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M1. Unit 3. Lesson 9 Student's Guide Book
M1. Unit 3. Lesson 9 Student's Guide Book

Site:
UPN
Course:
Módulo 01. Especialización en Enseñanza y Aprendizaje de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera
Book:
M1. Unit 3. Lesson 9 Student's Guide Book
Printed by: Emmanuel Ruiz Zamora
Date:
Monday, 5 November 2012, 11:32 PM

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Module 1. Unit 3 – Approaches to ELT
Dear participants:
Readings and activities
DISCUSSION FORUMS, ORAL CONFERENCES AND WIKI’S
ASSIGNMENT for Unit 3
9 Approaches to ELT: An Introduction
Table 9.1 What I Believe about my Teaching and my Classroom
Table 9.2 Sources for Teacher Beliefs
Approach, Method, Techniques
Reflection Moment M1 – 9.1
Self-Quiz
9.2 Grammar-Translation Method
The Grammar-Translation Method
Table 9.3: Principles of the Grammar-Translation Method (5)
Reflection Moment M1 – 9.2
Self-Quiz
9.3 Direct Method and Audiolingual Method
The Direct Method
Principles of the Direct Method
Audiolingual Method
Principles of the Audiolingual Method
Conclusion
Reflection Moment M1 – 9.3
Self-Quiz
9.4 Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching
Seven Basic Characteristics of CLT
Reflection Moment M1 – 9.4
Self-Quiz
Summary
My Progress Test Lesson 9
Language Skills Development Component Complement to Module 1 — Lesson 9

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Table of Contents

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Participants will be able to:
Knowledge and understanding of content:Students will be able to
-Identify the different factors that affect the beliefs teachers have about their practice.
-Identify the differences between an approach, a method and a technique, showing the relevance of each for the process of language teaching.
-Identify and explain the workings of different language teaching methodologies and approaches as well as techniques and establish links
between methodologies, theories about language and theories about language learning.
-Specifically, show understanding of the Communicative approach, the Task Based approach and Kolb’s model of Experiential Learning
explaining the theoretical perspectives underlying it and identifying them in classroom applications.
-Distinguish features of learner centered approaches.
-Identify the role of teachers, students and materials in the language classroom, from the perspective of different teaching approaches.
Learning
Purposes for
Unit

Teaching skills development.
Show ability to plan classes based on the approaches and methods seen in Unit 3, especially the Communicative Approach, Task Based
Approach and Experiential Learning Approach appropriately.
Identify the roles of teachers, students and materials in different approaches to language teaching.
Language skills development.Summarize, contrast and offer opinions about different methods or approaches analyzed using discourse
markers.
Produce lesson plans, outlines, and other texts used for planning classes.
Describe and interpret classroom interaction and processes, using adequate descriptive resources and teaching jargon and showing ability to
integrate terminology seen in unit.3.
Review and make adjustments to the comments or feedback made by tutor.
Show ability to use citations adequately, following established norms such as APA.
.

Attitude development and general educational goals.
Show ability and competence to work towards a culture of collaboration and democratic decision making in online interaction by sharing
techniques, activities and tasks when creating them.
Show positive attitudes towards learning process, showing willingness to learn from feedback and comments given by both, colleagues and
tutor.
Transversal
purposes for
Unit

Show critical analytic skills towards own teaching practice as well as toward’s other practices, offering constructive criticisms and being able to
show, when relevant, changes in own practices derived from this process.
Digital competencies for Unit.
Post slide shows online
Uses digital resources such as mind maps Here is a link that will explain you how to use Cmap tools as a recommended source:
http://cmap.ihmc.us/support/help/IHMCCmapTools-Help.pdf
Produce and upload simple videos that illustrate classes given.

