HSBC Credit Risk Equity Options .pdf



Nom original: HSBC Credit Risk Equity Options.pdfTitre: Credit Exposure MethodologyAuteur: kauschh

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
CIBM
Traded Credit and Market Risk

Credit Exposure Methodology
Equity Derivatives

COPYRIGHT. HSBC HOLDINGS PLC 2007. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, on any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
prior written permission of HSBC HOLDINGS PLC.

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Document Details
Authors

Horst Kausch

Group

CIBM TMR

Version

0.4

Date

18 September 2007

Document History
Version

Date

0.1

17-Aug-07

0.3

5-Sep-07

0.4

18-Sep-07

Comments
First draft
Unified description of vanilla case
Added Asian options

Page 2 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Executive Summary
Write an executive summary here.

Page 3 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5

1.1.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES ......................................................................................5

1.2.

MARKET FACTOR EVOLUTION..............................................................................5

1.3.

STANDARD PAYOFFS .......................................................................................6

2.

STANDARD OPTIONS ................................................................................. 7

2.1.

VANILLA OPTION ...........................................................................................8

2.2.

QUANTO OPTION ...........................................................................................9

2.3.

COMPO OPTION .............................................................................................9

2.4.

ASIAN OPTION (AVERAGING-OUT) ..................................................................... 10

2.5.

ASIAN OPTION (AVERAGING-IN) ....................................................................... 11

Page 4 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

1. Introduction
1.1.

General Principles

The Credit Exposure we seek to calculate is the maximal mark-to-market (MtM) obtained
over a an appropriate risk horizon to a 95% confidence level. These maximal MTMs are
obtained by considering the 95% confidence level cone of future values of the underlying
risk factor and then conservatively estimating the market value of the derivative at the risk
horizon within these maximal scenarios.

Without CSA Agreement
Without a CSA agreement the risk horizon is all the way to maturity, t=T. The credit
exposure is estimated as the larger of:
-

Current MtM

-

Maximal intrinsic value at maturity

CE  max MtM , CEIntrinsic(t )
With CSA Agreement
With a CSA agreement the MtM gets reset to zero with each margin call, hence the risk
horizon is the margin period of risk h (or the remaining maturity T if shorter). The credit
exposure is estimated as the larger of:
-

Maximal increase in MtM over a margin period of risk

-

Maximal intrinsic value over the next margin period of risk

CE  min CEFluctuation (t ), CEIntrinsic(t )
Here, the risk horizon is t  min( h, T ) , where the margin period of risk h is determined as
follows.
Revaluation frequency

Margin period of risk

Daily

h=0.17 (two months)

Weekly

h=0.25 (three months)

Exercise Type
The same credit exposure applies irrespective of the exercise type, which may be European
or American.

1.2.

Market Factor Evolution

The 95% confidence level cone of estimated future values,
at risk horizon t is expressed in terms of scale factors

S  (t ) , of the underlying equity

Z  (t )

such that

S  (t )  S 0 Z  (t )
where

S0

is the equity spot price at valuation date.

Under the assumption that equities evolve according to geometric Brownian motion with
drift, the scale factors take the form:



2 
t  1.645 t 
Z  t ;  ,    exp    

2 


The volatility  used in the market factor evolution is externally supplied for each equity
name and would generally be based on exponentially weighted historical volatility.
Page 5 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

The drift



represents the long-term drift of the underlying equity. It is taken as the

excess risk free interest rate over the dividend yield of the stock.
We also introduce the scale factor for the drift only,

Z 0 t;    exp t 

1.3.

Standard Payoffs

Payoffs for standard equity options in Sophis can be expressed in three ways:
Call

Put

Average-Out

nS out  K 

nK  S out 

Average-In/Average-Out

nS out  kSin 

Performance

S

N  out  k 
 S in










nkSin  S out 




S 
N  k  out 
S in 




We used the following notation:

K

Strike price in strike currency

k

Strike ratio

N
n

Notional amount in payoff currency

S out

Average-out amount

S in

Average-in amount

Position size, i.e. product of number of shares and any multipliers

For a plain vanilla option the average-out amount is simply the equity price at maturity,

S out  S (T ) , the average-in amount is equal to the strike, S in  K , and the strike ratio is

set to one.
Forward starting, Asian, Compo or Quanto options can all be expressed in the above form
with specific choices for

S out

or

S in .

