Well Completion and Operation P2 V0 .pdf



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Aperçu du document


OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Well operations
Sfax, June 2010

MMA

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1

Well Completion and Operations

Course plan
1. Basic well completion design and practices
2. Formation-wellbore communication, Sand
control
3. Downhole completion equipment:
• Packer selection and tubing forces
• Tubing design and selection: Materials
selection, Corrosion and erosion
• flow control equipment and subsurface
safety valves
4. Wellhead and chokes
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Course plan
5. Well performance: nodal analysis, inflow and
tubing performance
6. Deviated, multiple zone, subsea, horizontal,
multilateral and HPHT completion
considerations
7. Perforating design
8. Causes and prevention of formation damage
9. Stimulation design considerations
10. Wireline, coiled tubing and Snubbing
11. workover rig operations
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1

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• The technique of getting more production
from a down hole formation, it may
involve acidizing and hydraulic
fracturing.
• Any process undertaken to enlarge the
old channel in the reservoir rock or create
new ones

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Stimulation involve the pumping of fluids
down into the formation. It includes
• Acidizing by injecting acid in the
reservoir formation.
• Fracturing by applying enough pressure
through a pumped fluid to split the
formation apart.
• For acid fracturing treatments are
designed to create fractures that are
simultaneously widened by acid
dissolution.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
• A technique used to increase
permeability in the reservoir rock
immediately around the borehole by
injecting acidic fluids.
• The process used to clean the walls of
the borehole, screens or liners by
circulating or injecting acidic fluids.

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
• Carbonate formations: acid treatments
are designed to enhance permeability
by dissolving part of the rock matrix.
• Sandstone formations: the objective is
to squeeze acid into the existing pore
spaces of the rock matrix; this
improves productivity by removing
formation damage and dissolving
particles
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
The acid job is depending on the
characteristics of the reservoir rock and
fluids and the configuration of the well and
the rock matrix. It includes:
• The type of acid to be used,
• the chemicals to be added to improve its
efficiency,
• the volumes to be pumped,
• and the pumping pressures to maintain
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
• Hydrochloric acid (HCL) was used to
acidize limestone and dolomite in the
beginning of the 30’s.
• In the 40’s a mixture of Hydrochloric
acid (HCL) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid
called mud-acid was used.

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
Acids that are commonly used for
stimulation are:
1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
2. Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
3. Acetic Acid
4. Formic Acid

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
1. hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the most
widely used due to its:
• high carbonate dissolving ability
• low cost.
- It dissolves limestone, dolomite and
other carbonates.
- It reacts with limestone to form water,
carbon dioxide and calcium chloride.
2HCI + CaCO3 → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
1. hydrochloric acid.
- Its reaction with dolomite forms water,
carbon dioxide, magnesium chloride and
calcium chloride.
4HCI + CaMg(CO3)2 → CaCl2 + MgCl2 + 2H2O
+ 2CO2

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4

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
1. hydrochloric acid.
- A solution of 15% HCl by weight is
most often used in limestone or dolomite
formations,
- 10 m3 of a 15 % hydrochloric acid
solution dissolves 2.21 t calcium
carbonate
- 10 m3 of a 15 % hydrochloric acid
solution dissolves 2.035 t dolomite
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
2. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is used on
sandstone reservoirs since it reacts with
siliceous compounds.
- It is employed exclusively in sandstone
matrix treatments to dissolve either
formation clays or migrated clays