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Module 1. Unit 3 – Approaches to ELT

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participants:
Well, EIGHT intense weeks are behind us, together with two SOLID units and one introductory lesson! We know how much you have had to work during this
time and how difficult it is sometimes to juggle with everyday tasks AND this course simultaneously. But please know that you are entering the LAST big sprint
for this Unit and it is important to be ready to do both the work on the Unit and to get the PROJECT ready. This PROJECT, as you may remember, is outlined in
Lesson 2, that is, the first lesson in Unit 1, and we are putting it up again in this Student’s Guide, with suggestions on how to go about completing it. With your
tutor, it is important to discuss it so that you can hand in the best possible product on or before the Due Date. The Project, as you can see in the Master Document
is worth 15 points of the final grade of the Unit. So we cannot overemphasize its importance. As you know, it consists of an autobiography as a teacher,
incorporating not only your previous practice, but also your reflections over this unit from a critical thinking perspective. In addition, of course, there is a Forum,
an Assignment and My Progress Tests that are graded. Below is the Calendar of Deadlines, and we are also posting it in the Calendar.
This third Unit in our First Module is about language teaching methodologies. Of course, as teachers, most of the information provided is probably known to
you, but we would like you to really engage in understanding in depth the principles behind the methodological approaches that have as base, ideas about
language in use, namely the communicative approach, the task based perspective on language learning and the experiential approach. It is also of utmost
importance that you use this unit as an opportunity to think of the previous units in the light of the actual teaching process and of your role as teacher in helping
students learn to use the target language.
As with the previous one, this unit lasts FOUR weeks. As in Unit 2 You will read the materials, do the exercises and the quizzes, and at the end of each lesson,
do a My Progress Test. You will also participate in ONE main Forum and develop ONE Assignment. Remember, as we mentioned above, that you need to be
fully aware of the MODULE 1 Project. In addition, as in previous Units, throughout this Unit, you will be working with your tutor to determine what English
Language skills you need to improve. The deadlines, requirements and value of each of these aspects is outlined in each one of the sections in this Student’s
Guide. Make sure that you plan ahead because you will not be able to carry out all these tasks at the last minute!

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and activities
First read Lesson 9 Approaches to ELT: An Introduction
Chapter 9.1 Introduction
Chapter 9. 2 Grammar-Translation Method
Chapter 9.3 Direct Method and Audiolingual Method
Chapter 9. 4 Communicative Language Teaching
Remember: Try to read the chapters and do reflections and activities suggested over the first three days, so you can spend time working on the forums,
assignments and wikis.
Beginning date: October 22nd.End date: October 26th.

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Readings

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FORUMS, ORAL CONFERENCES AND WIKI’S

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Forum for Unit 3
MAIN QUESTION

“What are the different approaches and methodologies that can best suit your teaching and which could be helpful for you to improve your classes? How This
are they relevant and meaningful to your teaching practice and why? Why are they important and not last but least, do the principles behind those
methods and approaches help you to reflect and become more critical in your classes?”

Forum
topic runs
through all
of Unit 3.
You
should
post at
least twice
a week,
that is,
twice for
each
Lesson.
Each
lesson has
a subtopic
that will
help
enrich the
discussion.
These are
the
subtopics:

way you teach a foreign language? Use the information from the Reflection moments to discuss differences among what an approach a method and a technique is
and why do you use them?
Forum Remember that every week you need to work on the Forum. There are no intermediate deadlines, but tutors will take note that you are participating at
least twice or three times a week in it.
Use the forum to clear doubts about concepts, as well as, to contribute collaboratively to the questions that are posted using your critical thinking skills, your own
teaching philosophy and your teaching practice. Do make sure that you try out ideas seen in this Unit of study to enrich this community of learning and practice.
The Forum opens on October 22nd and closes on November 16

Wiki

Thinking about approaches,
methods, materials and
This time, the Wiki will open one week into the Unit, on October 29th. The instruction for the Wiki is the following: technology used in our every day
teaching
As a group you will create ONE document, collaboratively with the following structure:
I. What are the different approaches
and methodologies that can
best suit your teaching and
which could be helpful for
you to improve your classes?
How are they relevant and
meaningful to your teaching
practice? Why are they
important? Do their principles
behind those methods and
approaches help you to reflect
and become more critical in
your classes? Do they help to
plan and understand the
rationale behind the activities
or tasks that you are doing?
II. According to your opinion What are
the most important roles of
the teachers? When do you
consider that a teacher should
take that role and why?