Page 6 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

2. Standard Options
On exercise a standard performance option contract pays the difference between the spot
price return and the strike ratio times a specified nominal.

Call
Payoff

Put

S

N  out  k 
 S in





S 
N  k  out 
S in 




We used the following notation:

k

Strike ratio (as a decimal)

N

Nominal amount (in trade currency)

S out

Average-out amount

S in

Average-in amount

Payoffs for non-performance options can be converted to this form as follows:
Nominal

Average-in Amount

Strike Ratio

Average-Out

N  nK

S in  K

k 1

Average-In/Average-Out

N  nS in

Credit exposure will be expressed in terms of performance style payoffs with other payoff
styles converted into this form.

Intrinsic Exposure
We need to estimate the intrinsic value of the contract over a risk horizon t given the
underlying price

S0

at calculation date. This amounts to determining

above payoff. We first express these in terms of

S out

and

S in

in the

S0 ,

S out  Z out  S 0 , Sin  Z in  S 0 .
Then
Call

CEIntrinsic( N , Z out , Z in , k , t )

Z

N  out  k 
 Z in


Put



Z 
N  k  out 
Z in 




Fluctuation Exposure
We estimate the change in value of the contract over a risk horizon t by considering the
95%-ile growth factor

Z  (t )

multiplied by the nominal and scaled by a delta factor. This

delta factor is conservatively estimated as the maximal delta with over the life of the
contract.
Page 7 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Call

CEFluctuation ( N , , t )

2.1.





N Z  (t )  1

Put



N 1  Z  (t )



Vanilla Option

Description
The vanilla performance option case defined as:
-

Multi currency type is Standard

-

There is a single underlying (IsMono flag is set)

-

No clauses attached to the option description

The vanilla case includes forward starting options. Credit exposure is calculated as stated
above based on the inputs below.

Data Requirements
MtM

Current mark-to-market of position

N, n

Nominal (in trade currency) or position size (quantity)

K, k

Strike price or strike ratio



Drift



Volatility

 1

Delta

S0

Underlying price at calculation date

S in

Historical fixing of spot price (is present in fixing repository)

Average-in Amount, Average-in Factor and Strike Ratio
-

If the option has a forward starting date

t fwd

set and has a fixing for the underlying

price then


the average-in amount is the underlying price at the forward starting date,



the average-in factor is ratio of the average-in amount over the underlying price at

S in  S (t fwd ) , obtained from the fixing repository;

the valuation date,


-

Z in  S in / S 0 ;

the strike ratio k is obtained from the option description (k is a decimal number and
hence the strike percentage in the message needs to be divided by 100).

If the option has a forward starting date

t fwd

set but no fixing for the underlying price

then


the average-in amount is the expected underlying price at the forward starting date
based on the drift,



Sin  Z 0 (t fwd )S 0 ;

the average-in factor is ratio of the average-in amount over the underlying price at
the valuation date,

Z in  Sin / S 0  Z 0 (t fwd ) ;
Page 8 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives



the strike ratio k is obtained from the option description.

If there is no forward starting date then

-

S in  K .



the strike price K is used as the average-in amount,



the average-in factor is ratio of the average-in amount over the underlying price at
the valuation date,



Z in  Sin / S 0  K / S 0 ;

the strike ratio is set to k=1.

Note that the forward starting date

t fwd

is measured relative to valuation date. This may

be negative if the forward starting date is prior to the valuation date.

Nominal
-

For a performance option the nominal N is directly stated in the position information.

-

Otherwise the nominal is obtained as product of the quantity and the average-in
amount,

N  n  S in .

Average-out Factor Z out
The average-out factor

Z out

is obtained from the market factor evolution over the risk

horizon,

Z out  Z  (t )
with a + sign for a call option and a – sign for a put option.

2.2.

Quanto Option

Description
A quanto option is an option where the payoff is in a different from the underlying and
strike. This is defined the same as the vanilla case except for:
-

Multi currency type is Quanto

The credit exposure is identical to the vanilla case.
Note: For the non-performance case this implies an FX rate of one between underlying
currency and trade currency. We have yet to see any examples of this.

2.3.