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
2. Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
- Due to fast reaction time and
precipitants (calcium fluoride) HF acid
should never be used in carbonate
formations,
- For sandstone with low carbonate
content, HCL pre-flush is used to avoid
the contact of HF acid with carbonates.
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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
•Acidizing
2. Hydrofluoric acid
- A mixture of 3% HF and 12% HCl,
known as mud acid is used to dissolve
clays and remove mud cakes in sandstone
reservoirs
- mud acid is used exclusively for
sandstone reservoirs with little calcium or
without calcium.
- 10 m3 of 3 % HF acid will dissolve
1.322 t of clay.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
3. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is a weakly
ionized, slow-reacting organic acid.
- Easy to inhibit against corrosion and can
usually be left in contact with tubing or
casing for days without danger of serious
corrosion
- 10 m3 of 10 % acetic acid will dissolve
about 1.862 t of limestone.
- The cost of dissolving a given weight of
limestone is greater with acetic acid than
with HCl acid.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
4. Formic acid (HCOOH) is a weaklyionized, slow reacting organic acid.
It has similar properties to acetic acid.
- It is more difficult to inhibit against
corrosion at higher temperatures
- It does not have the widespread
acceptance and use of acetic acid

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
4. Formic acid and Acetic acid are both
used in stimulations where their slower
reaction time and ease of inhibition is
required.
On the basis of cost, these acids are 3
to 5 times more expensive than HCl

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
Acid additives:
• acid can create a number of well
problems, and may:
• release fines (precipitants) that plug
the formation,
• form emulsions,
• create sludge, and
• corrode steel.
• Additives are available to correct these
and a number of other problems,
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
Acid additives:
• a variety of chemicals that help the acid
work more efficiently:
• Inhibitors prevent the acid from
attacking the steel tubing and casing at
high bottom hole temperatures.
• retarders can prevent the acid from
spending quickly on the first formation
rock it encounters, allowing the acid to
be pumped further into the formation,
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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
Acid additives (cont’d) :
• Surfactants help prevent acid/oil
emulsions from forming and reducing
the ability of the fluids to flow.
• iron sequestering agents to control the
deposits within the formation of the
precipitates of acid and iron reaction.
• Temporary plugging agents are also
added, to divert the acid into different
layers of the formation and improve
overall permeability.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acidizing
• Pumping acid :
• Volumes of 50 to 200 gallons of acid per
vertical foot of formation are typical for
most reservoirs, depending, of course, on
the porosity and rock type.
• pumping rates range from less than one
barrel per minute to more than ten
barrels per minute.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• It consists on pumping under extremely
high pressure, a fluid into a cased and
perforated wellbore until the hydraulic
pressure caused the formation to part.
• continuing pumping would force the fluid
into the fracture, propagating the fracture
farther from the wellbore.
• This will open new flow channels in the
rock surrounding the fractured well
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8

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• a fluid (such as diesel fuel, crude oil,
dilute hydrochloric acid, water, or
kerosene) is pumped through tubing or
drill pipe, and squeezed into the reservoir
formation at extremely high pressure and
high pumping rate
• Propping agents are carried in suspension
by the fluid into the opened cracks, to
keep them open
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• When the pressure is released at the
surface, the fracturing fluid returns to the
well. The cracks partially close on the
pellets, leaving channels for oil to flow
around them to the well.
• The fracture orientation is dependent upon
geologic conditions and most fractures are
vertical rather than horizontal

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9

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Creating a high-conductivity fracture
involves:
• selecting the appropriate fluid,
additives, and propping agent
• determining the optimum volume of
material to be pumped
• pumping the material at the appropriate
rate and pressure
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• The appropriate fluid should have:
• the ability to remain in the fracture and
not leak off into the formation,
• the viscosity necessary to transport the
proppant out into the fracture,
• the ability to flow back into the well
easily after depositing the proppant
• Water-based polymer solutions are
popular, as are gel led hydrocarbons for
water-sensitive formations
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Fracturing fluids:
• Oil fluids are cheap and have inherent
viscosity which makes them
advantageous for relatively low injection
rate, shallow to medium depth fracturing.
Pressure loss down the casing and safety
consideration are often limiting factors

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Fracturing fluids:
• Gelled water fluids have special
advantages due to their higher density and
lower friction loss in deeper wells, and
where higher injection rates are needed.
Where high temperatures are involved
reasonable viscosity can be maintained
above 250 °F
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Fracturing fluids:
• Ultra-high viscosity fluids are costly and
temperature sensitive, but can provide
wide, highly-conductive fractures needed
to stimulate higher permeability zones —
or sand carrying capacity needed to prop
long fractures in low permeability zones