III. As a material developer wha
are some materials that you can
suggest regarding form, meanin
and use? , How would you use
them? When would you use them
What is the rationale behind the
What is the advantage or
disadvantage of using technolog
Does technology help to plan an
improve your classes? Does the
technology help to achieve your
learning outcomes? Is technolog
meaningful component accordin
to your teaching philosophy?
Why? In which circumstances
could you use technology? Wha
are some techniques and or
activities that help students acqu
the form, meaning and use of th
language?

You can start working on
your Wiki collaboratively
of October 29th,
Here is the
WIKI:

The deadline to complete t
WIKI is on Sunday,
November 18th.

You will copy the result an
upload it
November 18th.
Your participation in the
Forum and in the Wiki is
worth 10 points

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Unit 3
1.

Understanding how language teaching methodologies contribute to the process of achieving communicative competence
Purposes of the Assignment.

In this Unit Assignment, we would like you to reflect on your own teaching methods by first working on the difference between methods, approaches and
techniques. We would like you to be linking your reflections with ideas about what and how students learn when they learn English. The focus is, of course on
how we teach and on our role as teachers in each of the different methodological approaches put forth. The question of how teachers create conditions, activities
and tasks and how they use planning, teaching and assessment tools to monitor and ensure a successful learning process is at the heart of this assignment.
Concretely, in this assignment you will show understanding of the methodological principles and approaches worked on, you will plan a class, carry it out and
reflect on your teaching. Moreover, by doing this you will show understanding of the concepts and the rationale behind each method or approach, an ability to
identify the principles underlying the process of teaching a language. Finally, this assignment will enable you to suggest and try out these methods and
approaches as well as teaching materials.
Procedure

Choose
one
of
the
lessons
that
you
have
to
teach
and
carry
out
the
following

steps.
2. Based on the theory read in Unit 3, decide on the approach you will take. Explain the reason why you adopted it or if you were eclectic and why.
3. Create your own techniques, activities and tasks based on the method(s) or approach (es) you thought about.
4. Reflect on how you can integrate form, meaning and use when creating them. It is also important to know what kind of task you are doing. Example; real
world or target tasks, rehearsal tasks, activation tasks or the like. Make sure you take into consideration the Task Constituents.
5. Write your own lesson plan based on the model given and make sure to:
a) Write the objectives of each activity or task regarding the Bloom´s Taxonomy of Learning Domains
b) The procedure of the activities, tasks and techniques that you planned.
6. Explain the rationale behind the activities and tasks that you planned as well as why you consider them meaningful for your students’ learning. It is important
to reflect on your previous knowledge acquired in Units 1 and 2 so as to be clear on your teaching philosophy, the model of communication and of language
acquisition, making sure that these aspects are integrated into your teaching practice.
7. Try out the procedures of your lesson plan and report your teaching experiences by commenting on the problems you had and the possible solutions for your
present teaching practice.
8. Plan and design your materials in a way that you are integrating realia, visual aids and the like done or adapted by you. (These topics are dealt with in lessons
4 and 12.)
9. It is important to include in your lesson plan as an appendix, your charts, materials, activities and tasks done so that your tutor can check and give you
feedback from the tasks, techniques and activities that you planned before.
10. Your writing must include a bibliography, and you must make sure that your citations are correctly used. Please use the APA link to follow the norms for
writing academic papers. http://www.apastyle.org/ This website also has tutorials for you to learn how to follow the norms as commented before.
Steps
In Lesson Nine, we recommend that you understand the differences among an approach, a method and a technique and that you make a chart with these distinctions.
You should already be choosing the lesson you will work on. Draw up the purpose, what you expect the students to be able to do at the end of the lesson. You can
begin to think of the activities you will carry out. Plan to apply this activity in Lesson 11.
In Lesson Ten we recommend that you really work on the principles of the Experiential Learning Model, as well as Halliday’s Social Function of the Language and
Task Based Learning Framework, and plan your lesson trying out these ideas.
In Lesson Eleven you should already be applying the lesson, putting into practice the principles underlying the Communicative Approach.
In Lesson Twelve you should be analyzing what you did, and include a reflection on the roles of teachers, students and materials.
Before undertaking this assignment, access the Rubric of Assignment for Unit 3. This is
intended to guide your work and also will be used by you tutor to mark your score for
We expect you to write a 5 to 7 page paper with the following structure: the activity.
Product

