27082675 شرح برنامج arcgis 9 بالعربي .pdf



Nom original: 27082675-شرح-برنامج-arcgis-9-بالعربي.pdfTitre: مكتب ArcGIS v 9.docAuteur: sob7an alaa

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‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ArcGIS 9 ‫ﺷﺮﺡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬

‫ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ‬

ArcGIS‫ﻋﺎﺷﻖ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﻭﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ..‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺄﻗﺪﻡ ﻟﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻮﰐ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﳏﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻋﺘﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ‪ Table‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ ArcGIS‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﻞ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﻫﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻹﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻸﺳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺧﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻀﻼﹰ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﱄ‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﰎ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﻮﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﱄ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎﹰ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﺒﺴﻂ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻓﺎﳍﻴﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﳛﻮﻱ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﻳﺮﺳﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﱃ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻳﺰﺭﻱ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﱃ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬
‫ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﻭﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬

‫ﺃﺧﻮﻛﻢ ﻋﺎﺷﻖ ‪ArcGIS‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ﺭﺟﺐ ‪1429‬ﻫـ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ‪ 18‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪2008‬‬

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‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ‪ ™ ArcGIS v 9 - ArcInfo‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،ArcCatalog ™, ArcMap‬ﻭ‪(™ ArcToolbox‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻒ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕِ ‪:ArcGIS‬‬
‫"‪:ArcCatalog‬‬
‫‪ ™ ArcCatalog‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﺪ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻮﻝ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺪﻳﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻭﻧﺔﹸ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕِ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹِ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔِ ﺍﶈﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔِ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺦ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺬﹸﻭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻀﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ metadata ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺮﺃﹶ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖِ ‪.ArcGIS‬‬
‫"‪:ArcMap‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ArcMap ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻭﺷ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﺏ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂِ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﺧﺮﺍﺋﻂﹶ ‪ hardcopy‬ﳑﺘﺎﺯﺓ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺆﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣِﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞِ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﱐِ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻠﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﲟﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ArcMap ‬ﺇﻧﺘﻘﺎﻻﹰ ﺳﻬﻼﹰ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻧ‪‬ﻈﹾﺮ ‪ a‬ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺗِﻪ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫"‪:™ ArcToolbox‬‬
‫‪ ™ ArcToolbox‬ﻳ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺌﺔﹰ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕِ ‪ geoprocessing‬ﻣ‪‬ﺆ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻳﺔ )ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ، . :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﺘﺰﺍﻉ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞﹶ(‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺜﺒ‪‬ﺖ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﻬﺎﻡِ ‪geoprocessing.‬‬
‫‪ ArcToolbox‬ﻣ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻛﻼ ‪ ArcCatalog‬ﻭ‪.ArcMap‬‬
‫ﺇﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪:‬‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﲢﻀﲑ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﻴﺔِ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﹶﻠﹾﻖ ‪ a‬ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﻴﺔِ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔﹶ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔﹰ ﻭﳎﺪﻭﻟﺔﹶ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓِ‬
‫ﺑﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺧﺮﺍﺋﻂِ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﺭ ﺟﻮﻳ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻗﻤﺮ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻢ‪ ArcGIS ‬ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ArcGIS ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻠﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺑﺼ‪‬ﻒ‪ ‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳ‪‬ﺪﺭﺝ‪ ‬ﲢﺖ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ ،ArcEditor ،ArcGIS (ArcView‬ﻭ‪(ArcInfo‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪ArcIMS‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ‪ArcIMS‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ‪ArcInfo‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﻱ ﺟﻲ ﺇﻥ )ﺧﻼﻝ ‪(v 8‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﻱ ﺩﺑﻠﻴﻮ ﺟﻲ )ﺧﻼﻝ ‪(v 2004‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﻱ ﺇﻛﺲ ﺇﻑ‬
‫‪o Geodatabases‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺔِ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ‬

