Well Completion and Operation P1 V0 .pdf



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OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Well completion and
operations
Sfax, June 2010

MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Course plan
1. Basic well completion design and practices
2. Formation-wellbore communication, Sand
control
3. Downhole completion equipment:
• Packer selection and tubing forces
• Tubing design and selection: Materials
selection, Corrosion and erosion
• flow control equipment and subsurface
safety valves
4. Wellhead and chokes
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Course plan
5. Well performance: nodal analysis, inflow and
tubing performance
6. Deviated, multiple zone, subsea, horizontal,
multilateral and HPHT completion
considerations
7. Perforating design
8. Causes and prevention of formation damage
9. Stimulation design considerations
10. Wireline, coiled tubing and Snubbing
11. workover rig operations
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Petroleum production
Petroleum production involves two distinct
but intimately connected general systems:
• the reservoir, which is a porous medium
with storage and flow characteristics,
• the artificial structures, which include the
well, bottomhole, wellhead assemblies,
the surface gathering, separation, and
storage facilities.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion:
- It is the process of making a well ready
for production (or injection).
- All operations after well drilling up to
putting the well on stream.
- It is mainly the design, selection and
installation of tubular, tools and
equipment located in the wellbore for the
purpose of conveying, pumping or
controlling production or injection fluids.
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design
and practices

It includes :
• Establishing communication
between the reservoir and the
borehole.
• Design and installation of the
production (or injection) string.
• Installing the production (or
injection) wellhead.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices
Production Wellhead
– Xmas tree

Production
String

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

The production string
1. Transfers safely and
efficiently the effluent from
bottom to surface
2. Allows access to the
reservoir for measurement
and monitoring.
3. protects the casing from
corrosion and erosion
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Factors influencing completion design:
• Well purpose: exploration, appraisal,
development, …
• Well type: producer, injector,
monitoring well.
• Reservoir: petrophysical and physical
properties, fluids nature, layers, ...

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Factors influencing completion design:
(cont’d)

• Operating condition: surface facilities,
natural flow, artificial lift,
• Environment: supplies, safety rules, …
• Well profile: casing, deviation, …

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Well Completion depends on
• Reservoir characteristics:
- Pressure
- Productivity or Injectivity index
- Fluids properties
- Rock properties and geological data
- Fluid temperature
• Number of producing zones
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Well Completion depends on (cont’d)
• Operational constraints
- Environmental regulations
- Safety aspects
• Geographical factors
- Location
- Water depth for offshore wells
- Weather conditions
- Accessibility
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Objectives :
• Optimum production \ injection
performance
• Ensure safety
• Maximize the integrity and reliability
• Minimize the total cost
• Others (sand control, corrosion, etc.)
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
How to design a completion?
• high rate,
• low maintenance,
• trouble-free,
• economical
COMPROMISES
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Horizontal Well
• Orientation relative to horizontal stresses
– Towards max horizontal stress
– Perpendicular to natural fractures
• Away from contacts
– GOC /OWC
• Perforating
– Orientation: 0 & 180‟ modified by
practical circumstances
– Not whole length
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Horizontal Well
• Liner
– Pre-perforated?
– High torque / High Compression
Connections?
– Solid Centralizers
• Sand Control
– Stand-alone / Gravel Pack?
– Variability in sand properties
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Horizontal Well
• Production Logging
– CT Locator?
• Flow profile
– Stability
– Artificial Lift

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design

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Materiel selection

19

Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
Guide to property levels required in elastomer
grades For various sealing pressure ranges

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
• The effect of a chemical reaction doubles
for every 10°C temperature rise.
• The lifetime roughly doubles for every
10°C drop.
• Make sure that the upper temperature is
within the capability of the seal material.
• The seal material must be compatible
with the fluid environments.
• Do not use Zinc Bromide (ZnBr) brine
with Nitriles.
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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
• Be careful with Vitons if amine inhibitors
are present, it may be better to use Aflas.
• Methanol can affect Vitons, use Aflas or
Nitrile if possible.
• Do not use EPDM where hydrocarbons
are present.
• For really aggressive, hot and sour
conditions, the best choice is the
expensive Kalrez (to 260°C) or Chemraz
(20% cheaper and better properties over
~20° to 230°C).
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Basic well completion design and practices