A. INTRODUCTION

Once that the final version of your assignment is ready, upload your document
to the link <LINK to UPLOAD THE ASSIGNMENT>

ASSIGNMENT
U-3

B. BODY TEXT
C. APPENDIXES: LESSON PLAN, MATERIALS, ETC.

This assignment
is worth

D. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Approaches to ELT: An Introduction
9 Approaches to ELT: An Introduction
Abstract
This lesson will sort out the differences among an approach, a method, and a technique by analyzing three methods and one approach.

9.1 Introduction

Key Terms

Approach
Method
Technique

Overview Questions

What
What
What
What

are the factors that determine a teacher’s beliefs about teaching and learning?
is an approach?
is a method?
is a technique?

In this lesson, we are going to move away from theories about how a second language is acquired or learned, and focus more on HOW
we as teachers work in our classrooms. Take a minute and answer the following questions.
You can take notes on a piece of paper, or you can download the table, print it and mark your answers there.

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Click on this link to see the table.

Table 9.1. What I believe about my teaching and my classroom (1)
Your answers to these questions reflect, in part, your set of beliefs regarding teaching and learning. This set of beliefs includes
knowledge and emotions you have built up over time in several different areas. The first area is connected to your own experience as a
second language learner yourself. The second area is through your experience as a teacher, seeing firsthand what works and what
does not work. The third area is related to the school you work in, including the encouragement or discouragement you receive when
you try different approaches. For example, in some schools, using group work is common and teachers know that it is expected and
accepted to do so. The fourth area is about who you are: your personality and your preferences, not just in teaching but in life. Some
people are outgoing and enjoy creating a more casual classroom, while others feel more comfortable in a more structured, goal-focused
classroom, and these preferences go beyond teaching to other areas of life — it is just part of who we are. A fifth area that affects our
beliefs about teaching and learning is our educational background. For example, someone who has taken workshops on classroom
practices might see a shift in his or her beliefs based on that educational experience. A sixth and final area is linked to a teacher’s
adherence to a specific approach or method. While many teachers take an “eclectic” view and incorporate ideas from many approaches,
often a specific approach colors a teacher’s beliefs and manifests itself through such issues as how to address error correction or
teacher-student interaction. Table 1 lists the major areas.

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Table 9.1 What I Believe about my Teaching and my Classroom

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Click on this link to see the table.

Table 9.2 Sources for teacher beliefs (2)
We can see that specific approaches are the last category in the areas that form our set of beliefs about teaching and learning; later in
this lesson we will examine the most common recent approaches. Now, it may be difficult to see how a discussion about approaches
directly affects your teaching and your classroom, but remember that every action you take (and the ones you do not take!) in the
classroom is coming from somewhere. You may have a lesson plan laid out, but you do not usually include in your lesson plan the way
you will respond to every question from a student, or how to make a transition from one activity to the next. Examining possible
approaches to teaching and then determining how they fit into your teaching beliefs are important steps for building better selfawareness as a teacher.