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‫‪ o‬ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ ﺩﻳﺴﻴﺒﻞِ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫‪ o‬ﻗﻮﺱ ﰊ ﺳﻲ ‪ /‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ِ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻴﻎ ‪Raster‬‬
‫"ﺣﻮ‪‬ﻝﹶ ﻗﻮﺱ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺭ‪‬ﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪) Raster ‬ﺃﻱ ﺩﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺟﻲ( )*‪ img.‬ﺃﹶﻭ *‪ ovr.‬ﻭ*‪(lgg.‬‬
‫"‪ArcSDE Rasters‬‬
‫"ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﳋﹶﻂﱢ )ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ﺑﻴﻞ( )*‪ bil.‬ﻭ*‪(hdr, *.clr, *.stx.‬‬
‫"ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔِ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ )ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ﰊ ﺁﻱ ﰊ( )*‪ bip.‬ﻭ*‪(hdr, *.clr, *.stx.‬‬
‫"ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ )ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ﰊ ﺇﺱ ﻛﻴﻮ( )*‪ bsq.‬ﻭ*‪(hdr, *.clr, *.stx.‬‬
‫"ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎﺕ )ﰊ ﺇﻡ ﰊ(‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﺃﺩﺍﺓِ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔِ )ﺗ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﺮﺯ‪ (‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬِ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖِ‬
‫)*‪(bmp.‬‬
‫"ﺣﻮ‪‬ﻝﹶ ﻗﻮﺱ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻮﻁ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺭ‪‬ﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪) Raster ‬ﺳﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺟﻲ(‬
‫"ﺳﻴﻄﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓِ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓِ )ﺳﻲ ﺁﻱ ﰊ(‬
‫"ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕِ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﰲِ ﺭﻗﻤﻲِ )ﻣﻠﺨ‪‬ﺺ( ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺱِ ‪ Raster‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﺞ )ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﰊ(‪ ،‬ﻳﻮ ﰐ ﺇﻡ ‪ /‬ﻳ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻓﻊ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪ ‬ﺞ‬
‫‪ Raster‬ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ )ﻳﻮ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﰊ( )*‪ img.‬ﻭ*‪ * ،gen, *.ger.‬ﺩﺍﻧﻖ ‪(qal, *.thf.* ،‬‬
‫"ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉِ ﺗﻀﺎﺭﻳﺲِ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔِ )ﺩﻱ ﰐ ﺇﻱ ﺩﻱ( ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ‪ 1 ،0‬ﻭ‪(dt 0, *.dt 1, *.dt 2.*) 2‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺁﺭ ﳐﻄﱢﻂ )*‪(ers.‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺩﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ ‪ 7.5‬ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ )*‪ gis.‬ﻭ*‪(trl.‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺩﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ ‪ 7.5‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ )* ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ*‪(trl.‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺩﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞﹸ )*‪(img.‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺩﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺧﺎﻡ )* ﺧﺎﻡ(‬
‫"ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ )*‪(clr.‬‬
‫"ﻛﻮﻣﺔ ﺷﺒﻜﺔِ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ‬
‫"ﻣﻠﻒ ﻛﻮﻣﺔِ ﺷﺒﻜﺔِ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ )*‪(stk.‬‬
‫"ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺇﻱ ‪Raster‬‬
‫"ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ )ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﻑ( )*‪(gif.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ‪ Intergraph Raster (*.cit‬ﻭ* ﻣﻬﺪ(‬
‫"ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝِ ﻣﻠﻒِ ﺟﻲ ﺑﻴﺞِ‪ ،‬ﺟ‪‬ﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﻑ ﺇﻑ )*‪(jpg, *.jpeg, *jpe.‬‬
‫"ﺟﻲ ﺑﻴﺞ ‪(jp 2) 2000‬‬
‫"ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺓِ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓِ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ ‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤ‪‬ﺮﺓﹶ )‪MrSID) (*.sid‬؛ ﺃﺟﻴﺎﻝ ‪3 2‬؛ ﺍﳌﹸﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ‪‬‬
‫‪ Raster‬ﺇﱃ ‪ MrSID‬ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺘﺞ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔِ ﺟﻴﻞِ ‪(MrSID 2‬‬
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‫"ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻧﻘﻞِ ﺻﻮﺭﺓِ ﻭﻃﻨﻴﺔِ )ﺇﻥ ﺁﻱ ﰐ ﺇﻑ( )*‪(ntf.‬‬
‫"ﻧﻘﻮﺵ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ )*‪(png.‬‬
‫"ﻋﻠﹼﻢ‪ ‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‪) ‬ﻣﺸﺎﺟﺮﺓ( )*‪ * ،tif.‬ﻣﺸﺎﺟﺮﺓ ‪(tff.* ،‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ )ﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﻛﻲ(‬
‫‪ o‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺇﻱ‬
‫‪o Shapefiles‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻧ‪‬ﺺ‪) ‬ﰐ ﺇﻛﺲ ﰐ(‬
‫‪ o‬ﻋﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ‬
‫"ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔِ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ‪ArcInfo‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﻎِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔِ ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ‪ ArcInfo‬ﳏﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﻋﻼﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﻱ ﺇﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﺍﱘ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺩﻱ ﺇﻝ ﺟﻲ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﻱ ﰐ ﺃﻱ ﻛﹾﻲ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺁﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺱ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺁﻱ ﺟﻲ ﺩﻱ ﺇﺱ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺁﻱ ﺟﻲ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﻮﺱ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺱ ‪57-‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﰐ ﺇﺱ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،Raster ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺟﻪ(‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺱ ﺇﻝ ﺇﻑ‬
‫‪ o‬ﳕﺮ )ﺧﻼﻝ ‪(v 2000‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﴰﺲ ‪Raster‬‬
‫"ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔِ ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ‪ ArcView‬ﻭ‪ArcEditor‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﻎِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔِ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻦِ ‪ ArcView‬ﻭﺻﻴﻎ ‪:ArcEditor‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺃﻱ ﺟﻲ ﺇﻑ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﻡ ﺁﻱ ﺇﻑ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﰐ ﺇﺱ )ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻭ‪(Raster‬‬

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‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻛﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻧﺎﺗﺞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ a geoprocessing ‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪Geodatabase datasets‬‬
‫"ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪Geodatabase‬‬
‫"‪Shapefile datasets‬‬
‫"ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ‪datasets‬‬
‫"ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔِ‬
‫"ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻛﺎﺩ ‪datasets‬‬
‫"ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻛﺎﺩ‬
‫"ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ‪datasets‬‬
‫"ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ‬
‫"ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ ‪datasets‬‬
‫"ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ‬
‫"‪Raster datasets‬‬
‫"ﻓِﺮﻕ ‪Raster dataset‬‬
‫"ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪Raster‬‬
‫"ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ‪datasets‬‬
‫"ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‬
‫"ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ‬
‫"ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ‬
‫"ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﻔﹶﻬ‪‬ﻢ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻈﹼﻢ‪ ArcGIS ‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞِ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻈﱠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕِ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑِﻚِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﻑ‪ ArcGIS ‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦِ ﻋﻤﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔِ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﹰ‪:‬‬
‫"ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫"‪ geodatabases‬ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫"‪ArcSDE® geodatabases‬‬
‫ ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﺭِ ﻭ‪‬ﺿﻊ‪ ‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ArcCatalog ‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦِ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔِ‬‫ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﹸﺨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻔﺔِ ﺇﺣﺘﻮﺕ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦِ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،geodatabases ،‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ )ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪rasters, ، - :‬‬
‫‪ ،shapefiles‬ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‪ ،( .‬ﻭﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺑ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺾ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ )ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ‪ ،shapefiles ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻠﹼﺐ‪‬‬
‫‪ ،datasets‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ (‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻌِﻴﺶ‪ ‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕِ‪ .‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ،raster‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ( ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﺪ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ a ‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ - a geodatabase‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﹶﻭ ‪ .ArcSDE‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪ datasets‬ﺿﻤﻦ ‪ a‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ )ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺿﻐﻂ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﻛﻲ ]ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ[‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﺞِ ﻣﻮﺟﻪِ‬
‫]ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ[ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ( ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺿ‪‬ﻊ‪ ‬ﻛﺄﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Geodatabases‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉِ ‪ geodatabases‬ﰲ ‪:ArcGIS‬‬
‫"ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫"‪.ArcSDE‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪ Geodatabases‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﺎﹰ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹰ ﻧﻈﹼﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ،datasets ‬ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻋﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻈﹼﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪ datasets‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺠِﺪ‪ ‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﰲ‬
‫‪.geodatabases‬‬
‫‪ geodatabases‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫‪ geodatabases‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﹶﻖ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰﻥﹸ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺪﻳﺮ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓﹶ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺗﻚ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔﹶ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖِ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓﹸ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ‪ .‬ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ‪ geodtabases‬ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮﺃﻭﻥﹶ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺁﱐ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪‬ﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ArcSDE geodatabases‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑِ ﳏﺮ‪‬ﺭﻱ ‪ ArcSDE geodatabases simultaineous‬ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﻛﻤﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻧﺎﺗﺞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ a geoprocessing ‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻌﺘ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺮﺓﹸ ‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪ Geodatabase datasets‬ﻭﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‬
‫"‪Shapefile datasets‬‬
‫"ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ‪ datasets‬ﻭﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪ِ ‬ﺓ‬
‫"ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ )ﻛﺎﺩ( ‪ datasets‬ﻭﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‬