MMA

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32

Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Fracturing fluids:
• Ultra-high viscosity fluids are costly and
temperature sensitive, but can provide
wide, highly-conductive fractures needed
to stimulate higher permeability zones, or
sand carrying capacity needed to prop
long fractures in low permeability zones
• Emulsion fluids provide moderate
viscosity, and good fluid loss and
carrying capacity at a reasonable cost
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11

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
Fracturing fluids:
• Alcohol, LPG-C02 and Aerated fluids
have limited application due to:
• cost,
• safety and or
• complexity.
Usefulness is primarily in gas or low
permeability zones where cleanup is
paramount
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• A wide variety of additives are available:
• to reduce fluid friction in piping, insure
compatibility with the formation,
prevent fluid loss from the fracture, and
control contamination.
• Proppant to hold open the fracture

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Fracturing
• The standard
proppant used to
hold open the
fracture is silica
sand
• In deep formations where fractureclosure stresses are high, sintered
bauxite, zirconium oxide, or other highstrength materials are used
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12

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Stimulation
• Acid fracturing
• The process of opening cracks in
reservoir rock by using a combination of
oil and acid under high pressure
• Acid-fracturing treatments are designed
to create fractures that are simultaneously
widened by acid dissolution

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

• Rigless operations are light operations
performed on a well for control, survey,
monitoring, repair or improvement and
not requiring the use of a rig.
• Operations can be carried out under
pressure and even without stopping
production.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

• Usually the work is done inside the tubing
without killing the well by means of a
lubricator connected to the wellhead.
• Operation are performed quickly by using
light and highly mobile equipment and 2
to 3 men crew.

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Rigless well operations include mainly:
• Wireline or slickline operations: running
and pulling control devices, pressure
monitoring, etc.
• Electrical wireline operations:
production logs, corrosion survey, reperforating and shut in zones
• Coil tubing
• Snubbing
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
• Are operations performed in a wellbore by use
of tools which are run and pulled on slick or
braided wireline.
• They are simple, quick and economic compared
to the other means of intervention in the well.
• The main drawbacks are:
• The uncertainty of depth (wire stretch)
• Limitations in operating tools down hole (no
rotation, no circulation and limited tensile)
• No direct reading or direct clear indication
on surface.
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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
• The main wireline services capabilities are:
• Running and pulling downhole flow
control devices: plugs, chokes, safety
valves, gaslift valves, etc.
• Running and pulling pressure and
temperature gauges and survey along the
production string.
• Opening and closing circulation devices
(tubing \ casing): SSD, ported nipples.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
• The main wireline services capabilities are
also:
• Tubing calibration and cleaning the
inside of the production string
(scraping).
• Collecting downhole solid and fluid
samples
• Perforating tubing (mechanically)
• Fishing of the wireline, tools and scrap
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
the wire line
Any line of wire or cable used for down hole
operations. It is supple enough to bend
freely and repeatedly without breaking.
•There are 3 types:
• slick (single-strand line of high tensile
steel), usually 0.066" to 0.108" in diameter,
• braided (multiple strand line) used for
heavier wireline equipment
• electrical (including several conductors
with metallic braided armor).
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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The wire line
• Nominal Breaking Loads:
- 0.108” nominal diameter: 1970 lbs (GD316)
- 0.125” nominal diameter: 2638 lbs (GD316)
• Steel Composition:
- GD316 (Austenitic) 12% Ni / 17.5% Cr /
2.5% Moly
- 50N (Multiphase) 35% Ni / 20% Cr / 9.8%
Moly
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The tool string
It is a combination of several tools:
• The rope socket is connecting the
wireline to the string tool

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The tool string
The tool string should have enough
weight to run with supple slick line
inside the production string:
• Sinker bars or Stems, are round
rods used to provide the mass
required for lowering the
wireline tools in the hole.
Available in ¾" to 2-⅞"
diameter and 2, 3 and 5 ft length
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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The tool string
To accommodate rapid
changes in the inclination
and help the alignment of
the tools :
• Knuckle joints are placed
just above the run tools.