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Table 9.2 Sources for Teacher Beliefs

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First, we should try to define the terms approach, method, and technique. An approach is the “theoretical positions and beliefs about
the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.”(3). A method is “a
generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives” focused on the role of teacher and student,
sequencing, materials and how they can be used in many different learning contexts. Techniques are the specific types of exercises or
activities used in class for the purpose of reaching pedagogical goals. Techniques are actually quite easy to talk about, because they are
the specific things that we do in class, and we can usually figure out if they “worked” or not. However, what we do not often examine is
the WHY in determining whether they work or not, and what belief that determination is based on. Often techniques are created based
on certain approaches.
In the next chapter, we will talk about specific approaches. As you read, try to connect the ideas with your experiences and beliefs.
(3) Brown, H.D. (2007). Teaching by principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Pearson Education, p.51

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Approach, Method, Techniques

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Identify a technique that you use in class. Describe an activity based on that technique, and then reflect on the underlying reasons for
using it (for example, it is provided by the textbook, it worked last year, students have a lot of fun with it, it seems to lead to good quiz
results, it makes the class fly).
Jot down your ideas on your notebook and use them in the forum Techniques I use.

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Reflection Moment M1 – 9.1

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Self Quiz
Select the best option(s) for each.
1. The following are areas that affect your beliefs about teaching and learning.
a.

grading criteria

b.

school encouragement

c.

your experience as a teacher

d.

geographic location

e.

your experience as an ESL student

2. This is defined as “the theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of Language, the nature of language
learning and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.”
a.

approach

b.

technique

c.

method

d.

school of thought

e.

educational background

3. These are the specific actions we do in class; the ones that we can usually figure out if they worked or not.
a.

techniques

b.

activities

c.

exercises

d.

approaches

e.

methods

4. A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives focused on the role of
teachers and students, sequencing, materials, and how they can be used in many different learning
contexts.
a.

approach

b.

technique

c.

method

d.

exercise

e.

activities

5. The main objective of the chapter was to…
a.

determine our beliefs as teachers.

b.

share our experience as ESL students.

c.

outline specific approaches.

d.

sort out the differences among an approach, a method, and a technique.

e.

establish grading criteria.

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Self-Quiz

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9.1 Introduction

Key Terms

Grammar-Translation Method

Overview Questions

1. What are the main components of the Grammar-Translation Method?
2. What is the role of L1 and L2 in the GTM?
3. Which are some highlighting principles underlying the GTM?

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9.2 Grammar-Translation Method

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In Techniques and Principles of Language Teaching, Larsen-Freeman (4) describes part of a traditional Grammar-Translation lesson
as it occurs. The following draws on her account to give you a good idea of what this method looks like in practice.
The class is […] reading a passage on their textbook[,] an excerpt from Mark Twain’s Life on the Mississippi. Each student is called on to
read a few lines from the passage [and then] asked to translate [them] into Spanish.
Once the students have finished reading the passage in this fashion (i.e. taking turns to read a few lines, then translating into Spanish),
the teacher asks if the students have any questions about the passage, and elaborates on explanations, for example of new vocabulary,
but does this in Spanish (the students’ first language). Larsen-Freeman’s account continues.
The teacher [now] asks [the students] to write answers to the comprehension questions which appear at the end of the excerpt. The
questions are in English, and the students are instructed to write their answers in English as well.
The questions that the students are first asked to answer (for instance, “When did Mark Twain live?”) involve locating and copying
information from the passage. Two other types of questions involve, respectively, making inferences from the passage (“Do you think
life on the Mississippi was difficult?”), and relating the contents of the passage to the learner’s own experience (“Have you ever been in
a similar situation?”). The way this exercise is reviewed in class is again teacher-directed, with the students taking turns to read
questions aloud, followed by their answers, and the teacher intervening to call on new students and correcting wrong answers.
Typical Grammar-Translation textbook exercises involve translating into the students’ first language (Spanish) words extracted from the
reading passages, or giving students a list of words and finding synonyms or antonyms for them in the reading passage (“Find the word
in the passage that means the opposite of busy.” Answer: “idle”). The Grammar-Translation method approach to vocabulary also
relies on the study of cognates (words in a language which resemble words in another language both in form and meaning, such as the
words quietud and quiet).
For an illustration of a typical way this method deals with the teaching of grammar, let us continue with Larsen-Freeman’s account.
The students follow in their [text]books as the teacher reads a description of two-word or phrasal verbs. [Although familiar with these],
there are some new two-word verbs in the passage…. These are listed… below the description, and the students are asked to translate
them into Spanish. Then they’re given the rule for use of a direct object with two-word verbs.
Following study of the rule, the students are shown a list of phrasal verbs from the reading passage and are instructed to identifying
which of those are separable and which are inseparable, referring to the text for clues. Once they have sorted out separable from
inseparable verbs, they are given a fill-in-the-gaps exercise to apply this newly learned piece of grammar. As with the comprehension
questions following the reading passage, the way students work on this exercise is checked once again by the teacher directing the
students to take turns reading their answers aloud.
Further work on language in the Grammar-Translation method involves translating in both directions (that is, to and from the students’
first language,) stating grammar rules, applying newly-learned grammar rules in exercises involving substitution, conjugation,
translation, and memorizing vocabulary and forms (past and past participle forms, for example).
(4) Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

