RS lecture3 .pdf



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11/19/2012

Outline
Satellite-based Systems LANDSAT & SPOT



Introduction



Spacecraft



Orbit



Instruments

Introduction

Introduction (cont)



Film vs. digital capture



EMR at sensor is recorded as analog electrical signal



Film products vs. digital images



Analog signal is converted to digital – quantized



A i l platforms
Aerial
l tf
vs. satellites
t llit



Image data collected





Wide variety of satellite systems





Commercial and government
Platforms
Resolution – spectral, spatial,radiometric, temporal
Applications





Aircraft – film
Satellite system - transmitted to receiving station

Raw data are generally corrected for systematic
geometric/radiometric distortions
Additional processing

1

11/19/2012

Landsat System


Potential for earth/land resource satellite system





Landsat System - History

hand-held photography from manned space flights
meteorological satellites

Landsat Program


longest running program to collect multispectral image data
from space for earth resource applications

Landsat – Launch Vehicle


Launch vehicle





Launch vehicles have included thor-Delta and Titan rockets
Launched from Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force
Base near Lompoc, CA
Only payload when launched

Landsat – Satellite




Weight ~ 5000 lb (1 kilogram is equal to 2.2 lb)
Length ~ 14 ft
Width ~ 9 ft

2

11/19/2012

Landsat – Orbit




Sun synchronous, near polar
~ 705 km altitude
9:42 am equator crossing

Landsat – Orbit (cont)




Landsat – Orbit (cont)

Each orbit ~ 99 minutes
14 orbits per day
Repeat coverage – every 16 days

Landsat Worldwide Reference System



Location over earth catalogued by WRS path/row
Each scene covers 185 km (wide) by 170 km (long)

3

11/19/2012

Landsat WRS (cont)

Multispectral Scanner (MSS)


MSS - longest collection of data by Landsat (1-5)



Optical-mechanical scanning system



Landsat - Sensors


Return Beam Vidicom (RBV) – Landsat 1 – 3



Multispectral Scanner (MSS) – Landsat 1 – 5



Thematic Mapper (TM) - Landsat 4 & 5



Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) – Landsat 6 & 7

MSS – Design & Operation

Oscillating mirror scans across scene with width of
185 km.



Light from scene is reflected through focus optics



Filters separate beam into separate  bands

4

11/19/2012

MSS – Spectral/Radiometric Properties


Spectral sensitivity


Bands: 0.5-0.6m, 0.6-0.7m, 0.7-0.8m, 0.8-1.1m

MSS – Spatial Resolution


2-D image




Voltage (electrical signal) is quantized



Radiometric resolution





Landsat 1-3: 6 bit
Landsat 4-5: 8 bit



2nd dimension –
platform movement

Signal transmitted to Earth, received, processed &
stored

MSS – Spatial Resolution




1st dimension –
oscillating mirror

2nd dimension

1st dimension

70’s

IFOV is 79 meters

Sampling rate of voltage results in spacing of 56 m
b t
between
samples
l

90’s
80’s



Pixel size: 56 x 79 m

5

11/19/2012

Landsat - Thematic Mapper (TM)


Introduced on Landsat 4 (1982)



Improvement over MSS on Landsat 1-3


Spectral – extended spectral region – visible,
visible NIR,
NIR mid-IR
and thermal



Spatial – 30m vs. 80m (120m for thermal)



Radiometric – 8-bit vs. 6-bit



Temporal – 16 day (Landsat 1-3, 18 day)



*note* MSS continued on Landsat 4 & 5

MSS vs. TM Imagery

Landsat 4 & 5

TM – Design & Operation


Optical scanning system



185 km swath width





E h scan captures
Each
t
16 lines
li
off optical
ti l data
d t (x
( 6
bands) and 4 lines of thermal = 100 detectors
Radiometric resolution: 8-bit

6

11/19/2012

Thematic Mapper (TM)

TM - Spectral Sensitivity


0.45-0.52m

Blue

Water penetration, cultural
features, smoke plumes,
atmospheric haze



0.52-0.63m

Green Measure peak green
reflectance,, vigor,
g , cultural
features



0.63-0.69m

Red

Chlorophyll absorption
region, plant species
differentiation, reduced
atmospheric effects

TM - Spectral Sensitivity (cont)