Completion design
• Pressure level dictates the mechanical
properties required
• Critical pressure for blistering is Pb = 5E/6
where E = Young's Modulus (at service
temperature).
• Critical pressure for rupture is Pr = 4(Lb
× Sb)/3
where:
Lb: extension ratio at break (length of
stretched material per unit initial length)
Sb: stress at break (at service temperature)
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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Wellbore completion concept:
Based on the reservoir characteristics:
formation type and consolidation,
petrophysics properties, completion type,
etc. the borehole is equipped as follows:
• Barefoot (open hole).
• Cased with perforated liner or screen
• Cased, cemented and perforated.

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Barefoot Completion
• Barefoot completion is open
hole completion. Casing is set
just above the reservoir.
• it is cheap and simple to
operate, and
• hydrocarbons will flow into the
bore hole throughout its 360°
circumference (radial flow).
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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Barefoot Completion
• Advantages.
- Less rig time
- Full diameter hole
- No perforation, production casing,
cementing and logging.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Barefoot Completion
• Disadvantages.
- No selectivity for production
stimulation and workover (new
alternatives)
- Liable to “sand out”
- Ability to isolate is limited to the
lower part of the hole

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Uncemented Liner Completion
• Placing an uncemented liner
across the reservoir is the next
least expensive completion
type.
• Casing is run to the top of the
reservoir, then a slotted liner is
hung off the casing through the
reservoir. The liner is not
cemented.
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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Uncemented Liner Completion
• This type of completion is
attractive in directional wells.
• The liner will help prevent
hole collapse
• The slots provide some
sand control
• Production through 360° is
still achieved
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Uncemented Liner Completion
• Advantages
- No perforation or cementing for
the production casing and logging
- Less rig time
- Assists in preventing sand
production

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Uncemented Liner Completion
• Disadvantages
- No selectivity for production
stimulation and workover
- Difficult to isolate zones for
production control purposes
- Slightly longer completion time
compared to open hole
completions
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Cased, Cemented and Perforated
Completion
• the most common configuration for
the pay zone-borehole connection is
the cased hole.
• Casing is primary used to sustain the
formation.
• Cemented casing will allow to
selectively produce zones.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Cased, Cemented and Perforated
Completion
• It is the most common,
because of its ability to
effectively isolate the drilled
formations and produce
them selectively
• The hole could be covered
with a casing (extended to
the surface), or with a short
casing called casing liner.
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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Cased, Cemented and Perforated
Completion
Advantages
- Introduces flexibility allowing
isolation of zones and selection of
zones for production and/or
injection

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Formation-wellbore communication

Cased, Cemented and Perforated
Completion
Disadvantages
- Requires logging & log interpretation
to specify the actual perforation
zones
- Cost of casing, cementing, logging
and perforating Rig time

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Sand Control
If free sand is available in a formation, it
could be produced with fluids causing:
• erosion of downhole and surface
equipment
• filling up surface separators and
storage tanks
• caving formation
• increased costs for sand disposal.