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‫"ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ‪ datasets‬ﻭﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‬
‫"ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ ‪ datasets‬ﻭﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‬
‫"‪ Raster datasets‬ﻭﻓِﺮﻕ ‪raster dataset‬‬
‫"ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ‪ ،datasets‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺿﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ‬
‫ﺇﻥﹼ ﺻﻨﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓﹶ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔِ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻣﺘﻜﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪ a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﻉِ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺛﻞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔِ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻊ( ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔِ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹِ‪ .‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ‪a‬‬
‫‪ geodatabase‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪ ،shapefile ،‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻤﻦ ‪a‬‬
‫‪.geodatabase‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪Geodatabase datasets‬‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻌِﻴﺶ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓﹸ ‪ Geodatabase datasets‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﻲِ ﺃﹶﻭ ‪ .ArcSDE geodatabases‬ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓﹸ‬
‫‪ datasets‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻨﺴ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪Geodatabase‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪ Geodatabase‬ﳐﺎﺯﻥﹶ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ﻣﺜﹼﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﻛﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺬﻳﻴﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰﻥﹸ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺑﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔﹶ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺘ‪‬ﻮﻳﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪ dataset‬ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ‪ a‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺴ‪‬ﻖ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ‪ .‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ‪ dataset‬ﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪.standalone‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ‪ (shapefile dataset (shp‬ﻣ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻭﻥﹸ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻜﻮ‪‬ﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ﻭﺧﻮﺍﺻِﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫‪ a‬ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻭﺣﻴﺪِ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ )ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ( ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹶ ﰲ ‪a shapefile‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ‪datasets‬‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻰ ‪ a‬ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻭﻧﺔﹸ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡِ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔِﻚِ ﻙ‪ a‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻭ‪‬ﺿﻊ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﻛِﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁِ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ )ﺃﻗﻮﺍﺱ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ )ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ(‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻨﺠﺎﺕ ﻻﺇﺭﺍﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺻﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺬﻳﻴﻞ )ﻧ‪‬ﺺ‪(‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻛﻤﻴﺔﹸ )ﻋﺮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌِﻼﻗﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ( ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻛﺎﺩ ‪datasets‬‬
‫ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪ ArcGIS a‬ﻣﻠﻒ ﻛﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻛﺎﺩ ‪ datasets‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻘ ِ‬
‫ﻂ‬
‫ﲬﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ‪ ،polylines ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ ‪ ،multipatches ،‬ﻭﺗﺬﻳﻴﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻛﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻛﺎﺩ ‪dataset‬‬

‫ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ‪datasets‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ‪‬ﻳﺂْﱂﹸ ﺿﻐﻂﹶ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ dataset‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻘﻂِ‪ ،‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ‪informaiton‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔِ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝِ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﺸﻔﹼﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻂﹸ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺰﻭﻳﺪ ‪ ™ StreetMap‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﲔِ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺯ‪‬ﻋﻮﻥﹶ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺷﺎﺭﻉِ‬
‫ﻝ‪ geocoding‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺣﺮ‪ ‬ﲟ‪‬ﻨﺘ‪‬ﺠﺎﺕِ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞِ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ® ﻣ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻔﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ‬
‫ﳐﺰﻥ ‪ a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁِ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﹶﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ ﻋِﻨ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻛﻤﻴﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌِﻼﻗﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺇﺱ ﺩﻱ ﺳﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋﻢ‪ a ‬ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺁﻟﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻟﺸ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺏ‪ a‬ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ ArcGIS‬ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫‪ ،™ ArcReader‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﺇﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻠﹼﻞِ ﻋﻤﻞِ ‪.ArcGIS‬‬

‫ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ ‪datasets‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ a‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ‪ a ‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ ‪ datasets‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ‬
‫ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﰲ ﰊ ﺇﻑ ‪ a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﹶﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻧﻘﻄﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﺗﺬﻳﻴﻞِ ‪ a nd،‬ﻟﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓﹸ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔِ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺻﻨﻒِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻓﻘﻂﹸ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪Raster‬‬
‫‪Raster datasets‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻓِﺮﻕِ ﺃﻛﺜﺮِ ‪ a‬ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻤﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ‪ raster ‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺟﺮﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺁﺭ ﺁﻱ ﺃﹶﻭ ‪MrSID.‬‬
‫‪ Raster datasets‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻌِﻴﺶ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻠﻒِ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓِﺮﻕ ‪Raster dataset‬‬

