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M1. Unit 3. Lesson 10 Student's Guide
Book
M1. Unit 3. Lesson 10 Student's Guide Book

Site:
UPN
Course:
Módulo 01. Especialización en Enseñanza y Aprendizaje de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera
Book:
M1. Unit 3. Lesson 10 Student's Guide Book
Printed by: Emmanuel Ruiz Zamora
Date:
Monday, 5 November 2012, 11:41 PM

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10. Experiential Learning
10.1 Concrete Experience
Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model
Reflection Moment M1 – 10.1
Self-Quiz
10.2 Reflective Observation
Reflective Observation
Reflection Moment M1 - 10.2
Transformation
Self-Quiz
10.3 Abstract Conceptualization
Abstract Conceptualization
Human Development
Seven Functions of Language Learners
Taxonomy of Learning Domains
Task-based Approach
Reflection Moment M1 - 10.3
Suggested readings
Self-Quiz
10.4 Active Experimentation
Active Experimentation
Meaning and Form/ Reflection Moment
Self-Quiz
Summary
My Progress Test Lesson 10
Language Skills Development Component Complement to Module 1 — Lesson 10

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Table of Contents

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Abstract
The Constructivist and Sociocultural principles that support the Experiential Learning Model, as proposed by Kolb,
are reviewed in detail. The four chapters follow through with activities organized to aid the sequential discovery of
each of the central components. Links are established between the stages of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and
contemporary teaching practice in foreign languages, specifically (i) Halliday’s social functions of language, (ii) the
revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains, and (iii) Willis’s Task-based Learning Model.

10.1 Concrete Experience

Key Terms

concrete experience
Experiential Learning Model
Prehension

Overview Questions

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to answer the following questions.
What is the Concrete Experience stage of the Experiential Learning Model?
What is the Experiential Learning Model?
What is prehension?
What rationale can be put forward to make personal experience the best starting point for a lesson?
Is it reasonable in classroom practice to give preference to feeling and intuition over logical thought?

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10. Experiential Learning

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Today’s lesson begins here, with a list of The Ten Most Listened to Songs of All Time (1). How many of them do you
recognize?

This is a list of the 10 most listened to popular songs of all time. Each song is ranked in the list by
the total number of records and / or CDs that the artist managed to sell.
Thriller – Michael Jackson
White Christmas – Bing Crosby
Bohemian Rhapsody – Queen
Stairway to Heaven – Led Zeppelin
You Raise Me Up – Josh Groban
The Winner Takes It All – ABBA
Imagine – John Lennon
Earth Song – Michael Jackson
Hotel California – Eagles
Like A Rolling Stone – Bob Dylan

Even many people who do not know English can not resist singing along to many of them.
How about you? Have you ever begun a lesson with a song or a poem or a video? What were your reasons for doing
so? How did students react to your choices? Jot down your ideas on your notebook for a further discussion in the
forum.

Activity

It is quite common for teachers to end a class or a whole unit with a song or video, but how about considering
beginning with one? What might be the advantages to doing so? Be sure to bring in the issues that have been
brought up in the lessons on language acquisition.
Jot down your ideas in your notebook. You can refer to them in the different discussions with your group.