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Well Completion and Operations

Sand Control
• To prevent
producing sand,
screens are used
to filter the
produced fluid.
• Well screen could
be run in open
hole or inside
perforated casing
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Well Completion and Operations

Sand Control
• Usually the annulus
behind the screen
is filled with a
specially sized,
highly permeable
sand, called gravel
• The gravel pack
filter fluids and stop
sand

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Well Completion and Operations

Sand Control
Screen with gravel pack:

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Packer: A device for
sealing off the annular
space between the
tubing and the casing.
It is used for:
• Casing protection
• Separation of multiple
zones
• Gas lift installations
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Packer consists essentially of
an inside passage for fluids, a
holding or setting device, and a
sealing device.
§ Sealing element
§ Slips

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
• A cone is driven behind a
tapered slip to force the slip out
and into casing wall
• The packing element is
compressed to affect a seal
against casing wall

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Packers are classified according to:
§ Configuration: single, dual.
§ Use: production, injection, squeeze.
§ method of setting: mechanical (wire
line or DP setting tool) or hydraulic
(tubing set)
§ Retrievable (with tubing or retrieving
tool) or permanent (removable by
milling or drilling out)
WCO -P1_2010 -V0

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Packers types:
§

RETRIEVABLE PACKERS
-

§

Mechanical set packers
- Weight set packers
- Tension set packers
- Rotational set packers
Hydraulic set packers

PERMANENT PACKERS

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Permanent Packers
• Setting
Ø Wireline setting
- The packer is run in hole with
electrical wireline setting tool,
- The setting tool includes an adapter
kit and pressure setting assembly
- Electric current ignites a powder
charge within the setting tool
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Permanent Packers
• Setting
Ø Wireline setting
- Gas pressure transmits the setting
force to the packer
- The packer is set and a release stud
is sheared, freeing the setting
assembly from the packer.
- the setting assembly is then removed
from the well
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Permanent Packers
• Setting
Ø Tubing / Drill Pipe setting
- Hydraulically
- Hydraulically with upward pull
assist
- Sequential rotation and upward
pull
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packer Selection
Permanent Packers
- Wells with high pressure differential
- Wells with large tubing load variations
- Deep wells

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Permanent Packers

MODEL D™
RETAINER
PRODUCTION
PACKER

Halliburton
• Seal-bore packer
• Wireline, DPU
(downhole power
Unit) or workstring (hydraulic)
set

Baker Oil Tools
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
For permanent packer
§ Locator seal assembly: A
nipple with sealing units to
travel inside the permanent
packer, with a stop guard on
the top to limit the down
stroke.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
For permanent packer.
§ Anchor seal assembly: is a
locator seal assembly with a
latch in stead of the stop
guard to fix firmly the string
to the packer.

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
For permanent packer
§ Seal units: extensions of
the locator with seals to
travel within a packer bore
and/or extensions

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Hydraulic - Set Packers
Ø Setting
- Induced fluid pressure drives the
cone behind the slips to set them
- Slips remain set by either
entrapped pressure or a
mechanical lock
Ø Retrieving
- Mostly by picking up on tubing
- Some require tubing rotation
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Hydraulic Set Packers

Retrieving
Position

Running
Position

Set
Position
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Retrievable hydraulic Packers

Halliburton RH
Single completion
packer
Hydraulically set
Retrieved by straight
pull
WCO -P1_2010 -V0

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Retrievable hydraulic Packers
Halliburton RDH
l DualDual-completion packer
l Hydraulically set
l Retrieved by straight pull
l Available with multiple tubing
size combinations
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Retrievable hydraulic Packers
Model FH™
FH™
Hydrostatic set
Single string
Retrievable
packer

Baker Oil Tools
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Model AA-5™
dual String
retrievable
Packer

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
Hydraulic - Set Packers
Ø Selection
- Excellent for deviated or crooked
holes
- Production tubing can be run in the
well and wellhead installed, before
setting packer
- Multiple completion strings can be
landed simultaneously
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Packers and accessories
• For hydraulically set packer :
Hydro-trip pressure sub:
a sub with a ball seat,
run below a
hydraulically set packer
to set it.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Axial Forces :
For anchored tubing axial forces are
the sum of:
§the axial forces induced if the tubing
were free to move plus,
§the axial forces created by resisting
the overall length change.