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‫ﺃﻱ ﻓِﺮﻕ ‪ a‬ﻣﺼﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺑ‪‬ﻌﺔِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔِ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌِﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔِ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀِ‪ .‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪a‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺸﲑ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪Raster‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪ Raster a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ raster datasets‬ﻧﻈﹼﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ a‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﺳﺠﻼﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ‪raster ‬‬
‫‪ datasets‬ﺗ‪‬ﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞِ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﱴ ﻫﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔﹸ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﳎﺎﻭﺭ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍﺧ‪‬ﻞ ‪raster‬‬
‫‪ datasets‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻔﺴﻴﻔﺴﺎﺋِﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﻣﻠﻒ ﻛﺒﲑ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪ Raster‬ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻤ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔِ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻔﺴﺎﺀِ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﹼﺐ‪datasets ‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ datasets‬ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻟﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺡِ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﹼﺐ‪ datasets ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺑﺎﻋﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁﹶ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﹶﻬﺎ ‪ ،x‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﻭ‪ a z‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔِ ﺍﳌﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﹶﺐ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉِ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘ ِﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻥﹸ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓِ؛ ﻫﻮ ﻟﹶﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻥﹸ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻓﱠﺮِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹِ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻘﻰ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔِ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻘﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ ArcCatalog‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜﻦ ﺃﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﰲ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻭﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻘﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜﻦ ﺃﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻼ ﰲ ‪.ArcCatalog‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽِ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔِ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺇﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕِ ‪ locational‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺪﺭِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲِ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ )‪ (lyr‬ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓﹶ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ﺧ‪‬ﺰﻧﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺻِﻚِ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ geograhic ‬ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﺩ‪‬ﺍﺧِﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ArcCatalog‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﻊ‪ .‬ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻘﺪﱘ ‪ a‬ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺮﺍﺋﻄﻴﺔ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺗِﻚِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ‪Geostatistical‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻘﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﺈﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩِ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﻠﹼﻞِ ‪.ArcGIS Geostatistical‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳎﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝﹸ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺭﺗ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻮﻑِ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺻﻒ‪ ‬ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﺠﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹸﻞﹼ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ‪ a‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺃﻋﺰﺏِ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔِ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺿﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﻀ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪datasets‬‬
‫ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔِ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝِ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧ‪‬ﻈﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﰲ ‪:ArcCatalog‬‬
‫ﺇﻛﺘﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎِ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔِ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩِ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖِ ‪ .ArcCatalog‬ﺍﳌﹸﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻴﻐﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺝ‪ ‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻋﻼﻩِ "ﺩ‪‬ﻋﻢ‪‬‬
‫‪ ArcGIS‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪" ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔِ ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ‪ ‬ﺇﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩِ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻴﻐﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺝ‪ ‬ﲢﺖ ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﻓﻮﻕ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺴﺘﻮﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ .ArcToolbox‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ ArcToolbox‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﻻﺣﻘﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻀﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓﹸ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖِ ‪ ArcCatalog‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻚ ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﱐ ﺃﹶﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﳎﺪﻭﻝ ‪ a ،‬ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺩﻟﻴﻞِ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺼ‪‬ﻔﱡﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋِﺪ‪‬ﺓ ‪.toolbars‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﲜ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﻗﻌِﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺍﻓﻊِ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔﹶ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﻥِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻟﹶﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻮ‪‬ﻓﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞِ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔِ‪ Connect ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺔِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺗ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺝ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺷﺠﺮﺓِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓِ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ‪ ( "+") ‬ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎ ِ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺇﺧﺘﺮ‪ ‬ﺳﻌﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔِ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔﹶ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢِ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺩﻟﻴﻞﹶ ‪.ArcCatalog‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪ toolbar‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻼﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞﹶ ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺰ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪ ‬ﺇﺣﺘﻮﺕ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ a ‬ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻇﻔﺮِ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓِ‪.‬‬