Those who end a lesson or unit with a movie or song are probably thinking that learning a language is a process of
building up or compiling little pieces, while those who begin that way tend to justify that strategy with the opinion
that learning a language is a process of comprehending intention and meaning. Thus arises the contradiction
between focus on form and focus on meaning. And in actual classroom practice a teacher is only able to direct
attention to one or the other in any given moment.
But clarifying that point does not answer the methodological issue in this lesson of which should be brought up first
and which later, and whether there is any principled difference between the two. Why would anyone want to debate
the value of placing feeling and intuition above cold logic in a given lesson? One answer is that a teacher who is
principally concerned with cognition will be concerned with how their students can best recall the content of a lesson
at some later date. A teacher who is concerned with educating the whole person will likewise be concerned with later
recall, but will take the approach of having made that information more memorable via affective motivation.
Thus some teachers strongly believe that learning does not reach the brain unless it has arrived there via the heart:
Engage the heart first, then the mind can follow. This opinion is in line with the teachings of Paulo Freire,
summarized as, “the fundamental goal of dialogical teaching is to create a process of learning and knowing that
invariably involves theorizing about the experiences shared in the dialogue process.” (2)
What are some other possible concrete experiences that could launch a class? Some that are not so unusual might
be works of visual art, puzzles and brainteasers, and realia. For instance, one of our authors will never forget his
high school Russian classes with caviar, songs, and even a Soviet cigarette. Those classes were held in the students’
L1, but we learned a lot of culture in those sessions!
(1) Chapman, James. 2009. 10 Most Listened to Popular Songs of All Time. Retrieved August 15th, 2010 from
musicouch.com/genres/pop/10-most-listened-to-popular-songs-of-all-time
(2) Macedo, Donaldo. 2000. Introduction to the Anniversary Edition of Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 30th Anniversary
Edition. New York: Continuum International. p. 17

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10.1 Concrete Experience

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Concrete experience is the first of four stages in a cycle that makes up the Experiential Learning Model as
proposed by Kolb — and which is the same Experiential Learning model that provides the framework for the current
English curriculum in Mexican junior high. Concrete experience has to do with taking hold of an idea, which led Kolb
to coin the term prehension, (from the root of words like apprehend and comprehend).

Design of Experiential Learning Model

So the question now becomes: How did the experiences of your tutoree club help to comprehend the English
language and culture? Share your thoughts with them once again.
The next chapter will move on to the second stage in Kolb’s model.
(3) Kolb, David A. 1984. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood
Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. p.38

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Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model

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Why do teachers sometimes resist starting lessons with meaningful activities? Do they believe it to be a case of “putting
the cart before the horse,” or is it for some other reason? What might their reasoning be?
Jot down your ideas on your notebook and comment them in the Forum.

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Reflection Moment M1 – 10.1

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Self Quiz
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the name of the teaching sequence proposed by Kolb?
a.

Concrete Experience.

b.

The Experiential Learning Model.

c.

Dialogical Teaching.

d.

Prehension.

2. Kolb’s teaching sequence been adopted in Mexico because…
a.

realia are now easily accessed.

b.

meaning is negotiated through dialogue.

c.

it is best adapted to Mexico’s diverse cultures.

d.

the curriculum is based on fostering competencies.

3. Which of the following is the best summary of Dialogical Teaching?
a.
b.

Educating via conversation can to open a forum for reflection on that conversation.
Teaching by talking gives rise to a theoretical progression of encounters with the language being
learned.

c.

The know-how gained from prehension leads to encounters with schoolmates.

d.

When students chat about realia, they are implicitly sharing their experiences.

4. Is it reasonable in classroom practice to give preference to feeling and intuition over logical thought?
a.

Yes, because reflection leads to “uptake”.

b.

Yes, because motivation leads to “uptake”.

c.

No, because realia leads to reflection.

d.

No, because prehension leads to motivation.

5. What rationale can be put forward to make personal experience the best starting point for a lesson?

Review

a.

Motivation leads to cognition.

b.

Cognition leads to motivation.

c.

Realia leads to cognition.

d.

Prehension leads to motivation.

Reload

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Self-Quiz

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Key Terms

reflective observation
transformation

Overview Questions

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to answer the following questions.
1. What is the Reflective Observation stage of the Experiential Learning Model?
2. What is transformation?
3. What are the stages in the Experiential Learning Model?

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10.2 Reflective Observation

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Did you enjoy that last chapter? Did it inspire you to continue on and understand more?
If so, then we authors (in our role as teachers) have achieved the transition from Concrete Experience to Reflective
Observation in Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model. In the moment of reflective observation, the learner desires to
dig deeper into, or expand outward from, the topic under study. In Lesson 10.1 we saw that concrete experience is
the first stage in Experiential Learning, now Reflective Observation is added to the chart in its proper place.

