvm;

ajym&OD;r,f ...
tEkynmavmuESifh tm;upm;avmuawGudk
avhvmMunfh½Ird&if; ay:vmwJhtawG;pav;yg
wpfcsdKYtqdkawmfawGu
udk,fatmfwJhoDcsif;oH oHpOfudkufvm; rudkufvm;
pnf;0g; Nidvm; rNidvm;
y&dowf&ifxJ xdvm; rxdvm;qdkwmudk rodbJ
vufckyfav;wD;ay;ygOD;vdkY awmif;qdkMuawmh
y&dowfu rwD;csifwD;csifeJY
EGm;rzifu csD;ygcsovdk rnDrnm
wD;ay;&yga&m ...
awmif;qdkrIaMumifh wD;wJhvufckyfoH
tm;ay;rItrSefr[kwfbl;
tm;upm;bufvnf; xdkenf;wlbJ
tm;ay;rItppfu udk,fhvkyf&yfay:rSmbJ rlwnfw,f
udk,fhvkyf&yfu oHpOfudkuf pnf;0g;Nid
y&dowf&ifxJ tcsdef ae&m tajctae cHpm;rI
udkufnDvdkY xdNyDqdk&if aumif;uifBuD; yGifhxGufrvm;
vufckyfoH nHnHtm;eJY axmyemw&m;jyKMuw,fav
awmif;qdkp&mrvdkygbl;
udk,faumif;atmifom BudK;pm;yg
'Dtwdkif;bJrdwfaqG
oifhvkyf&yf ywf0ef;usify&dowfu
apmifhMunfhaew,f /

F

bk&m;&Sifu
ukodkvfeJYtukodkvfudk cGJjcm;odNyD;
ukodkvfudkjyK tukodkvfudka&SmifEdkifrS vlwJh
tusdK;&SdeJYtusdK;rJhudk cGJjcm;odNyD;
tusdK;&SdudkjyK tusdK;rJhudka&SmifEdkifrS vlwJh
reeJYOóaygif;rS rEkówJhav
tod&Sdaom owå0gudk vlvdkYac:w,f
oifpOf;pm; ...
vlom;wpfa,mufjzpfzdkY 'kv’bxJrSm
xnfhxm;yHkaxmuf&if rvG,favmufbl;aemf
ukodkvfudktomxm; tukodkvfrsm;a&SmifEdkifNyDvm;
tusdK;&Sdudk tomxm; tusdK;rJhvkyf&yfudk a&SmifEdkifNyDvm;
qefYusifbuft&
tukodkvfudk a&SmifEdkif&if ukodkvfjzpfNyD;om;
tusdK;rJhudka&SmifEdkif&if tusdK;&SdNyD;om;
uJ ... oifvljzpfNyDvm;

F

C

aus;Zl;rSwfwrf;

D

C

D




þpmpkudkw&m;pcef;yGJtBudrf(100)
jynfhtrSD” "r®'gexkwfa0Edkifatmif tyifyef;cHum
jzpfcsif vdkcsifaom qE´twdkif; rNiD;rjiL apwemjzLpGm
ulnDay;ygaom t&SifpE´drm(r[moÅdokcq&maw
mf)?ypönf;av;yg;jzifh ryifyef; &atmifapmifha&Smuf
vSL'gef;ay;cJhMuaom ausmif;'um?ausmif;trrsm;?
'um-'umrrsm;? &[ef ; 'um &[ef ; 'umrrsm;?
tm;vHk;udk aus;Zl;txl;wif&Sdygonf/

F
C

D

F

F
C

D

F


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