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Tubing weight
• Pressure Acting on Exposed Tubing Areas
• Piston Effect (due to plug, expansion
device, crossover etc.)
• Temperature Effects
• Poisson Effect - Ballooning
• Slack-off and Over Pull

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Axial Forces :
Software packages such as WS-Tube,
calculate first the movements as if the
tubing were free to move and then
calculate the force, using Hooke's law:
σ=E×ε
E is the constant of proportionality called the
modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus
(approximately 30 x 106 psi for steel).

σ Stress
MMA

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ε strain
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Weight Force :
FWT = W cos A
N = W sin A
FWT = W' TVD
Where
W = weight of the tubing, lb.
W' = tubing weight per unit length, lb/ft
TVD = vertical distance below the point of
interest to the bottom of the tubing.
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Pressure acting on exposed
tubing area:
FB = −p (Ao − Ai)
Where
p = pressure at the bottom of
the string, psi
Ao = area corresponding to the
nominal pipe OD, in2
Ai = area corresponding to the
nominal pipe ID, in2
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Well Completion and Operations

Packer selection
Tubing forces
• Piston Effect (due to plug, expansion
device, crossover etc.)
∆L= L F / E (Ao − Ai)

• Temperature Effects
FTEMP = - CT E ∆T (Ao − Ai)

• Poisson Effect - Ballooning
FBAl = 2µ (Ai ∆Pi − Ao ∆Po)

• Fluid Friction
FFR = − ∆P Ai L / ∆L

• Slack-off and Over Pull
Fso = ∆Lso E (Ao − Ai) Lp
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Tubing:
§ relatively small-diameter pipe that is
run into a well to serve as a conduit
for the passage of oil and gas to the
surface.
§ Tubing joints are connected
together by threaded connections,
§ they constitute the essential part of
the production string (about 99 %).
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Tubing:
§ API Spec. 5CT fixes geometrical and
physical characteristics of tubing and
gives chemical composition for low
alloy steel used for manufacturing
them.
§ Special tubing connections and
alloys are available from some
manufacturer but they are not API
standard.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Nominal size: is the tubing body OD.
• API Spec. 5CT fixes nine sizes for
tubing: 1.050", 1.315", 1.660",
1.900", 2-⅜", 2-⅞", 3-½”, 4" et 4-½”

• The most common sizes are:
2-⅜", 2-⅞", 3-½” and 4-½”.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Grade: is the steel grade, defined by API
Spec 5 CT by
• a letter (C, J, L, N, …) which characterize
the chemical composition and sometimes
the thermal treatment.
• a figure following the letter which
expresses the minimum body yield stress
in 1000 psi.
• The most common API grades for tubing
are: J55, C75, L80, N80, C90 and P105.
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Length is the length of a tubing joint
including the coupling and excluding
the pin thread.
• The API specifies two lengths for tubing
• Range I: 20 - 24 ft
• Range II: 28 – 32 ft
• Range III defined by API for casing only
is used also for tubing mainly for large
size (3-½” and above).
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Weight is the average linear weight
of the tubing, weight of connection
included, expressed in lb/ft. The
most common weights are:
§ 4.6 / 4.7 lb/ft
for 2-⅜"
§ 6.4 / 6.5 lb/ft
for 2-⅞"
§ 9.2 / 9.3 lb/ft
for 3-½”
§ 12.6 /1 2.75 lb/ft for 4-½”
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Grade: is the steel grade, defined by API
Spec 5 CT by
• a letter (C, J, L, N, …) which characterize
the chemical composition and sometimes
the thermal treatment.
• a figure following the letter which
expresses the minimum body yield stress
in 1000 psi.
• The most common API grades for tubing
are: J55, C75, L80, N80, C90 and P105.
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades as per API Spec 5 CT:
Yield Strength (kpsi)

40
55
80
90
95
110
125
MMA

OGIM

API Grade

H40
J55, K55
N80, L80/Type1 L80/13Cr
C90
C95, T95
P110
Q125
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Steel grades
§ Carbon steel and low alloys are
defined by API Spec and used for
completion tubular.
§ Special alloys are available for sour
service and special applications. They
are widely used as follows:
§ 9 Cr for H2S service,
§ 13 Cr for CO2,
§ 22 Cr and higher for CO2 + H2S.
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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel Grade: API Spec 5 CT steel grades