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The tool string
To accelerate string
movement (release
tools, shear pins), jars
and accelerators are
used to either jar up or
jar down.
Accelerator
Mechanical Jar
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
the tool string
Some times a combined tool
is use:
• Knuckle jar.

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17

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
The operating tools are the tools
connected at the bottom end of the
wireline string to provide the required
action:
• running tool: it runs and set mandrels
in the corresponding nipples.
By jarring the mandrel is set, by
continuing jarring the running tool is
released
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
• Pulling tool is used to unlock
then pull out the mandrel from
a nipple
It catches the pulling neck of
the mandrel by jarring,
continuing jarring will unlock
the mandrel which will be
retrieved.
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations Wireline operations

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18

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
• The kick off tool
for the side pocket
mandrel

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
• The shifting tool for SSD

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
the operating tools
• Gauge cutter is a hallow
cylinder with sharp edge at the
bottom side.
It is usually run before any other
tool to calibrate the tubing and
check the profiles depth.
It is also used to remove deposit
from the tubing.
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19

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
• Tubing perforator to make
a hole in the tubing for
circulation
Its punch is activated by
jarring,

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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58

Tubing
perforator

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The operating tools
• Impression block has a lead
filled block at its base.
It is used to get an
imprint of the fish top
shape in the tubing.

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20

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
the operating tools
• Fishing tools: they are run
to recover lost material in
the hole:
• Tools for fishing a
broken line:

WL retriever
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
the operating tools
• Fishing tools: they are run
to recover lost material in
the hole:
• Wireline cutter to cut
the line at the rope
socket level
• Tools for fishing rod,
stem,
MMA

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overshot
Wireline
cutter
62

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

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21

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

Bottom
blanking plug
MMA

Bottom
check valve
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OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
Tubing repair with straddle
pack-off

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface
equipment

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface
equipment

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23

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment
The wireline
control unit

The wireline reel
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment
• The lubricator is a pressure
chamber in which the wireline
tool string with the operating
tools are suspended prior to run
in the well.
It is composed out of two or three
sections. The sections are joined
together with quick unions
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OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment

• The lubricator and its accessories:
The lubricator
riser
The flange
adapter

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment
• The top end of the
lubricator is packed off
by the stuffing box

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OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface
equipment
• the stuffing box

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment
• The BOP

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Wireline operations
The surface equipment
• The BOP

MMA

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26

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations

MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• They are performed using a wireline
logging company.
• They include production logs and some
remedial jobs.
• Production logs refer to the electrical
logs run after putting the well on
production
Usually they are run with the well alive
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• They help to address the following issues:
• Mechanical failure in the well: casing,
tubing or packer leaks, internal or external
corrosion
• Fluids movement between zones: behind
or inside casing.
• Borehole interface efficiency: zones
participation in flow rate and type of fluid.
• Fluids in the reservoir: fluids saturation,
O/W and O/G contacts
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27

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Production logs are different
combinations from the following:
• Casing Collar locator
• Temperature gauge
• Pressure gauge
• Gradiomanometer
• Spinner flow meter
• Caliper
• Cement Evaluation Tool
• Gamma ray
• Neutron
MMA

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Production logging devices are measuring
parameters and not giving concrete
answers to questions
• Often several logging devices along with
other field and reservoir data are required
to understand the situation.
• Experience with log interpretation (mainly
production logs) is a key factor for an
effective analysis.
MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Casing Collar Log (CCL):
• shows the casing collars
• is used mainly for correlation purpose,
• shows major casing defects, mainly
parted casing
• is run with packers or bridge plugs to
avoid setting them in front of a collar.