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‫"ﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ / ‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺯﻳﺰ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ ‪ a ،‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺐ‪ ‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔِ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻜﺒﲑ ‪ /‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻘﻼﺓ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻘﻼﺓﹶ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﻗﻌِﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺰ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ Identify ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽِ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪) ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ (‬ﺇﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺇﺧﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻇﻔﺮ‪ ‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﻇﻔﺮِ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ ‪ Create‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ‬
‫‪ .toolbar‬ﺷﻮ‪‬ﻓﺖ‪ ‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓﹸ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺮِ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻭﱄ ﻣ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻓﱠﺮ‪ ‬ﻙ‪ a‬ﻇﻔﺮ ﺇ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﲣﻄﻴﻄﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲِ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﻌﺮِ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﺮﺍﺽ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ‪ a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪ ‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻋﺮﺽِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ a‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﻭﱄ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝﹸ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔﹰ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻠﻨ‪‬ﻈﹾﺮ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔِ ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔﹸ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺼﻔﹼﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻨﻀﺪﺓﹶ ﻟﺮ‪‬ﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹِ ﺇﺣﺘﻮﺕ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫________________________________________‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹶ ﻭﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓﹶ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ‪ a‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻔﺎﻥِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻖ‬
‫‪ .metadata‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺮِ ‪ Metadata‬ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔِ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻣِﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺴ‪‬ﻖِ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﻩ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻒ ﺧﻮﺍﺻِﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻭﻛﹶﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺧ‪‬ﻠِﻘﺖ‪ (‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺼ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ metadata‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﻣ‪‬ﺒﻘﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﻣِﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ‪ .ArcCatalog‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‬
‫ﻗِﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥﹶ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺪﻳﺮﻭﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ArcCatalog‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻄﻠﹼﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻹﺑ‪‬ﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕِ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻞﹸ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻛﹶﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺪﻳﺮ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ‪metadata‬‬
‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺳﻌﺮِ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓِ ﻣﻜﺘﺐِ ‪ ArcGIS‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺒﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ / ArcCatalog‬ﻋ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ‪.Metadata‬‬
‫ﻧ‪‬ﻈﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﰲ ‪:ArcMap‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖِ ‪ ArcMap‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻤﻞﹸ ‪ a‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ﻟﻨ‪‬ﻈﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ ‪ a ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ‬
‫ﺷﻮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽِ ﻭ‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜِﻴﻠﺔ ‪ toolbars‬ﻟﻠﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻳ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‪ ArcMap ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺔِ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓِ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻔﹶﺘ‪‬ﺢ ‪ a‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺀ ﺑﺈﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ a ،‬ﻃﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫"ﺃﻱ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭِ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋِﻨ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻔﻮﻥﹶ ﻫﻢ ﻳﻮ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻭ‪ /‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥﹶ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﻫﻢ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻔﻈﹸﻪ‬
‫ﻙ‪ a‬ﻣﻠﻒ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔِ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔِ ﺃﺩ‪‬ﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺪﺃﹶ ﺟﻠﺴﺔﹶ ‪ArcMap‬ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺑﺈﻓﺘﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﻠﻒِ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ﺍﳊﺎﱄِ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺗِﻬﻢ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔﹰ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺃﻱ ﻃﺒﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭِ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥﹶ ﺇﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻄﺎﺕِ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴﻨﺪﻭﻥﹶ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺋﻂﹶ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﻠِﻘﻮﺍ ‪/‬‬
‫ﺯﻭ‪‬ﺩﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖِ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ ﺍﳌﹸﺨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻔﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭِ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻘﻮﺍ ‪ a‬ﻣﻠﻒ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻭﻥﹶ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻔﻮﻥﹶ‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺎﻥ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ .1‬ﺇﺫﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﳊِﻔﹾﻆ ‪ /‬ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . . .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔِ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔِ ‪ toolbar‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ‪ Add‬ﻳ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﺭﺍﻥِ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ toolbar‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺃﲝﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ‪ .‬ﺇﺧﺘﺮ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪.Add ‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﺳﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺷﺠﺮﺓِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ‪ ،ArcCatalog‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ‬
‫‪.ArcMap‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ‪ ،ArcMap‬ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻟﹶﻴﺴﺖ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ‪ ‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ )ﻟﹶﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮِ ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔِ(‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻮ‪‬ﻝﹸ ‪ ArcGIS‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮِ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔِ "ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔٍ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔٍ" ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ‪.ArcMap‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﹶﻭ ﳐﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔﹶ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪.ArcMap‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓِ ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤﺐ‪ a ‬ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻤﺔِ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻀﻊ‪ ‬ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺔِ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄِ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊِ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕِ ﺇﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻤﺔِ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﻌﻞﹶ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔﹶ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓِ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢِ ‪ a‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﻕِ ﺗ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺀ ‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜِﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪ ArcMap toolbar‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻞﹸ ‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜِﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕِ‪ toolbar .‬ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬ‪‬ﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎﻩ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪‬ﻙ‪ ‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﲜﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫‪ toolbar‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫"ﻛﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ / ‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺯﻳﺰ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ‪ a ،‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺐ‪ ‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔِ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﺒﲑ ‪ /‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻜﺒﲑ ‪ /‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺛﹶﺒ‪‬ﺖ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ / ‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺯﻳﺰِ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖِ ﰲ ‪ /‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻳ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻜﺒ‪‬ﺮ‪ / ‬ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﻛﺰِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻘﻼﺓ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻘﻼﺓﹶ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤﺐ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔِ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﻗﻌِﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﺪﻯ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻋ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖِ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺬﹾﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖِ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﻋﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖِ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺇﺫﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡِ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺬﹾﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍ ِ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫‪ .toolbar‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪ ‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔﹰ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔِ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﺮ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﰒﹼ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻟﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺐ ‪a‬‬
‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﻝ ‪ a‬ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭﻫﻢ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ‪ .‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘ‪‬ﻔﻆﹶ ﺑﻠﻜﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺄﹾﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔِ ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﹶﻱ‪‬‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫‪ o‬ﻭ‪‬ﺻﻞﹶ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺣﻖ‪ ‬ﺳﺤﺐِ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔِ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲِ ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔِ ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺇﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺗ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺇﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓِ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓﹶ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺑﺔِ ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺕِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻟﹶﻴﺴﺖ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻘﻂﹶ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕِ‪ ،‬ﻋﻮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪.toolbar‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ‪ ،‬ﲝﺠﻢ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﺮ‪‬ﻙ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁِ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻧ‪‬ﺺ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﻬﻢ‬
‫ﴰﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣِﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳ‪‬ﺤﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺘِﻚِ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﲣﻄﻴﻄﻲ ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭﻩ؛ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻔﻆﹸ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑِ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓِ؛ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺳﺤﺐ ‪ a‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻣﻴ‪‬ﺰ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺰ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﺍﹰ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ(‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽِ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﺭﺗﺒﻄﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﺒﺄﻥﹼ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣ‪‬ﺤﺘ‪‬ﻮﻳﺔﹸ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫"ﲝﺚ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚﹶ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺪ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪‬‬
‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﹶ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔﹶ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔِ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔِ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺧﻮﺍﺻِﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀَ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎﹾﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻙ‪ a‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻮﺏ‪ ‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﹶﻂﱢ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻧﺔِ ﺍﳌﱰﻟﺔﹶ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺐ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘِﻄﹶﻊِ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩﺓِ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻟﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺀ ‪ a‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹰ ﺃﹶﻭ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻐﻂﹸ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‪ ‬ﻟﻺﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺸﻮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕِ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔﹶ ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺇﻃﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﻹﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔﹶ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ‪ .toolbar‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻠﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻟﺘﺴﺒ‪‬ﺐ ‪a‬‬
‫"ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﺧﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻭﺻﻼﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔﹶ ﻋ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻓﺖ‪ ‬ﻷﻱ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ‪a‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ‪ ‬ﺇﺳ‪‬ﺘِﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻓﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢِ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓِ ‪.ArcMap‬‬