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel Grades:
• Low alloy steels include
§

§

§

§

1% chrome (Cr) to increase hardness and

resistance to corrosion, wear and high
temperature
0.2 % molybdenum (Mo) to improve
surface hardness and corrosion and wear
resistance
1.75 % nickel (Ni) to improve corrosion and
mechanical resistance

They are also used for manufacturing
completion equipment.
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OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
• Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
• Semi-stainless steel alloys: 4340, 9%
Cr + 1% Mo: suitable for H2S (stress
corrosion cracking SCC), acceptable
for CO2 and chlorides below 150°F
• Martensitic (AISI 410) 13% Cr suitable
for H2S (SCC) and chlorides, good
resistance to CO2 below 150°F, medium
resistance to chlorides below 300°F

MMA

OGIM

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77

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
• Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
• Austenitic / ferric (AISI 304, 316, 440):
15-24% Cr; 8-22% Ni; 2% Mn, high
resistance to CO2, medium
resistance to H2S, affected by
chlorides above 150°F. Used in
corrosive wells at low temperature
MMA

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OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
• Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
• Duplex steel: Cr 22%, 25%, 28%; 32%
Ni, used for tubular where high
mechanical and corrosion
resistances are required
• Exotic alloys (high % Chrome):
Monel, Inconel. Very high resistence
to CO2 corrosion and H2S and
chlorides SCC. Used for SSV and
pumps valves.
MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
• Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
• Super alloys: Hastelloy for tubular
in severe conditions, Pyromet 31
for SSSV, tools, nipples and
MP35N for wireline

MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
• Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)

MMA

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27

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:

MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:

MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:

MMA

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28

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Steel grades:
In summary
§ Carbon steel and low alloys are
defined by API Spec and used for
completion tubular.
§ Special alloys are available for sour
service and special applications. They
are widely used as follows:
§ 9 Cr for H2S service,
§ 13 Cr for CO2,
§ 22 Cr and higher for CO2 + H2S.
MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
Connection: tubing are screwed
together through connections,
which could be :
§ Part of the pipe body:

Integral joint
MMA

OGIM

Flush joint

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86

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
Connection: tubing are screwed
together through connections,
which could be :
§ Or coupling: a collar with
internal threads used to join
two sections of threaded pipe

MMA

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29

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
Thread: is cut at the pipe end:
§ On a forged metal pipe end
with increased wall
thickness and diameter,
called upset. It is usually an
External Upset End (EUE)

MMA

OGIM

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88

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
Thread: is cut at the pipe end:
§ Or on a flush body end, It is
a Non Upset End (NUE)

MMA

OGIM

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89

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
Thread: different types are available.
They have different shapes, forms and
features suitable for different usage.
The most used are:
§ API round thread:
- 8 thread / inch for EUE and
- 10 thread / inch for NUE.
§ Vam family: New Vam, Vam Ace, …
§ Hydril family: HCS, H95, …
MMA

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30

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Connection seal: is ensured in
different ways:
§ API connections rely upon the
thread compound (grease), to seal
off the leak path between the
threads, which is sufficient for low
pressure only.

MMA

OGIM

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91

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Connection seal: is ensured
in different ways:
§ various manufacturers
have developed and
patented their own
connections designed to
contain high pressure
gas, and often called
premium or metal-tometal seal connections,
MMA

OGIM

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92

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Tubing specifications
• Premium connections:

MMA

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31

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Selecting Tubing Connectors
Criterion: contain well fluid at the maximum
anticipated pressure.
- Premium Connections for:
• all offshore oil wells
• deep & high pressure land oil wells
• all gas wells
- API for:
• onshore low pressure wells
• pumping wells (EU)
- Large price differences exist.
MMA