MMA

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28

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Temperature Log
• gives the temperature profile along the
string and below the tail pipe.
• The temperature is affected by heat
flow and fluid expansion.

MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

85

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Gradiomanometer:
• is based on pressure measurement
at two fixed points.
• It is good for identifying gas
entry point and locating standing
water levels.
• Spinner flow meter
• is based on propeller movement.
• It gives the rotation rate and
direction, therefore the fluid rate
and direction.
MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

86

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Multifinger Imaging Tool:
• makes highly accurate radial
measurements of the internal diameter
of tubing and casing strings.
• shows tubing wall defects
• Multi-frequency electromagnetic
Thickness Tool :
• Detects metal loss and changes in
casing geometry, regardless of casing
fluid type
MMA

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29

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Electrical wireline operations
• Remedial jobs:
• Through tubing bridge plug: to isolate
zones perforations
• Re-perforation.
• Perforation extension

MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

88

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
Hydraulically
powered
system
designed to
inject and
retrieve a
continuous
string of
tubing
MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

89

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• Continuous steel pipe 1" to 3.5" OD
• Yield strengths of 70.000. 80.000. 90.000.
100.000 psi
• Relatively thin wall
• Finite life due to fatigue cycles (bending).

MMA

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30

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• It is stored on a reel (up to 16,000 feet of
coil tubing).

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

MMA

OGIM

91

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

The basic components of a coiled
tubing unit are:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Injector
Tubing Guide Arch
Service Reel.
Power Supply / Prime Mover.
Control and Monitoring Equipment.
Control Console.
Downhole Coiled Tubing Connectors.
Well Control Equipment.

MMA

OGIM

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
1- Tubing Injector
The injector assembly is designed to perform
three basic functions:
a) to provide the trust required to snub the tubing
into the well against pressure or to overcome
wellbore friction

b) to control the rate of lowering the tubing
into the well under various well
conditions.
c) to support the full weight of the tubing.
MMA

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93

31

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
1- Tubing Injector

MMA

OGIM

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94

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
The coil tubing injector

MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

95

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

The coil tubing injector

Coil tubing

MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

96

32

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

Injector Specifications

• Maximum Pulling Force: Is the max.

tensile force that the injector can apply

• Maximum Snubbing Force: Is the max.
compressive force the injector can apply

• Maximum Traction: Is the max. axial

force that the injector can apply to pull C.T.

• Maximum Speed : Is the max. rate at

which the injector is capable of deploying
tubing into the wellbore (R.I.H) or
extracting the tubing out the wellbore.

MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

97

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
2- Tubing Guide Arch
• The tubing arch
supports the
tubing through
the 90 °bending
radius and guides
the C.T. from the
reel into the
injector chains.
MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

98

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

API
Recommendations
Tubing
Radius
Size (in.) (in.)
1-1/4
48 to 72
1-1/2
48 to 72
1-3/4
72 to 96
2
72 to 96
2-3/8
90 to 120
2-7/8
90 to 120
3-1/2
96 to 120
MMA

2- Tubing Guide Arch

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

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33

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

3- Service Reel
• The services reel serves as the C.T.
storage mechanism during transport and
as the spooling device during C.T.
operations.
• The rotation of the service reel is
controlled by a hydraulic motor.
• During R.I.H. slight back pressure is kept
on the reel, this pressure is increased
during POOH.

MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

100

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
3- Service Reel

MMA

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OGIM

101

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
3- Service Reel

MMA

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102

34

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

4- Prime Mover

• In general, the prime mover packages are
equipped with diesel engines and multistage hydraulic pumps which are
typically rated for pressures of 3,000 psig
to 5,000 psig. And in addition, the
accumulator package for well control
equipment.
MMA

OGIM

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103

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

MMA

OGIM

4- Prime Mover

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

104

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
5- Control & Monitoring Equipment
Critical Job Parameters
A- Load Measurement.
B- Depth Measurement.
C- Speed Measurement.
D- C.T. Inlet Pressure.
E- Wellhead Pressure.
MMA