0.76-0.90m

NIR

Vegetation type, biomass,
vigor, land/water boundary
discrimination



1.55-1.75m

MIR

Moisture content, snow vs.
cloud discrimination



2.08-2.35m

MIR

Sensitive to vegetation
moisture content,
discrimination of mineral
rock types



10.4-12.5m

TIR

Thermal mapping & veg
stress, soil moisture

TIR
RED

NIR

7

11/19/2012

Landsat 7 - Enhanced Thematic Mapper


ETM - introduced on Landsat 7 (1999)



Same optical bands (1-5 & 7) as TM


same 30m spatial resolution (Bands 1-5 & 7)



Same temporal resolution as Landsat 4 & 5



Resolution of thermal band 6 improved to 60 m



New 15m Panchromatic band added (band 8)


0.52 to 0.9 m

Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

8

11/19/2012

Landsat 7 - Processing Levels


Level OR ($500/scene)








Launch date, Landsat 1 = _____



MSS sensor on Landsat ___ through _____



TM sensor added to Landsat ______ in 19___



ETM sensor added to Landsat ____ in 19___

Level 1R






Raw data
Alignment of scan lines, detectors
No radiometric correction

Review – Landsat

Radiometric correction
Metadata regarding calibration
Additional systematic scan corrections

Level 1G



Radiometrically and geometrically corrected
Re-sampled to user-specified map projection

Review - Landsat


Landsat orbit is ____________



Landsat crosses equator at ______

Review - MSS






Number of orbits per day is _________



Total Earth coverage happens every _____ days



WRS = ________. It is used to _________



MSS sensor has _________m spatial resolution.

MSS has _________ bands in the ___, ___, ___, and
____.

MSS imagery goes back to _________

9

11/19/2012

Review - TM






TM sensor has _________m spatial resolution (not
including thermal band).

TM has _____ bands in the ___, ___, ___, ___, ___,
____, and ____.

TM imagery has ____ radiometric resolution

Review - ETM








SPOT Satellite System


Satellite Pour l’Observation de
la Terre (SPOT)

ETM has _____ bands in the ___,, ___,, ___,, ___,,
___, ____, and ____.

ETM imagery has ____ radiometric resolution

ETM has a new ____________ band with
________m spatial resolution

SPOT – Launch Vehicle





ETM sensor has _________m spatial resolution (not
including thermal band).

Ariane rocket – European design &
manufacture
Launch site – French Guiana

French Space Agency & other
European countries

10

11/19/2012

Spot - Orbit
Landsat-TM

Sun synchronous, near polar
Equatorial crossing time of 10:30 am
Altitude 832 km
Repeat coverage at equator – 26 days






SPOT-XS

Design & Operation


SPOT Sensors

Linear array ‘pushbroom’ system




Mirror focuses reflected energy on bank of detectors arranged
side-by-side and perpendicular to satellite orbit track






SPOT 1 – 3

A line of data is obtained by sampling detectors along the array

SPOT 4 & 5







1st dimension



two HRV sensors
Vegetation sensor

HRV sensor


2nd dimension

two HRV sensors

panchromatic
Multi-spectral

Vegetation sensor


Multi-spectral

11

11/19/2012

HRV - Panchromatic







HRV – Multispectral


Multispectral (XS)



Spatial resolution: 20m



Spectral resolution

Panchromatic (PAN)
Spatial resolution:
10m
Spectral resolution:
0.51 – 0.73 m






0.50-0.59
0.61-0.68
0.79-0.89
1.58-1.75


Vegetation Sensor


Spatial resolution: 1.15 km



Spectral resolution:







Band 0
Band 2
Band 3
SWIR

m
m
m
m

(SWIR band added to Spot 4)

SPOT - Pointability


Increased imaging frequency

0.43-0.47 m
0.61-0.68 m
0.78-0.89 m
1.58-1.75 m

Temporal resolution: 1 day

12

11/19/2012

SPOT – Pointability (cont)


Spot Pointability (cont)

Stereoscopic imaging
Day 1

Day 2

Review - SPOT

Review - SPOT



Launched first in 19_____





Orbit is ______________





Total Earth coverage occurs every ________ days




Pointability allows __________ frequent imaging and
___________ viewing

SPOT 1-5 have two ________ sensors

One has a single ______ band with a ______m spatial
resolution

The other is ________ with a ____m spatial resolution
and bands covering the ____, ____, ____ and ____
portions of the EMR spectrum

13

11/19/2012

Review - SPOT






SPOT 4 & 5 have one ________ sensor

It has a ____m spatial resolution and bands covering
the ____, ____, ____ and ____ portions of the EMR
spectrum

Its temporal resolution is _____ day(s)

14


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