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The Grammar-Translation Method

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Table 9.3: Principles of the Grammar-Translation Method (5)
Classroom Application
Re-read the description of the Grammar-Translation Method classroom, and find examples of actual classroom applications of the
principles listed above (find at least one illustration of each).
Please download the table, print it and mark your answers there.

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Table 9.3: Principles of the Grammar-Translation Method (5)

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Think back to the time when you were learning English or another foreign language. Do any Grammar-Translation Method: Do you think
any of these principles can still be applied to teaching nowadays? (M1 – RM 9.2)
principles (and their related techniques) strike you as familiar? Do you think any of these principles can still be applied to teaching
nowadays?
Read the principles of the Grammar-Translation Method again. Do any of them apply to your teaching or to teaching practices that you
have witnessed or are aware of?
Jot down your ideas on your notebook.

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Reflection Moment M1 – 9.2

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Self-Quiz_L902
Self-Quiz_L902
Grading method: Highest grade

Attempt quiz now

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Self-Quiz

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Key Terms

Oral and Aural input
Direct Method
Audiolingual Method
Mimicry
Drill

Overview Questions

In the previous lesson we looked at one of the three traditional methods used in the 1970s. In this lesson we will look at two more, the
Direct and Audiolingual Methods. By the end of this lesson you will be able to answer the following questions.
What are the characteristics of these two methods?
What are their classroom applications?
Can I still use some of the ideas from these methods in my language classroom?

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9.3 Direct Method and Audiolingual Method

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The beginnings of the Direct Method were during the late 19th century. Aural (heard) and oral (spoken) aspects of learning a
language are more important than reading and writing for this method. Look specifically at the underlying principles.

Principles of the Direct Method
The pioneers of the Direct Method were phoneticians. Here is a list of some important principles.
1. Language is not contained in books. Instead, language is connected to words which are produced orally and perceived by
the listeners.
2. Language is about communication and not about being able to understand literary pieces of written language.
3. Language learning can be better achieved by finding native speakers as informants.
4. Languages of the world are different and should not be taught by comparing the structures to European languages.
5. All languages have an oral form; not all languages have a written form. This observation explains the importance of oral
input in the process of language learning.
6. Children learn oral languages first; only later in life will they acquire a written form.
7. Native speakers learn language not by reading a grammar book but by hearing and using the language.
8. Learners will have more success learning the language if they are interested in the society using the language.

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The Direct Method

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Understanding the principles of the Direct Method will help us grasp how the Direct Method is used in the classroom. Rivers (7)
suggested the following principles.
To learn a language, the content has to focus on the “here and now.” The lessons are built around
the use of everyday vocabulary that can be found in the classroom and should be built around
simple actions. Gradually the lessons can include more complex actions by including language used
in common situations and settings outside the classroom.
To help learners use the target language from the beginning, teachers use pictures that represent
the life and society of the countries where the language is spoken. Using pictures to teach ideas and
vocabulary can help both teachers and students use the target language and enable them to avoid
using translation in the classroom. In fact, using the native language in classroom is forbidden.
Teachers must explain the vocabulary by using simple language or by miming the action.
Students are exposed to complete and meaningful sentences at all times. This type of input helps
learners hear and internalize complex structures. This can be done via question-answer exchanges.
In fact, the majority of the lessons rely on responding to teacher-initiated questions.
Because phoneticians came up with this method, you can imagine that teaching pronunciation is
central to this method. In fact the first weeks of a course are devoted completely to the teaching of
pronunciation. In class students listen and imitate forms extensively until they become accurate and
automatic.
Grammar is important under this method but grammar rules are not taught directly. Instead, the
grammar rules are learned through practice. When grammar points are taught, the L1 is not used to
explain the concept. Teachers teach the grammar orally using the target language or using visual
presentations.
Reading skills are also taught under the Direct Method. However, learners are first exposed to the
text orally (teachers read the text). Also, students are not allowed to use dictionaries or translators
to make sense for the texts; students must understand the text “directly.”
(7) Rivers 1981, cited in Omaggio Hadley, A. (2001). Teaching language in context. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