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105

35

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

MMA

OGIM

6- Control Console

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106

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
7- Downhole C.T. Tool Connections
Non Yielding Connection:
- slip type : which requires the use of a
slip or grapple-type load ferrule placed
on the OD of the tube body.
- thread type: connection which is
secured to the C.T. with threads.
MMA

OGIM

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107

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
7- Downhole C.T. Tool Connections
• Yielding Connection:
- dimple type : which is secured onto the
C.T. body through the use of numerous
mechanical screws.
- Roll-on type: connection which
incorporates a machined insert mandrel
designed to fit inside the C.T.
MMA

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36

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
8- Well Control Equipment
• Well control equipment components
1) one stripper or annular-type well control
component.
2) one blind ram well control component.
3) one shear ram well control component
4) one kill line outlet with isolation valve(s)
5) one slip ram well control component.
6) one pipe ram well control component.
MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

109

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
8- Well Control
Equipment

MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

110

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
8- Well Control
Equipment

MMA

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111

37

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

Well Control Stack

• The well control stack is composed of a
minimum of four hydraulically-operated rams.
The four ram components are equipped (from top
down) with,
- Blind Rams: are used to seal the wellbore off
at the surface when well control is lost.
- Shear Rams: are used to mechanically break
the C.T. In the event the pipe gets stuck.
- Slip Rams : are used to support the weight of
the pipe below.
- Pipe Rams: are used to isolate the welbore
annulus pressure below.
MMA

OGIM

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

112

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
8- Well Control Equipment
Well Control
Stack

MMA

OGIM

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113

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
C.T. Material
In the manufacturing of C.T., High
Strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are
commonly used to achieve the desired;
- Weld ability
- corrosion resistance
- fatigue resistance
- mechanical properties
MMA

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38

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
HSLA Carbon Steel (by weight percent)
Carbon C
Manganese Mn
Phosphorus P
Sulfur S
Silicon Si
Chromium Cr
Nickel Ni
Copper Cu
Molybdenum Mo
Aluminum Cb-V
MMA

OGIM

Modified ASTM
A606 Type 4

Modified ASTM
A607

0.08 - 0.15
0.60 - 0.90
Max 0.03
Max 0.005
0.30 - 0.50
0.45 - 0.70
Max 0.25
Max 0.40
Max 0.21
-

0.08 - 0.17
0.60 - 0.90
max 0.025
max 0.005
0.30 - 0.45
0.40 - 0.60
Max 0.10
Max 0.40
0.08 - 0.15
0.02 - 0.04

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Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

Tapered C.T. Strings

• In general, it’s uniform O.D. and variable I.D. to
provide enhanced performance in services.
• to increase the maximum operating depth of a
string use smaller wall thickness.
• to enhanced stiffness and buckling resistance
use bigger wall thickness
The change in the wall thickness should not
exceed
0.008” for W.TH. Below 0.110”
0.022” for W.TH. Above 0.110”
MMA

OGIM

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116

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

Corrosion in C.T. Service

Corrosion occurs to the C.T. as a result of
exposure to the atmosphere or through metal loss
from pumping corrosive fluids.
Corrosion Effects:
1) wall thinning and pits >> reduce C.T. strength
2) reduced pressure integrity in collapse and yield
pressure.
3) poor seal capability at the stripper and control
components.
4) when running C.T. in brine with H2S wellbore
environment, it is recommended to add a
corrosion inhibitor to the circulating fluids.
MMA

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39

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
C.T. Collapse Pressure Derating
• As manufactured coiled tubing will have near
100 % roundness, as it is continually worked
onto and off the service reel and over the
tubing guide arch the ovality of the pipe
typically increases. (Ovality is the major factor
in derating tubulars for collapse pressure).
• When tubing is subjected to varying degrees of
tensile loads, the ability of the pipe to resist
collapse is diminished.
MMA

OGIM

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118

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
C.T. Collapse Pressure Derating
• As applied tensile loads approach the minimum yield
strength of the tube, the pipe will undergo permanent
strain and “neck-down” at the point of maximum
applied stress.
Once “necking-down” occures, the pipe looses its
principal strength and becomes susceptible to collapse
at pressures below the calculated pressure. Also this
region will have a reduced burst pressure rating than
the remainder of the pipe string.