First two stages of Experiential Learning Model

So to keep with the plan of following this model in our study of how it can be used, in this stage of Reflective
Observation would be the best time to explore the entirety of the model.
The first stage of Concrete Experience may be characterized as doing, where the learner gets involved in a
participatory activity. The second stage of Reflective Observation can be understood as observing, when observation
and reflection are the learner’s principle activities. Abstract concepts are formed in the third portion of the sequence,
Abstract Conceptualization, which may be summarized as thinking. The culmination of the learning progression is in
the planning which occurs during the Active Experimentation stage — which is designed to lead directly into a new
concrete experience. (See the Learning Theories website (4) below. It also has related topics under the Categories
heading.)

Activity 1

Have you written a lesson plan recently? Take it out and study it a few minutes. Are there any parts of the lesson
plan that are like Concrete Experience or Reflective Observation?
Write to two colleagues and describe the portion of the lesson plan (including student interactions, materials, time,
setting, etc.) and how it coincides with the Experiential Learning Model.

The very nature of reflective observation is what requires that the preceding concrete experience to have been
motivational. Some educators feel strongly that learning arrives to the brain if it first goes through the heart. In
other words, an indifferent learner is in a way similar to an indifferent lover: without motivation there can be no
progress or advancement. Yet once both heart and mind are engaged, anything is possible. This is precisely why the
pen is mightier than the sword. When interest becomes aroused, learners will want to know more about form,
meaning, context, and other aspects. And these are best studied in the reflective observation stage.
(4) Learning Theories Knowledgebase. 2010. Experiential Learning (Kolb) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved
August 15th, 2010 from www.learning-theories.com/experiential-learning-kolb.html

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Reflective Observation

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Explain a reflective observation you have participated in, one you have assigned to students, or one you would like to do.
Jot down your ideas on your notebook.

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Reflection Moment M1 - 10.2

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After you have finished the Reflection Moment, notice how, by the very act of describing and justifying that activity,
you have made it your own. Both it and yourself are now new and different: both you and your instrument have
been transformed. This is why Kolb characterized this stage as Transformation.
As a closing activity for Chapter 10.2, we will continue to use the song list that began the lesson, and continue to
apply the Experiential Learning Model to it. We opined that a learner who was successfully motivated in the
preceding Concrete Experience will wish to enter Reflective Observation by dig deeper into the topic under study or
to expand outward from it. In the case of a song, understanding might be deepened by learning some aspect of
pronunciation, or could be to understand the whispered chorus in the background of the song, or maybe to know to
whom the song was written. Likewise, extension upon the topic could be one or another process of classification
such as to learn what type of music the song is, to know the history of authors or of the period, to discover similar
or different songs, to find out about other types of art.
Activity 2

Use a song from the list of the “Ten Most Listened to Songs of All Time” to make a lesson outline in which learners
accomplish one of the two aims described here. Then share with your teammates with a brief rationale. You may use
these words, if you wish.
dig deeper into…
expand outward from…

The next Chapter will take up the third stage of the Experiential Learning Model, Abstract Conceptualization, and
consider how much it corresponds to other models you may have studied in the past.
(5) Kolb, David A. 1984. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood
Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. p.38
(6) Ibid.

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Transformation

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Self Quiz
Answer the following questions:
1. In the Experiential Learning Model, the “reflective observation” stage is…
a.

also known as the thinking stage.

b.

an opportunity to step back and get further involved.

c.

best described with the term prehension.

d.

results in transformation.

2. What is “transformation” within the Experiential Learning Model?
a.

It is where mathematical operations are performed.

b.

It is a moment when both learner and material learned become something new.

c.

It is a Freireian belief concerning how engaged a learner must be.

d.

It is the culmination of the Experiential Learning Model.

3. What are the stages to the Experiential Learning Model, in their correct order?
a.

Reflective Observation, Concrete Experience, Abstract Conceptualization, Active Experimentation.

b.

Concrete Experience, Transformation, Thinking, Reflective Observation.

c.

Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, Active Experimentation.

d.

Doing, Observing, Thinking, Planning.

4. Why does the second stage logically follow from the first stage?
a.

Cognition is an effect of motivation.

b.

Cognition leads to motivation.

c.

Cognition is an effect of transformation.

d.

Reflective Observation leads to transformation.

5. Transformation is important to the learning process because…

Review

a.

concrete experience may result in motivation.

b.

it is a derivative of prehension.

c.

reflective observation is a result of, and leads to, prehension stages.

d.

learners can also transform themselves in the process.

Reload

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Self-Quiz

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Key Terms

abstract conceptualization
Halliday’s social functions of language
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains
Task-based learning framework

Overview Questions

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to answer the following questions.
1. What is the Abstract Conceptualization stage of the Experiential Learning Model?
2. Is the Experiential Learning Model useful in various stages of cognitive development?
3. What are the similarities between the Experiential Learning Model and the language functions identified
by Halliday?
4. What are the similarities between the Experiential Learning Model and Bloom’s Taxonomy?
5. What are the similarities between the Experiential Learning Model and Willis’s Task-based Learning
Framework?

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10.3 Abstract Conceptualization

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A transition from the Reflective Observation stage to the stage of Abstract Conceptualization can involve phrases
like, “Now that we have a better understanding, let’s step back and…” As we now make that exact move, we can
step back to take a larger view, in this case relating the Experiential Learning Model to what you may already know
about teaching.
This Chapter primarily involves readings about some other models you may have studied in past courses: Halliday’s
social functions of language, Bloom’s taxonomy, and Willis’s Task-based Approach. The Reflection Moments will
involve finding some points of similarity with these models.
(Before we go on, it would be wise to point out one specific aspect. The other three stages of the Experiential
Learning Model have explicit metaphors in their titles. We should always keep in mind that the stage we will study in
this Chapter, Abstract Conceptualization, also requires visualization of the concepts to be learned.)
The core of the Abstract Conceptualization stage is for the learner to draw generalizations from the previous
Concrete Experience and Reflective Observation stages. The profound significance of such an act is to gain a hold on
the matter under study from another perspective. This is why Kolb also described Abstract Conceptualization as an
act of prehension, just like Concrete Experience is. This greater control becomes applicable to other circumstances
and to other pieces of knowledge.
To apprehend the Experiential Learning Model, here is the entire model. After you ponder it for a little while, we will
ask you to apply it to other models you may already know.

Complete Experiential Learning Model
two stages in vertical dimension are prehension activities
two stages in horizontal dimension are transformation activities

In Abstract Conceptualization, learners use logic to extract general rules on the matter under study. It is the moment
to make conceptual systems precise and exact. For instance, one may logically extract specific rules on
pronunciation, grammar, or lexis, and thus to understand those eternal exceptions that exist throughout a language.

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Abstract Conceptualization

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The Abstract Conceptualization stage is where one can see evidence of the constructivist orientation to the
Experiential Learning Model, in both if its senses. First, learners construct their own knowledge. Second, learners of
all ages may take useful advantage of the complete cycle (after two years of age, after the sensory-motor phase is
surpassed). In the preoperations (2-6 years), concrete operations (6-12 years), and formal operations (13 years and
above) phases of cognitive development, teachers can successfully lead learners through the four stages of the
Experiential Learning Model — even kindergarten learners who use the very rudimentary logic of the preoperations
phase.
Teacher-led
The Abstract Conceptualization stage is the one where the teacher is likely to play a greater role than in the other
stages, so that the learners can raise their sights to make the associations between what is being learned in this
lesson with other areas of knowledge. Another way to understand this is that, from the student’s point of view,
Abstract Conceptualization is the least self-directed stage of the sequence. The teacher will take a stronger hand in
leading student’s attention.
This is not to say that lecturing is necessary. There are many means and ways for a teacher to present information
and insights. In fact the learners may do a great deal of reading, or speaking to “think aloud,” which is the very
essence of social cognition. But prudent guiding and facilitating will be crucial.
Prehension
Part of your prehension of the subject matter of this week’s lesson is to conquer a new viewpoint by finding links or
points of contact with concepts researchers of education and linguistics put forward in recent decades that teachers
have found useful: Halliday’s seven functions of language, Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive tasks, and Willis’s Taskbased approach.