Compo Option

Description
A compo (or composite) option is an option where the currency of the underlying is
different from the strike currency. This is identified in the option description as:
-

Multi currency type is Compo

The payoff and credit exposure are identical to the vanilla case for an underlying converted
to strike currency. This implies the following changes to the inputs compared to the vanilla
case.

Page 9 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Data Requirements
Data requirements are as in the vanilla case except for:

 EQ

Volatility of underlying equity spot price

 FX

Volatility for FX rate from underlying to strike currency

S0

Underlying price at calculation date

FX 0

FX rate at calculation date

S in

Historical fixing of spot price (if present in fixing repository)

FX in

Historical fixing of FX rate (if present in fixing repository)

Volatility
The volatility required in the credit exposure calculation is the volatility of the currency
converted equity obtained as the square root of the sum of squares of the original equity
volatility and the FX volatility.
2
2
   EQ
  FX

Average-in Amount and Average-in Factor
The Average-in amount and average-in factor

Z in

are determined as in the vanilla case

except that each occurrence of the underlying price needs to be converted at the
appropriate FX rate. That is, we need to replace

Sin  Sin FX in , S 0  S 0 FX 0 .

Average-out Factor Z out
The average-out factor

Z out

is unchanged from the vanilla case,

Z out  Z  (t ) ,
since FX fluctuations are already incorporated in the volatility

2.4.



.

Asian Option (Averaging-out)

Description
An averaging-out Asian option is an option where the average-out amount

S out

is defined

as the average of observed spot prices over an averaging schedule. Such an option is
identified through the presence of MultiAsianOut clauses. An Asian option may be partially
through its averaging schedule in which case the already observed spot prices should be
listed in fixing repository. Asian options can be handled with minor changes to the inputs
compared to the vanilla case.

Data Requirements
Data requirements are as in the vanilla case except for:
M

Total number of fixing dates

{t j }

Fixing schedule, j=1,…,M

m

Number of observed fixings

{S (t j )}

Spot prices already fixed, j=1,…,m

Page 10 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

Average-out Factor
The intrinsic value needs to be calculated taking into account the averaging schedule. The
average-out factor is given by averaging the scale factors

S (t j ) / S0

where we have

already observed the spot price and the market factor evolution scale factor

Z  (t j )

where

the spot price has not yet been observed. Thus,

Z out 

1
M



  S (t j ) / S 0   Z  (t j )  ,


j  m 1,, M
 j 1,,m


with a + sign for a call option and a – sign for a put option.
The same principle applies to Asian compo options with the currency converted spot price

S (t j )  S (t j ) FX (t j ), S 0  S 0 FX 0 .

used for each observed fixing,

Delta
An Asian option partially through its averaging schedule has a reduced sensitivity to the
underlying spot price and hence delta for the fluctuation exposure is no longer one but
equal to the fraction of unknown future fixings,

  m/ M .

2.5.

Asian Option (Averaging-in)

Description
An averaging-in Asian option is an option where the average-in amount

S in

is defined as

the average of observed spot prices over an averaging schedule. Such an option is
identified through the presence of MultiAsianIn clauses. An Asian option may be partially
through its averaging schedule in which case the already observed spot prices should be
listed in fixing repository. Asian options can be handled with minor changes to the inputs
compared to the vanilla case.

Data Requirements
Data requirements are as in the vanilla case except for:
M

Total number of fixing dates

{t j }

Fixing schedule, j=1,…,M

m

Number of observed fixings

{S (t j )}

Spot prices already fixed, j=1,…,m

Average-In Amount, Average-In Factor
A forward starting vanilla option can be considered a special case of an averaging-in option
with a single fixing date in the averaging-in schedule. The calculation of the average-in
amount combines the two cases (fixing available or not) from the vanilla option case.
Thus,

S in 

1
M


  S (t j ) 

 j 1,,m

Z

0

j  m 1,, M


(t j ) S 0  .


As before, the average-in factor is the ratio of the average-in amount over the underlying
price at the valuation date,

Z in  S in / S 0 .

The same principle applies to averaging-in Asian compo options with the currency
converted spot price used for each observed fixing,

S (t j )  S (t j ) FX (t j ), S 0  S 0 FX 0 .
Page 11 of 12

Credit Exposure Methodology – Equity Derivatives

References
Credit Risk on OTC Options, [Marked up on Paris’ paper], 11 August 2006

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