OGIM

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94

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Other tubing characteristics
• The drift gives the maximum OD of
any equipment to run through the
tubing string, and hence it is a
foremost parameter.
It is the diameter of a 42” long mandrel
that passes through tubing joint.
• Wall thickness: is a result of the OD
and the weight.
MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Other tubing characteristics
• Internal diameter (ID): is a result of the
OD and the wall thickness, and it is
used to calculate pressure losses and
velocities.
• Maximum outside diameter: it depends
on the nominal diameter and the
connection type. It is critical as it
determines the strings size that can
run in a given casing.
MMA

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32

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Other tubing characteristics
• Mechanical characteristics: deduced
from nominal size, weight and grade:
§ Collapse resistance is the maximum
differential pressure applied from
outside, that the tubing withstand
without permanent deformation.
§ Internal yield pressure or burst
resistance is the maximum internal
differential pressure that will cause a
tubing to fail.
MMA

OGIM

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97

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Other tubing characteristics
• Mechanical characteristics: deduced
from nominal size, weight and grade:
§ Joint yield strength or tensile
strength is the greatest longitudinal
stress that the joint can bear without
tearing apart.

MMA

OGIM

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98

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Special tubing:
§ Fiberglass tubing: is used in low
pressure, shallow wells and as a tail
pipe below the squeeze packer or for
setting cement plugs. They are
corrosion resistant and easily drillable.
§ Internally coated tubing for highly
corrosive effluent. Coating is damaged
mechanically by tools run inside the
production string.
MMA

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99

33

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
Choosing tubing
It is made on the basis of the following
parameters:
§ the expected flow and its expected
evolution and the production casing
size, to fix tubing nominal size.
§ The stresses the tubing has to
withstand during production and
operations, and the effluent type, to
choose the grade of steel, the weight
and the type of connection.
MMA

OGIM

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100

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Pup joint: section of pipe less than
20 ft (range I) long. Tubing pup
joints are used to space out the
string, or adjust distance between
downhole equipment. Usual lengths
are 2 ft, 3 ft, 5 ft and 10 ft.
• Blast joint:
joint pup joint with thick wall
and hardened external surface. It is
run in front of perforations. Usual
lengths are 5 ft and 10 ft.
MMA

OGIM

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101

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Flow Coupling is a heavy walled
tubing coupling used to reduce
the internal erosion effects
caused by disturbances in the
production flow stream. They
are normally installed above
and below safety valves,
production profile nipples,
sliding sleeves, etc. Lengths: 3,
4 and 6 ft.
MMA

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34

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Downhole completion equipment
Tubular components
• Perforated pup joint: a ported
production tub used as an
alternative path for wireline
measuring devices.
• Wireline entry guide: a flaredend sub run on the end of the
tubing string to guide back
wireline tools into the tubing.
Could be also a half mule shoe,
which is a cutoff pup joint.
MMA

OGIM

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103

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Sliding side door: a device run
as part-of a tubing string which
can be opened or closed by
wireline methods to provide
communication between tubing
and casing.
Basically it consists, of a ported
tubing nipple in which a slotted
inner sleeve can be shifted to
open or close it.
MMA

OGIM

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104

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Sliding side door:

MMA

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105

35

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Landing Nipple: receptacle in
a production string Internally
profiled with:
• locking and locating
recesses
• polished bore in which a
mandrel with various types
of plugs or valves can be
landed, locked and sealed,
by wireline method.
MMA

OGIM

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106

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Landing Nipple:
The landing nipple
profile

MMA

OGIM

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107

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Landing Nipple:
A lock mandrel is
run with wireline
and set inside the
landing nipple
It is carrying control
devices: plugs,
valves, chokes, etc.