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‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺗِﻬﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻮﻓﹼﺮ‪ ‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊِ ﺍﳌﹸﺮ‪‬ﺗﻔﹶﻊِ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺢ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻹﺑ‪‬ﺤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮِ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﻣِﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ﺗ‪‬ﺬﹾﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔِ ﻭﺟﻬﺔﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﲑ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢِ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤِﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔِ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ a‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﻓﹼﺮﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔﹶ ﻭﺟﻬﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﲑ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢِ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔِ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺮﺗﻔﻊ‪ ‬ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊِ‪.‬‬
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‫ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ‪ a ،‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺮﺗ‪‬ﺒﻂﹸ ﺏ‪ a‬ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕِ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕِ ﻣ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻭﻧﺔﹸ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪ a‬ﺻﻒ‪) ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺳﺠﻞ( ﻟﻜﹸﻞﹼ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ ﻭ‪ a‬ﻋﻤﻮﺩ )ﺃﹶﻭ ﺣﻘﻞ( ﻟﻜﹸﻞﹼ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺻﻨﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕِ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻔﹶﺘ‪‬ﺢ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻝ‪ a‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ ،ArcMap‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔِ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻘﺎﺓِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﲢﺖ ﻣﺜﺎﻝﹸ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ .‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺇﻑ ﺁﻱ ﺩﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪ a‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒِ ﻓﺮﻳ ِﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻜﹸﻞﹼ ﺳﺠﻞ )ﺃﹶﻭ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔِ(‪ .‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ‪ a ‬ﺳﺠﻞ ﻭ‪ a‬ﺣﻘﻞ ‪ a‬ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔﹶ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ _ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﺳﻢِ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻞِ ﺍﻷﻭﻝِ "ﻫﺎﻭﺍﻱ‪".‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝِ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﱪ‪‬ﺯ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ a‬ﺳﺠﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﱪ‪‬ﺯ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﱪ‪‬ﺯﺓﹸ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪a‬‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ‪ ‬ﺳﺠﻼﹰ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓﹶ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﹶﺎﻧﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺇﺧﺘﺮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﱪﺯ‪ a ‬ﺳﺠﻞ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﺔِ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﻟﺴﺠﻞِ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻀﺪﺓِ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬
‫ﳐﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﺿ‪‬ﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔِ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺼﺒﺢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞﹸ ﻏﲑ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﻭﰲ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﹸﺨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻔﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺐ‪ ‬ﻝ‪ a‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦِ‪ .‬ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻞِ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕِ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﺇﺧﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﻘﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻌﻠﹼﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﺽ‪ ‬ﻋﺪﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕِ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻀﺪﺓِ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎِ‪ ،‬ﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﻠﻎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗِﻴ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﳐﻄﻂﹸ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﻢِ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﲣﻄﻴﻄﻲ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸﻮ‪‬ﻑ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪:ArcToolbox‬‬
‫‪ ArcToolbox‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺌﺔﹰ ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔِ )ﺟﻲ ﺁﻱ ﺇﺱ( ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪‬‬
‫‪ ArcToolbox‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜِﻴﻠﺔ ‪ geoprocessing‬ﻳ‪‬ﻜﻠﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﲟﻬﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﻮﻳﻞِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪ Geoprocessing‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻈﱠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖِ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖِ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ‪ .ArcToolbox‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻈﱠﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖِ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺰﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝﹶ ﻟﻸﻧﻮﺍﻉِ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡِ‪ .‬ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ‪ ‬ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺭﺟﺖ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻴﺔِ ﻓﻮﺭﺍﹰ ﲢﺖ‪ .‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔِ ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮِ ﻳ‪‬ﺼِﻔﻮﻥﹶ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎﹰ‪.‬‬

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‫"ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﲢﻠﻴﻞِ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻤ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ﲢﻠﻴﻞِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪِ ﺑﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺴﺐ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝﹶ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺟﺰ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺆﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﲢﻠﻴﻞﹶ ﻗﺮﺏِ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻞﱠ ‪ a‬ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔِ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﲢﻮﻳﻞِ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺇﺣﺘﺎﺟﺖ‪ ‬ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎِ ﺍﳌﹸﺨ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻔﺔِ‪ .‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﻨﻈﱠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖِ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺺ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉِ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞِ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺆﺩ‪‬ﻱ‪ .‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻴﻎِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔِ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻋﻮﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﻮ‪‬ﻝﹶ ‪ raster‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎِ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺤﻮ‪‬ﻝﹸ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﳏﻠﻲ )ﻛﺎﺩ( ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺤﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻴﻐﺔِ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔِ؛ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺿﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻴﻐﺔِ ‪dBase‬؛ ﺗ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻔﻆﹸ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪geodatabase‬؛ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ‪rasters‬؛ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﻣﺘﺤﻮﻝﹶ ﺇﱃ ‪ .shapefiles‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ‪ a‬ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺎﺝ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﺘ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻴﲑ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻧﻮﻉِ ‪ dataset‬ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮِ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺑ‪‬ﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ ‪ ،datasets ،‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ‪ .raster‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺻ‪‬ﻞِ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﻛﻤﻴﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻼﺕ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻜﺎﻥِ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﺎﺝ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺِ ‪ a dataset‬ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﹸﺤﻠﹼﻞِ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔِ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺼﻤ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﺴ‪‬ﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﲔ ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ﺧﻠﻮﻱِ )‪ (raster‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻀﻤﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫‪ a‬ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜِﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﻲ‪ ،‬ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ‪ ،reclass ،‬ﺟﱪ ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻛﻠﻔﺔِ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴ‪‬ﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻞﱠ ‪ a‬ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔِ ‪ ،raster‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺧﻞﹶ ‪ ArcToolbox‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ArcCatalog‬ﺃﹶﻭ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫‪) ArcToolbox‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﲪﺮ( ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ toolbar‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲِ ﲢﺖ ﺇﺛﻨﺎﻥ ‪shapefiles‬‬
‫‪ (intrstat. shp‬ﻭﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‪ (shp .‬ﺃﹸﺿﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ .ArcMap‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ArcMap ArcToolbox ‬ﺇﺳﺘﺪﻋﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞﹶ ﻓﹶﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺩﺍﺓِ ﻛﺎﺩ ﺇﺧﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻟﺘ‪‬ﺤﻮﻳﻞ ‪ .intrstat‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﻒِ ‪ shp‬ﺇﱃ ﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺩﺑﻠﻴﻮ ﺟﻲ ‪ 2004‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﻼ ‪ ArcMap‬ﻭ‪ ،ArcCatalog‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺒﺤﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﺿﻤﻦ ‪ a‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﻋﺎﺋﻘﺎﹰ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻘﻄﺖ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺷﺠﺮﺓﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ‪ .‬ﻹﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔِ ‪ ArcToolbox‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺓ ‪ a ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﻟﻠﺒ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺀ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻄﹸﻮﻝﹸ ‪) dataset‬ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺷﺠﺮﺓﹰ( ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻘﻂﹸ ﰲ "ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ "‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽِ ﰲ ‪ArcMap‬‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﻭ‪:Rasters‬‬
‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ‪ ArcMap ™ a‬ﺗﻘﺼﲑ ‪ .symbology‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪‬‬
‫‪ symbology‬ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺗِﻬﻢ )ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧ‪‬ﻂﹼ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ( ﻭ‪.rasters‬‬
‫"ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓﹶ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔﹶ ‪Symbology‬‬
‫ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻐﻴﲑ ﻟﻮﻥِ ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻝ‪ a‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ .ArcMap‬ﺃﻱ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻮﻥِ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻟﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ‬