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Human Development

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In 1975, linguist Michael Halliday put forward the idea that infants must accomplish seven different communicative
purposes in their first two to three years of life. The idea is presented here in this Lesson because it could be one of
many cases in which children’s language learning is parallel to adolescent and adult learning.
Four of these social functions are truly basic, for the satisfaction of physical and emotional necessities. He called
them, instrumental, regulatory, interactional, and personal functions. The instrumentalfunction has to do with
attending one’s requirements for food, shelter, and so on. The regulatory function is used to tell others what to do.
The interactional function is used to establish relationships. The personal function is about expressing one’s own
identity.
The other three functions are where language becomes more of an instrument that manipulated other instruments.
Halliday called the function to gain knowledge about things in the surrounding environment the heuristic function.
The role of stories and jokes is the imaginative function. And finally, the exchange of facts and information is the
representational function.
Therefore, the major similarity between Halliday’s social functions and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model concerns
the purposes and types of interaction, or needs and functions in traditional linguistic terminology, which a student
must master in the course of learning a language.

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Seven Functions of Language Learners

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The following is a reading on one of the most important of all teacher tools, Bloom's Taxonomy. Bloom’s team had
the marvelous idea of how to rank the cognitive tasks that typically occur in the classroom.

image adapted from Clark (7a)

The chart is read from the bottom up. The complexity of the classroom tasks increases as one goes up the scale. At
the bottom there is simple recognition of objects and ideas. At the second step that recognition goes deeper. In the
third stage this recognition can be successfully applied to new and different information and contexts. At the fourth
level one is capable of differentiating the various constituent parts of that body of knowledge; and at the fifth level
those parts can be brought together again. And total mastery is demonstrated by the ability to judge quality.
Below is the complete graphic, where there are some modifications displayed in the right column. The first three,
which he calls the lower order cognitive tasks, are essentially unchanged, only the names are changed from nous to
verbs. But among the higher order mental operations you will notice that evaluation was demoted in complexity and
that creating took its place as the most complex mental operation.

image from Clark (7b)

Thus, a principal similarity between Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive “domains” and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model
concerns the types of mental tools and dexterity a student must master in the course of learning a field of
knowledge. Another similarity is to provide a framework for deciding how these mental tools may be sequenced in a
given lesson.

(7a)

www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/ahold/isd.html

(7b)

www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

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Taxonomy of Learning Domains

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The final model to look at in this chapter is the Task-based Approach, which recommends a specific sequence of
learning activities or teaching cycle (8). The Task-based cycle has only three steps, named simply Pre-task, Task
Cycle, and Language Focus.

The Pre-task step consists of what otherwise is known as the introduction or warm-up, where the learners access
and activate their previous knowledge of the topic, often by brainstorming. Together with the introduction to the
topic the Pre-task step also includes the instructions for the following activities.
The Task Cycle itself has three “phases” within it, plus another optional one, which collectively offer the learners a
variety of contexts for exposure to the language, (exposure from others and from themselves). The first is the Task
phase, where the pairs of students have opportunities (in plural) for spontaneous use of the language. They work in
pairs so their attention is on the message, rather than any mistakes that may arise. In the Planning phase the
teacher can give input and advice, including help with language, to help the students prepare for the following
Report phase. The Report phase combines fluency with accuracy because, in their roles as presenters, students want
both to get the message across and to do so with as few errors as possible. After all presentations have been given,
there is an optional phase to listen to how fluent speakers achieve a similar task.
In the final Language Focus stage, learners have the opportunity to focus on form and ask specific questions about
the language being learned. This stage is usually held in a whole-class forum.
Thus, a principle similarity between Willis’s Task-based Approach and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model concerns
the student’s active role in building their own knowledge, as well as emphasis on the types of interaction with fellow
learners as an integral part of learning a language. Another similarity is that, in each model, the learner first solves
the problem or completes the assignment, and the focus on the form of the language comes afterward as part of the
summation.
(10) Willis, J. (1998). Task-based Learning. English Teaching Professional, Vol. 1998, Iss. 9. pp.3-4
(11) Willis, J. (1998). Task-based Learning. English Teaching Professional, Vol. 1998, Iss. 9.