MMA

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36

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Landing Nipple

BOTTOM
BLANKING PLUG

MMA

OGIM

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109

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment

Top No-go

• Landing Nipple: can
be classified into 3
basic designs
- Top No-go
- Bottom No-go
-

Bottom No-go
MMA

OGIM

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110

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
• Landing Nipple:
can be classified
into 3 basic
designs
- ….
- Selective
Nipples
Selective Nipple

MMA

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111

37

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Landing Nipple are used for:
• Plugging the tubing for:
• Pressure testing
• Setting hydraulic packers
• Isolating the tubing,
• Zonal isolation
• Installing flow control equipment:
• Downhole chokes, regulators,
SSSV’s
• Bottom hole pressure recorder
MMA

OGIM

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

112

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Bottom-hole Chokes and Regulators
• Used to:
- Restrict fluid flow in tubing to prevent
freezing of surface controls and lines
- Maintain reasonable (workable)
surface pressure in high-pressure
wells
- Installed and retrieved by wireline

MMA

OGIM

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

113

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Bottom-hole Chokes and Regulators

Bottom Choke
Circulating
Bottom Choke
MMA

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114

38

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• An automatic valve
installed in the
production tubing
below the wellhead
and designed to
prevent uncontrolled
flow when actuated. It
is commonly
abbreviated SSSV.
MMA

OGIM

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

115

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• It shuts in well down
hole when surface
control equipment
are damaged or
removed.
• In closed position it
prevents well from
flowing but it allows
pumping down.
MMA

OGIM

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116

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• There are two types of Sub Surface
Safety valves:
• The Sub Surface Controlled Sub
Surface Safety Valve or SSCSSV.
§ and the Surface Controlled Sub
Surface Safety Valve or SCSSV.

MMA

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117

39

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
SSCSSV are wireline run and retrieved,
and set in landing nipple using locking
device
They are pressure actuated with:
§ differential pressure through the
valve: a coil spring holds the valve
open until well flow rate reaches a
predetermined value, the differential
pressure exceeds the spring tension
and the valve closes
§ or pressure from above the valve.
MMA

OGIM

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118

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• SSCSSV :

MMA

OGIM

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119

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• Performance of SSCSSV depends on:
- TBG size,
- depth,
- Temperature,
- production rate,
- Wellhead flowing pressure,
- GOR,
- Specific gravity
MMA

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120

40

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
SSCSSV
• Advantages:
- Simple construction and operating
principle
- Easy installation and retrieval
- Cheaper installation cost
• Disadvantages
- Not 100% reliable
- Performance could be affected due to
solid deposition
- Testing of valve operation is not easy
MMA

OGIM

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121

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
SCSSV:
§ Valves are spring – loaded in the
closed position;
§ They are opened and kept open by
applying hydraulic pressure
through the control line.
§ Valve closes when pressure is
released
MMA

OGIM

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122

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
SCSSV:
§ They are controlled by a
hydraulic line connecting
the valve landing nipple to
a surface control manifold
• Two types exist:
- Wireline retrievable
- Tubing retrievable or
tubing integral
MMA

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123

41

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• Wireline retrievable SCSSSV.
• The safety valve is run and
retrieved with wireline.
• It is set in the LN with
a lock mandrel.

MMA

OGIM

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124

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
• Wireline retrievable Surface
Controlled SSSV.
§ A ported landing nipple with
external control line
connection is run within the
completion string, usually by
500 to 1000 ft
§ A Stainless steel ¼” control
line is run along the tubing to
the surface and attached to it.
MMA

OGIM

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125

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
Wireline retrievable SCSSV
Ø Main advantages:
- Easily and economically retrieved
for inspection and repair
Ø Main disadvantages
- Creates restriction to flow and
- Can cause plugging or paraffin
problems
MMA

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126

42

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
Tubing retrievable Surface
Controlled SSSV.
§ The body of the valve is an
integral part of the production
string.
§ Similar operation as wireline
retrievable type: remote
controlled (opened) from surface
with hydraulic pressure through a
stainless steel ¼” control line.
MMA