‫ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻊِ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﺰﻳﻦ ‪ a ،‬ﻣﻞﺀ ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥِ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰِ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻔﹼﻒ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﳐﺘﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ‪ ‬ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻓﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺆﻃﹼﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻹﺧ‪‬ﺘﻴﺎﹶﺭ ‪ a‬ﻟﻮﻥ ﻭﻭ‪‬ﺿﻌﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺧﻼﺻﺔِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺑﺎﻷﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻋِﻨ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻌﺘ‪‬ﱪ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻞﹸ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ )ﻣ‪‬ﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ‬
‫ﻭﻟﹶﻴﺴﺖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ (‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔﹶ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺆﻃﹼﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‪ ‬ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺮِ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔِ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺰﻝﹸ ﺳﻬﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔﹶ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫"ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺓ ‪ a‬ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﺹِ ‪ Symbology‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ a symbology ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﳉﹶﻌ‪‬ﻠﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮِ ﻏﻨﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﺘ‪‬ﺨﺼﻴﺺ ‪ a‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻣﻴﻊِ ﺍﳌﹸﺘﻤﻴ‪‬ﺰﺓِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﻢِ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪ a ،‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻏﻄﺎﺀِ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺽِ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝِ ﺃﺭﺽِ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ )ﺃﹶﻭ ﻟﻮﻥ( ﻟﻜﹸﻞﹼ ﻫﺪﻳﺔ ﻧﻮﻉِ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝِ ﺃﺭﺽِ )ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔِ ﻗﹶ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﺑﺄﺧﻀﺮِ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﶈﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﺑﺎﻷﺻﻔﺮِ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﺀَ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‪ .( . . .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝِ ﲤﺜﻴﻞﹶ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹِ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀَ ﺃﹶﻭ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ‪ ‬ﻛﻤ‪‬ﻴﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥِ ﰲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮﺍﺗِﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺑ‪‬ﻌﺔِ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱِ؛ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘ‪‬ﺤﺪﺓِ ﻣِﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺎﻧِﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

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‫"ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺼ‪‬ﺺ‪ a ‬ﻟﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﺻﻨﻒ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﹶﻭ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔِ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﻌﺮ‪.symbology ‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ ﻣ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﱠﻠﺔ ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻭﺣﻴﺪ )ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕِ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺳ‪‬ﻴﻜﻮﻥﹸ ﻋِﻨ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥِ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞﹶ ﺇﱃ ‪ a‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ )ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﹶﻬﺎ ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻓﺮﻳﺪ(‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺣﺎﻟﺔِ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ _ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺇﺧﺘﺮ‪ ‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳ‪‬ﺸﻮ‪‬ﻑ‪ a ‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻜﹸﻞﹼ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﳐﻄﻂ ﻟﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ ﻟﹶﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕِ ﺗ‪‬ﻀِﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻐﻂﹶ ‪Add‬‬
‫ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﻢ ﺗ‪‬ﺰﺭ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺼﺒﺢ‪ a ‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺭﻣﺰﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻋﻦ‬
‫‪ ،symbology‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﻐﻂﹶ ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﳐﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥِ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪِ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ a‬ﳐﻄﻂ ﻟﻮﻥِ ﻃﹸﺒ‪‬ﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ a ‬ﻣﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ )ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ‪ a :‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞﹸ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰِ ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﺳﻢِ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺓِ )ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ Raster Symbology‬ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ a raster‬ﻣ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﱠﻞﹸ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺼ‪‬ﺺ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﻴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﳎﺎﻣﻴﻊِ ﻗِﻴ‪‬ﻢِ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺔِ‪ .‬ﻗِﻴ‪‬ﻢ ‪ Raster‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﱠﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﻠﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥِ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ‪ rasters ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﺽ ﻣ‪‬ﻊ ‪ a‬ﻣِﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ‬
‫ﻝ‪raster‬ﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺑﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪ .ArcMap‬ﺳﻌﺮ‬
‫‪ symbology‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥﹶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ a ‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥِ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗ‪‬ﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﻭ‪:Rasters‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ a‬ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻳﺪ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺅﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗِﻴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔِ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﹾﻤﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺔِ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ a‬ﻣِﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻠﻮﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ‪ ‬ﻛﻤ‪‬ﻴﺔﹶ )ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﻭ ﺧ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀِ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﻢِ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕِ ﳉﹶﻌ‪‬ﻞ ‪ symbology‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﻐﺰﻯ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ™ ArcGIS‬ﻋِﻨ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ‬ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻃﺮﻕِ ﻹﻧﻄِﺒﺎﻕ ‪ symbology‬ﻣ‪‬ﻘﻴﺲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﹸﺘ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯِ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻛﻈﻼﻝ ﰲ ‪ a‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻲ )ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻣﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ‪ a‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﻥِ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ symbology‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﹼﻊِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﳌﹸﺘ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺝ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯِ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﻟﺘ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ﺣﺠﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔِ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔِ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﱯ‪ :‬ﺗ‪‬ﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯِ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﻢِ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔِ ﻣﺜﹼﻠﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔِ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺴﺘ‪‬ﻌﻤﻞﹶ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕِ ﺍﳌﻀﻠﹼﻊِ‪ .‬ﻳ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻠﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ‪ a‬ﳕﻂ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣِﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁِ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬