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Task-based Approach

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Take another look at the list of The Ten Most Listened to Songs of All Times and, together with some teammates in your
tutoree group, go to the Collaborative Board and write a brief lesson plan with one song (or two if you please,) giving
particular attention to the interactions in the Abstract Conceptualization stage.
Participate with your ideas in the forum.

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Reflection Moment M1 - 10.3

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For more information, we recommend you read these websites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Halliday

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

http://www.willis-elt.co.uk/taskbased.html

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Suggested readings

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Self Quiz
Answer the following questions:
1. The Abstract Conceptualization stage is…
a.

the learner’s chance to take a broader view of the matter being learned.

b.

the teacher’s opportunity to use the other models of learning cycles.

c.

the learner’s opportunity to use Halliday’s seven social functions.

d.

the teacher’s opportunity to assign activities in line with the Task-based approach.

2. The Experiential Learning Model is useful throughout school life because…
a.

the teacher leads during the Abstract Conceptualization stage.

b.

the Abstract Conceptualization stage is when the student’s linguistic competency is constructed.

c.

the Abstract Conceptualization stage is when students are able to express themselves creatively.

d.

in the Abstract Conceptualization stage students use and develop their competency in using logic.

3. The social functions by Halliday that are typically used throughout the Experiential Learning sequence are…
a.

all seven of them.

b.

the first four, concerning physical and emotional needs.

c.

the second group of three where language is a social tool.

d.

the prehension functions.

4. The learning domains in the current version of Bloom’s Taxonomy that can be used during the Experiential
Learning sequence are…
a.

the first three, the lower cognitive skills.

b.

the upper three, the higher cognitive skills.

c.

all six of them.

d.

the prehension domains.

5. Two essential similarities between the Experiential Learning Model and Willis’s Task-based Learning
Framework are…

Review

a.

the opportunities for dialogical learning as knowledge construction, and that the teacher’s tasks are
distributed throughout the cycle.

b.

an emphasis on interaction among learners as part of knowledge construction, and that the process
of deducing generalizations comes after solving the task.

c.

the prehension stages of the cycle lead toward knowledge construction, and that the student’s task
phases are sequenced after the Language Focus stage.

d.

an emphasis on the teacher’s role in the process of knowledge construction, and that the process
of deductive instruction comes previous to the prehension stage.

Reload

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Self-Quiz

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Key Terms

active experimentation

Overview Questions

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to answer the following questions:
What is the Active Experimentation stage of the Experiential Learning Model?
How can Bloom’s Taxonomy and the Task-based Learning Framework be applied within the Experiential
Learning Model?
Does there necessarily have to be a tension between learning meaning and learning form?

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10.4 Active Experimentation

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As a bridge from the stage of Abstract Conceptualization to the Active Experimentation stage, in the classroom we
can say something like, “Now it’s time to get our feet wet and…”
Recall that Kolb described the Reflective Observation stage as transformation, because it represents an opportunity
for the learner to construct one’s own knowledge by transforming the new information into something of one’s own.
The stage we will study in this chapter is likewise described as transformation because it is in the process of
experimenting that a person consciously and willfully objectifies something and applies some sort of instrument to
watch for a reaction.
We have seen how the Experiential Learning Model typically begins with a Concrete Experience — which is specific,
personal, and subjective — and moves to Active Experimentation — which is theoretical, systematic, and
objective. Thus, in the early stage it is society that impinges on individual, and only later does the individual impinge
on society. This is why the Experiential Learning Model is specifically Sociocultural in orientation, (as distinct from
Behaviorist or Cognitivist, or even Constructivist.)
Notice the previous paragraph says the Model typically begins with a Concrete Experience. One of the readings you
saw in a previous chapter mentioned that a learner can begin anywhere. In fact, young children often begin with
Active Experimentation. Is it even possible to conceive of a two year old that does not learn by trying to pull and
push and try things to their limits? By the same token, adults often shy away from Active Experimentation precisely
because they are afraid they might break something.
Therefore the stimulations that are appropriate to each age and lifestyle and culture and gender can vary quite a lot,
depending on what is culturally expected of an individual’s role and personal background, as well as that person’s
learning preferences and styles.