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Principles of the Direct Method

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We began the module by reviewing some of the earlier theories of second language acquisition. Particularly we talked about
behaviorism as a theory of learning. What were the principles underlying this theory? This is a good chance to return to these concepts
since the next method is based on the principles of this theory.
Audiolingualism became popular in the years following World War II. The method was first used to quickly train soldiers in the
mastery of a foreign language. They developed training programs that relied on mimicry-memorization method. Through drills and
repetitions, soldiers learned structures that helped them use the foreign language. Due to its success with soldiers in the army,
politicians saw the need to train young Americans using this method – which began shortly after the Second World War.
The Audiolingual Method is based on the idea that learning a language involves the formation of habits (from behaviorism) and on
principles of structural linguistics. Under this framework language was associated with acquisition of verbal behaviors. These (linguistic)
behaviors were to be taught through imitation and practice. Positive verbal behaviors were solidified via positive reinforcement, such as
praise and encouragement.

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Audiolingual Method

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Keeping in mind that, according to this method, learning a foreign language involves the reinforcement of verbal behaviors, the
following section will show five basic tenets of the Audiolingual Method.
The goal of second language learning is to reach native-like proficiency. Learners will eventually
process language at a subconscious level, as native speakers do.
The use of the first language is not allowed in the classroom.
Adopting the stimulus-response principles of behaviorism, learners need to use language without
having time to focus on the form. This can be realized via the use of memorization of texts and
dialogues and also through the use of drills.
Drills should be taught without a focus on grammar. If grammar is to be taught, it needs to be brief
since the focus is on repetition and internalization of structures, not on analysis of structures.
Teachers must first teach listening, speaking, then reading, then writing. This ordering follows the
order of acquisition of first languages.
Classroom Application
Based on the information provided above, can you anticipate how this method was used in foreign language classrooms? What types of
materials were created? A review of various textbooks shows that the emphasis of this method can be highlighted in three parts.
a. The dialogue, pattern, and drills
b. Repetition Drills – students repeat after the model, namely the teacher, and Transformation Drills – person-number
substitutions, tense transformation, translation, etc.
c. Application of activities and dialogues, use of memorized materials adapted to the situation of the individual student,
semi-controlled role-plays, etc.
After introducing listening and speaking activities, teachers can introduce writing activities. Again, these activities should be based on
imitation where learners copy texts. This is believed to help learners process the syntactic structures of a language and also to facilitate
the process of immediate error correction. Reading is also emphasized over time.

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Principles of the Audiolingual Method

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While both methods have been criticized, principles and classroom applications of both remain in use.
As a teacher, it is important to explore the benefits and limitations of methods until we find a personal teaching method that reflects the
needs of the learners and most importantly, that leads to language learning. We encourage you to think about the types of activities
you ask your learners to do in class and to see how these have been influenced by earlier methods of foreign language teaching.

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Conclusion

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Reflect on the three methods we have discussed in this chapter: Grammar-Translation, Audiolingualism, and the Direct Method. What
elements of your own teaching could be linked to any of these approaches? Review the principles of these approaches, and identify
which ones you believe can be useful in a language classroom. For each approach, choose one principle and describe how it has been
useful (or could be useful), based on your own beliefs as a language teacher.
Post your contributions on the forum.