MMA

OGIM

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119

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
Forces Encountered During C.T. Services
there are many forces which affect the
behavior of the tubing.
- Well pressure Fwp - Tubing drag FD
- Tube weight Fw - Stripper element FP
- Buoyancy
- Chain drive force FC

MMA

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40

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
Well Control Procedure
• The principle of well control is to
maintain a safe working condition when
performing intervention services.
• The kill line outlet on the well control
stack should not be used for taking fluid
from the wellbore.

MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

121

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• Coil tubing unit
• The coil tubing unit is rigged up over the
wellhead.
• The coil tubing is injected through a
control head that seals off the coil tubing
and makes a pressure-tight connection.
• the unit allows continuous circulation
while coil tubing is being lowered into
the hole
MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

122

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing

MMA

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123

41

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
* Pumping Operations
Deliver Fluid(s) at required rate and/or
pressure at the target depth
* Mechanical Operations
Deliver tool(s) to the target depth(s)
Pull,push or activate a mechanism
* Permanent Installations
MMA

OGIM

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124

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• Pumping operations include
• Unloading wells with Nitrogen
(nitrogen lift)
• Stimulating formations (Acidizing)
• Removing Fill (Sand)
• Removing (Dissolving) organic deposits
• Isolating zones with cement
• Cutting tubular with fluid (jet cut)
• Removing scale hydraulically (jetting)
MMA

OGIM

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125

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• Mechanical Operations include
• Logging with CT
• Perforating
• Fishing
• Operating Slide Sleeve
• Setting bridge plug or packer
• Removing Scale (milling)
• Cutting Tubular
MMA

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126

42

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing
• Permanent Installations include
• Velocity & Injectivity Strings
• CT Completions
• Flow lines
• Umbilical

MMA

OGIM

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127

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations
v Rig up and pressure test equipment as per
the recommended guidelines.
v Request that the service vendor provide a
flow tee to direct the returns flow out of
the borehole. Place the flow tee directly
below the well control stack.
v Install an adjustable choke on the returns
line and have a replacement stem
available on location. Verify the
calibration of the choke with
documentation provided.
MMA

OGIM

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128

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations
v Rig-up full bore pipe tee’s and bull plugs
on all “hard-90°” turns in the returns line.
This will prevent erosion of the pipe by
the sand laden returns.
v Be prepared for wash fluid losses to the
formation and make provisions for
addition wash fluid to be available on
location.
MMA

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43

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations

• Tankage on location should be sufficient to
capture all returns and solids removed from the
well. Plan to have the liquids treated through the
production facilitities or sent to an approved
disposal site. Solids should be cleaned and
dumped, or sent to the proper disposal site.
• Run into the borehole with the coiled tubing at
an injection rate no faster than 30-40- feet per
minute if the top of sand is unknown. If the top
of fill has been located in the borehole, run-in
rates should not exceed 60-90 feet per minute.
MMA

OGIM

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130

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations
• Maintain returns throughout the wash
program! If the observed returns decrease
or cease, pull up the hole with the coiled
tubing until returns are reestablished.
• Take your time when washing solids out
of the well!
• When breaking through solids bridges,
allow sufficient time to circulate solids
out of the hole before continuing
downhole.
MMA

OGIM

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131

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations
• Check tubing drag every 1000’-1200’.
• Keep the coiled tubing moving during the
wash program to prevent sticking in the
solids laden returns.
• Monitor the surface pump pressures and
returns choke pressures (if used) when
circulating up slugs of solids-laden fluid.
• When the bottom of the wash section is
reached, circulate a minimum of two
annular volumes up the borehole prior to
extracting the coiled tubing from the well.
MMA