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Active Experimentation

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The learner in any phase of cognitive development (beyond sensory-motor) may enjoy the give-and-take provided
by the opportunity to go back and forth between the meaning of new words and phrases, emphasized in the first and
last stages of the Experiential Learning Model, and the lexical and grammatical forms in which those meanings are
expressed, prioritized in the Model’s middle stages.
To take two examples from this Lesson, during Concrete Experience and Active Experimentation as learners, you
were assigned activities that were designed to require discussion with your colleagues about give-and-take that can
be fostered in junior high school, which might include a debate about the best ordering of contents, that is, whether
or not one is putting the cart before the horse. Then, in Reflective Observation and Abstract Conceptualization, you
were given presented with several opportunities to question your colleagues and tutor on the best way to say these
in English.

Reflection Moment

To link up the Active Experimentation stage with the language acquisition issues you studied in earlier Lessons, take
once again the example of the song you chose from The Ten Most Listened to Songs of All Time and make a brief
lesson plan in which learners experiment with the song.
Post your ideas in the Forum.
Cycle
We must remember that Experiential Learning is intended to be a cycle. Thus, whenever one ends the teacher or
facilitator must build a bridge from Active Experimentation to Concrete Experience. In a class we can even say
something similar to what we said to introduce Active Experimentation, “Now it’s time to get our feet wet and…” By
this we mean to indicate that, from the student’s point of view there can be seamless continuity from one to the
next. It does not necessarily have to feel like an ending.

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Meaning and Form/ Reflection Moment

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Self Quiz
Answer the following questions:
1. The Active Experimentation stage of the Experiential Learning Model consists of…
a.

applying the expanded comprehension from the Learning Domains to a new area of knowledge.

b.

utilizing transformation to personalize a task.

c.
d.

applying the expanded comprehension learned in Abstract Conceptualization to a new area of
knowledge.
the student deducing grammatical rules.

2. The Taxonomy of Learning Domains is useful within the Experiential Learning Model…
a.

in almost any combination.

b.

by assigning the lower skills earlier in the sequence.

c.

by assigning the higher skills later in the sequence.

d.

for a skilled teacher.

3. The Task-based Learning Framework is similar to the Experiential Learning Model in that they both…
a.

emphasize competition between learners from the beginning of the learning sequence.

b.

emphasize collaboration among learners from the beginning of the learning sequence.

c.

place reflection on meaning and form at the beginning of the learning sequence.

d.

place reflection on meaning and form at the conclusion of the learning sequence.

4. Does there necessarily have to be a tension between learning meaning and learning form?

Review

a.

Yes, because they should be complimentary, and are taught jointly.

b.

Yes, because they should be differentiated, even when they are taught jointly.

c.

No, because they should be differentiated, which is why they are taught separately.

d.

No, because they should be complimentary, even though they are taught separately.

Reload

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Self-Quiz

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The Constructivist and Sociocultural principles that support the Experiential Learning Model, as proposed by Kolb,
were reviewed in detail. The four chapters sequentially followed that model’s four stages with discovery activities
exemplifying their central components. Links were established between the stages of Kolb’s Experiential Learning
Model and three other models in the contemporary foreign language teaching practice, (i) Halliday’s social functions
of language, (ii) the revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains, and (iii) Willis’s Task-based Learning
Model.

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Summary

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My Progress Test Lesson 10

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