OGIM

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127

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
Tubing retrievable Surface Controlled
SSSV.
Ø Main Advantages:
- Full opening design
- no restriction to flow
- no plugging or paraffin problems
Ø Main Disadvantage:
- Need to pull TBG for valve repair or
inspection
MMA

OGIM

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128

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
Advantages of (SCSSV) over (SSCSSV)
• Larger internal diameters and higher
flowrate,
• Less affected by sand production
• Can run wireline tools through valve
• Easily and economically retrieved for
inspection and repair
• Insensitivity to pressure and fluid surge
• Valve operation is independent of
wellbore influence
• More positive control
MMA

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129

43

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Flow control equipment
Subsurface safety valve:
Disadvantages of SCSSV vs. SSCSSV
• Higher cost
• Installation more complicated,
• Needs well-trained crews

MMA

OGIM

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130

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
1. Transfers safely and
efficiently the effluent from
bottom to surface
2. Allows access to the
reservoir for measurement
and monitoring.
3. protects the casing from
corrosion and erosion
MMA

OGIM

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131

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
1. Safely and efficiently transfer of effluent
• Pressure and flow containment
• Annuluses isolation
• Downhole closure of the flow string
• Circulation capability
• Tubing isolation

MMA

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132

44

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
• Pressure and flow containment within :
- Production casing
- Production tubing
- Wellhead
- X-mass tree
- Packer

MMA

OGIM

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133

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
• Annulus isolation
- It is achieved with the tubing, the
packer and the wellhead
- It is required in:
§ Production wells to avoid annulus
heading
§ Injection wells to protect casing
against injection pressures
§ Production \ injection wells to
minimize corrosion risks
MMA

OGIM

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134

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
• Downhole closure is required for most
wells in particular:
- Gas wells
- Offshore wells
- Remote wells
- High pressure wells
• it is generally achieved by SubSurface Safety Valve (SSSV)
MMA

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45

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
• Circulation Capability
It is required mainly for killing the well
and it is achieved as follows:
- Through circulation ports between
the tubing and annulus
• Sliding Side Door (SSD)
• Side Pocket Mandrel (SPM)
• Ported Nipple
• Tubing Punch
- By squeezing
- Through coil tubing or snubbing unit
MMA

OGIM

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136

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
• Tubing Isolation
- In addition to SSSV a secondary
means of isolation will be installed
- Useful for removal of SSSV (it can act
as one safety factor)
- Provision is normally provided deep
within the wellbore
- Normally a wireline plug and nipple
combination is used
MMA

OGIM

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137

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
2. Allows access to the reservoir for
measurement
• Ability to suspend P&T monitoring
equipment, generally achieved by
installing:
- wireline nipple as a component of
completion string
- Perforated pup joint
• Through tubing tools for
measurement (production logs)
MMA

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46

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
3. Protecting casing from corrosion and
erosion
• Annular seal: packer being the most
common method for that
• Use of corrosion inhibitor in the
packer fluid.

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

139

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string non-essential functions:
1. Downhole tubing detachment : packer
seal locator and anchor, safety joint,
tieback stem, …
2. Tubing stresses release: travel or
expansion joint, packer seal locator, …
3. Protecting tubing from internal and
external erosion: flow coupling, blast
joint.
4. Wireline entry guide
WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

140

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string
configurations
The tail pipe

MMA

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141

47

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string configurations
Single string:
§ it is the most common type of
completion
§ It is used mainly for single completion
(one production or injection zone)
§ It is also used for dual completion:
one zone producing \ injecting
through the string the second zone in
the annulus tubing \ casing
WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

142

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string configurations

Single Layer Single Tubing Completion
WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

143

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string configurations

RESERVOIR A

RESERVOIR B

Double Layer Single Tubing
MMA

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

144

48

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string configurations
Single
completion

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

145

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string configurations
Single completion with
permanent packer

WCO -P1_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

146

Well Completion and Operations

The production string
Production string
configurations
Single
completion with
straddle packer

MMA

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147

49



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