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44

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Rigless operations

Coil tubing Operations
• Do not allow the coiled tubing to remain
stationary for a period of time longer than
25% of the bottoms-up circulation time
when transportation solids up the annulus.
• Do not shut down pumps for any reason,
unless you are out of the borehole. Wells
circulate clean can have sand accumulated
up the hole which can have sand
accumulated up the hole which can fall
back when circulation is interrupted.
MMA

OGIM

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133

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

MMA

OGIM

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134

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

§ Snubbing allows a tubular to be run
into well, by means of specialized
handling and sealing systems.
§ It uses tubing-type pipe lengths run in
hole and made up to each other by
conventional threaded connections.
§ Tubing string is outfitted with a check
valve on the bottom end

MMA

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45

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• Hydraulic units are
commonly used with
double acting jacks
equipped with two systems
of slips, one stationary and
the other mobile.
• The mobile system
connected to the jack
movement, usually consists
of one set of single acting
slips (traveling slips).
MMA

OGIM

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136

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• The stationary system of
slips consists of two sets
of opposing slips that
keep the pipe in place
whatever the phase.
• It is located below the
low position of the
traveling slips.
MMA

OGIM

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137

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• the operation of pushing the pipe into the
well is said snubbing phase (or to be in
the snub or the light pipe phase).
• the operation when the pipe has to be held
up, is said stripping phase (or to be in the
strip or the heavy pipe phase).

MMA

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46

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• The traveling slips closed and the
stationary ones open, the pipe can be
tripped over a length corresponding to the
stroke of the jacks.
• To bring the jack back to its original
position, close the stationary slips and
open the traveling slips.
• After the traveling slips have been closed
again and the stationary slips have been
opened the operation can continue.
MMA

OGIM

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139

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

Snub Phase Running In Sequence

MMA

OGIM

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140

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• Specifications
• Diameter of the snubbing pipe: 3 1/2"
and up to 7 5/8" are possible.
• Hoisting capacity in the strip phase
340,000 lb
• In the snub phase capacity is usually half
that of the strip phase due to jack design.

MMA

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47

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

MMA

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OGIM

142

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• Rotary table can be added to the unit,
usually at the mobile slips.
• Long stroke units consist of a mast with a
traveling block, guided by rails and
driven by cables actuated by one or two
long stroke jacks.
• Short stroke units usually have 4 jacks or
one concentric jack, and the traveling
slips are directly connected to the upper
end of the jacks.
MMA

WCO -P2_2010 -V0

OGIM

143

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

Long stroke unit

MMA

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144

48

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

Short stroke unit

MMA

OGIM

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145

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• Operations
• Clean out hard fill and scale that
require weight on the tool and rotation.
• Spot cement plugs.
• Perform some fishing jobs.

MMA

OGIM

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146

Well Completion and Operations

Snubbing unit

• Snubbing unit offers better flow capacity,
breaking load and rotation capacity and it
is also able to put weight on the down
hole tool.
• Tripping takes longer because the lengths
of pipe have to be screwed together.
• Operating this type of unit requires
specialized personnel usually consisting
of a head of unit and three or four people
per shift.
MMA

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147

49

OGIM

Well Completion and Operations

Workover operations
• Killing the well and workover fluids
• Pulling out completion
• Tubing puncher and tubing cutter
• Fishing tools
• Milling tools

MMA

OGIM

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148

Well Completion and Operations

Workover operations

What is workover?
• Re-entry into a completed well for
modification or repair work
• Usually it is a heavy work requiring the
use of a workover rig.
• It requires killing the well and pulling
out the completion string

MMA

OGIM

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149

Well Completion and Operations

Workover operations

Main reasons to workover a well
• Repair of reservoir or completion string
by mechanical means.
• Performance / Enhancement opening new
zones or modifying lift.

MMA

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50



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