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‫ﳋﹶﻠﹾﻖ ‪ a‬ﻗﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﻮﻧﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢِ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ .‬ﺳﻌﺮ ‪ symbology‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﻂﹶ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺧﻴﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥِ ﺍﳌﹸﺘ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺝِ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺣﻘﻞِ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔﹶ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﺒﻮﻁ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻞ ﺳﻜﺎﻥِ ‪ 1999‬ﺇﺧﺘﺮ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔِ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘِﻴ‪‬ﻢ ﻣ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪ 5‬ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔﹸ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﺼِﻒ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﻗﻴﺪِ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﳎﺎﻣﻴﻊِ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔِ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔِ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﹸﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓِ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔِ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓﹶ ﺇﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﻋﺪﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺃﻧﺘﺞ‪ ‬ﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﺪﺩِ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﻨﺘﺞ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓﹶ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :Quantile .4‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗ‪‬ﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﺪﺩ‪ ‬ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰ‪‬ﺍﺕِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺍﻹﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑ‪ ‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎﹰ ﻝ‪ a‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ‬ﻋﺪﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔِ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﺢ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞِ ﻟﻮ‪‬ﺿ‪‬ﻊ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕِ ﺻﻨﻔِﻬﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔِ ﺍﳌﹸﻔﹶﻀ‪‬ﻠﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ a‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒِ ﻣ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﹶﺭﺓﹸ ‪ a ،‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻮﻥِ ﻣ‪‬ﺼ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻤﺔِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﺗ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ ﺯﺭ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ symbology‬ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

‫ﳋﹶﻠﹾﻖ ‪ a‬ﻗﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﺭﻣﺰﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ‪ symbology‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺨ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺟﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺣﻘﻞِ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔﹶ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﳍﺒﻮﻁ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻘﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻊ‪ ‬ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻑِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﰒﹼ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻧﺎﻥِ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪.‬‬
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‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩِ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ ،‬ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻈﹾﻬﺮ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ‪ symbology ‬ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻣﺰِ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔﹶ‬
‫ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔﹶ‪ .‬ﰲ ﳐﺘﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰِ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺗ‪‬ﻀِﻊ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﻣ‪‬ﺠ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺩ‬

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‫ﳋﹶﻠﹾﻖ ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻧﺴﱯ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ‪ symbology‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺭﻣﻮﺯ‪ ‬ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔﹶ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ‪‬ﺿِﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‬

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‫ﳋﹶﻠﹾﻖ ‪ a‬ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔِ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻒ‪ ‬ﻧﻘﺮﺓﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔِ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﰲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝِ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭِ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕِ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﹾﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺮ ‪ symbology‬ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔﹶ ﻧﻘﻄﺔِ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐِ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭِ ﻹﻃﺎﺭِ ﺇﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ ﺍﳊﻘﻞﹶ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺪﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﺪﺭﺝ‪ ‬ﰲ ‪ a‬ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻱ‪ ‬ﺣﻘﻞﹶ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻤﻨ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﺜﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ ‪ 2001‬ﺳﻜﺎﻥﹶ ﺇﺧﺘﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣ‪‬ﺨﺘ‪‬ﺎﹶﺭ‪ ‬ﻣِﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻧ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻞِ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﺇﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭِ ﺍﳊﻘﻞﹶ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﱪﺯ‪ ‬ﺍﺳﻢ‪ ‬ﺣﻘﻞِ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢِ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢِ )<( ﻳ‪‬ﺠِﺐ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺮ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳ‪‬ﻀﻴﻒ‪ ‬ﺣﻘﻞﹶ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﳝﻦِ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭِ ﻭ‪ a‬ﺭﻣﺰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔِ ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺼ‪‬ﺼﺎﻥِ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰِ ﻳ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻜِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨ‪‬ﻘﹾﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻣﺰِ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔﹶ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩِ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭِ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺳﻌﺮِ ‪ ،Symbology‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔﹶ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ .‬ﺗ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔِ ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﻧﻘﻄﺔﹶ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩِ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺩِ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩِ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞﹸ ‪ 2001‬ﺳﻜﺎﻧﺎﹰ ﻭ‪ a‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻧﻘﻄﺔِ ‪ ،20,000‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄ ِﺔ‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼﻞﹸ ‪ 20,000‬ﺷﺨﺺ‪ .‬ﺭﺟﺎﺀً ﻻﺣﻆﹾ ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔِ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﲏ ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ 20,000‬ﺷﺨﺺ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻊِ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔِ‪ .‬ﺇﻥﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁﹶ ﺗ‪‬ﻀِﻊ‪ ‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﺓِ ‪) areal‬ﻣﻀﻠﹼﻊ( ‪ -‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔِ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﹸﻞﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺩﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﹶﺪ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺨﺘﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﺽِ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔﹶ‬

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