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Reflection Moment M1 – 9.3

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Self-Quiz

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Key Terms

Communicative Language Teaching

Overview Questions

How do you define “communication”?
What do you know about Communicative Language Teaching?
What are some specific techniques of communicative teaching?

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9.4 Communicative Language Teaching

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We use language to accomplish communication with some functions within a social context; for our students it is not enough just to
have knowledge of target language forms, meanings and functions; they also need to be able to apply this information in negotiating
significance.
During the last twenty years, different approaches have been developed in order to focus on the fundamentally communicative
properties of language; also, classrooms have been increasingly characterized by authenticity, attempts at “real-world” communication
and meaningful tasks. Mexican EFL teachers are currently accustomed to employing the term “communicative” to determine the main
feature of their classes, since one of the main objectives in Mexican textbooks and programs is that students become communicatively
competent. This is a term which involves the appropriate usage of language within a specific social context; in order to make this
possible, our students need to acquire meanings and linguistic forms to know how to perform a function.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as a style intended to redefine what students have to learn in terms of communicative
competence rather than linguistic competence; the crucial goal is the ability to use the language appropriately rather than the
grammatical knowledge. Like the Audiolingual style, CLT often resembles behaviorist views of learning.(8)
But, are we actually certain that we are following the guidelines of this method? CLT is an accepted model with many interpretations
and manifestations; it is related to issues such as authenticity, acceptability, and adaptability. It is difficult to set a definition since it is a
combined but broadly based, theoretically knowledgeable set of conceptions about the nature of language and of language learning and
teaching.
(8) Cook, V. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Communicative Language Teaching

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We can describe seven basic characteristics of CLT which include the following.
Overall goals, where we should consider communicative competence. Therefore, it should be connected to the grammatical and
discursive organizational aspects of language, as well as the functional, sociolinguistic, and strategic components as part of pragmatic
aspects.
Form and function, among the relationship of language mechanisms, which are designed to engage students in usage of functional and
meaningful language.
Fluency and accuracy are not always required to be together, sometimes it is important that student fluency is not stopped by accuracy,
consequently students feel meaningfully engaged to an activity. There will be times when you really need to correct their errors; errors
are part of a natural outcome of the development of communication skills and a positive feedback from the teacher is basic.
Focus on real-world contexts as students might not feel represented in activities that have no relationship to their environment,
therefore activities should exalt the skills necessary for communication in their context.
Autonomy and strategic involvement, in order to provide students with the opportunity to be aware of their strengths, weaknesses, and
preferences within their own learning style that will help them develop a sense of autonomy inside and outside the classroom.
The role of a teacher inside a classroom could vary depending on the activity; however, within the CLT context it should be as facilitator
and guide, and must be seen as someone who encourages students to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with
classmates and teachers. The term “manager” is appropriate when a teacher is likely to promote communication, but during activities is
an “advisor” answering student’s questions and monitoring their performance.
The role of the student in a CLT environment is mainly as communicator, with more responsibilities since it implies being a cooperative,
collaborating, and active participant of his or her own learning process.(9)
We can notice that the most obvious characteristic of the Communicative Approach is that almost everything is done with a
communicative intent. That is to say, that students use the language through communicative activities such as games, role-plays, and
problem solving tasks. And most of all, always take into account that activities need to be truly communicative, including information
gap, choice, and feedback as core features.(10)
On the other hand, it is mentioned that CLT just covers some aspects of L2 learning, since it has no techniques of its own for teaching
vocabulary, little connection with speech processing or memory, as well as a small systematic recognition of the possibilities available to
learners through their first language.(11)
Thus it is important that, in addition to what we have already discussed, our classes include the use of authentic materials, as it is
desirable to give students the opportunity to develop the language as used by native speakers. It would also be helpful if our groups
could be smaller in order to maximize the time student may devote to completing activities; but this situation is sometimes difficult to
get, so we have to adapt our activities to our specific context.
(9) Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(10) Ibid.
(11) Cook, V. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Seven Basic Characteristics of CLT

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