Study Materials for MIT Course [8.02T] Electricity and Magnetism [FANTASTIC MTLS] .pdf


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Summary of Class 3
Topics:

8.02

Friday 2/4/05

Line and Surface Integrals

Topic Introduction
Today we go over some of the mathematical concepts we will need in the first few weeks of
the course, so that you see the mathematics before being introduced to the physics.
Maxwell’s equations as we will state them involve line and surface integrals over open and
closed surfaces. A closed surface has an inside and an outside, e.g. a basketball, and there is
no two dimensional contour that “bounds” the surface. In contrast, an open surface has no
inside and outside, e.g. a flat infinitely thin plate, and there is a two dimensional contour that
bounds the surface, e.g. the rim of the plate. There are four Maxwell’s equations:
(1)

G

G

w
∫∫ E ⋅ dA =
S

Qin

(2)

ε0

G

G

w
∫∫ B ⋅ dA = 0
S

G G
dΦ B
(3) v∫ E ⋅ d s = −
dt
C

(4)

G G

B
vC∫ ⋅ d s = µ 0 I enc + µ 0ε 0 dt E

Equations (1) and (2) apply to closed surfaces. Equations (3) and (4) apply to open surfaces,
and the contour C represents the line contour that bounds those open surfaces.
There is not need to understand the details of the electromagnetic application right now; we
simply want to cover the mathematics in this problem solving session.
Line Integrals
The line integral of a scalar function f ( x, y, z) along a path C is defined as



C

f ( x, y, z ) ds = lim

N

∑ f (x , y , z )∆s

N →∞
∆si →0 i=1

i

i

i

i

where C has been subdivided into N segments, each with a length ∆si .
Line Integrals Involving Vector Functions
For a vector function
G
F = Fx ˆi + Fy ˆj + Fz kˆ

the line integral along a path C is given by



C

G G
F ⋅ d s = ∫ Fx ˆi + Fy ˆj + Fz kˆ ⋅ dx ˆi + dy ˆj + dz kˆ = ∫ Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

where

C

(

)(

)

C

G
d s = dx ˆi + dy ˆj + dz kˆ

is the differential line element along C.

Summary for Class 03

p. 1/2


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