BCIRA copper cast iron .pdf


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'./ely coupled plasma atomic-fluorescence

The inc

(i

lfrrandotheratomicspectroscoplctechniques
ano otlltrl crLL'rrrr\'' t'v\''\''!'vYYvr
for the dl, ,ilsls of samples in solution-an
Repoft

SpeCtfOffi

1571

t

ASSESSMENT
by J. S' Gibbs
for
has been the most successful technique
'
decades atomic-absorption spectroscopy
recendy
in acidic media' More
dissolved
trave'ieen
'
which
samples
from
determining the composltron or castings,

Synopsis-For the past.two

thedevelopmentofinductivelycoupledplasmaatomic.emissionspectroscopyhasprovidedamethodwhichis
A rEsE'r uEvrruvr
used' ,'
wldely us€q'
becoming more widerv
'
of atomic.
which' it is clain,.J,'.o-tina, aany ofihe advanrages

J'"#il:'i;p#i,-':tl':l::"1-..1t"'::l*T:'"'"'l:i5'":il|;;::H::'f;il

f

;;pil;;;;t

spectrometry

",orni.-fl"o""tntt
and atom,c-em,ss-,"";;#;;;''""nv'ini

"'*::'"11'-o:::lf:::lltil;tj:lin:T',:iif:::Jl"3lj::
but pubrished resurts are incruded
:::il#:?il:"1':ffiil11:H','""J#;;:i;i.;;. ;;i'y.il..n "s"uri'r'ed,
absorption

for ihe analysis of alloyed steels'

Principles of the different techniques

the analysis .of.cast iron samples which
direcr optical-emission spectromerry'
for
.uir"Ut.
"oi
in an acidic medium followed.by
rample
disfi;i".;a;h.
spectroscopy (FAAS) to determtne
as chromium, nickel' manganese' ano
.o"r""tt
Jf"."ni"io-i.'"Utotption
a very
"i"h
*r*n"ai"a has for the past two decades been
with
developments
Plasma
Recint
t".?itti"i i.ir,tiq"e.
couPled plasma (rLr)
svstems, particularly the inductively
tinsitivity and extended analytical range'
'itr'iliriitorou.a
as powerful as
ilii,i Jii"llla *uniques which are at leastanalvsis
of these
methods for the

Introduction-In

The techniques of flame atomic-absorption.sp^cctroscopy'

ri.
[r..

plasma-emission and atomic-fluorescenct
commol mechanism for forming gaseout
"
sround-statc atoms, as lollows:

i"io"i".fy.ii"pr"a
ipiii"t."'py rti".

aspiration of the sarnple solution;
evaporation of the solvent from the sample;

volarilization;
atomization.

il;;;;;f.i;;tptiLn
t"Tittl,ior.,,u.,,

*r"ii"i, *"rittg

Y

.oupled plasma excites the atoms in rhe
,ttem^ to emit their characteristic spectral

in operation 3t f!Ra,ro1
il;;. S;J;tft.m
spectnrm'
Partlcularly wnen
emission
fhe
three vears.
comPlex-wrtn
very
is
prescnt,
.i...titt.u.tt as iron arc
t"qu]Lt:.:.i
spectrum
This-complex
ihorrsands of lines.
to separate tne
resolurion
high
of
spectromctcr
.ttanii".
has been

other'
socctral
"'e 'n lincs from each

has had very limited success
spectrometry' It is a combination ot

nrt.ii..itnique which

ir;,;;;:it;t;.;ce
;nd atsorption methods Light from
;il;.;;;il
right-angles to the flameilliow'carnoae ump posirioned at
the flame' and acts as an
focused.onto
ii
tJ*t...i.tl-r.
:i'.rn
solurion.being analysed Some of the
a

i.r.*oit'

Atomic-absorption spectroscopyr -ln atomic-absorPrio0
t;;;;t.;py 1tig. tal'a conventional flame Produced bv

L"i"itg g.i -iir,rres- such:s. air/acetYl:":^
11^i:::":
##;"..tfi:";;';;uia.t iun"i'n' energv to, aromize
proporrion of many *:
^"i!-pj:'::j':L:"lT::"Tj,l1:
atoms can rhen be raised to
"'"t'"';;;;;-;;;1o"f Th.,.
bv absorPtion of energv of
states
(.-.ired)
;'i#; ;;"-;l;
from an extemal
a

;;?,jild;;il-tilio a panicular element,
hollow'cathode lamp
.n.r*t-t"out..1 flit sourie is usually a
element

il;;?;;;l!"*-."hode lamps are needed for each
emitreifJ
i.i""'.ir'. *.*t.-"erh of liefit enersl
ff:;"'ill
tror
is characteristic of the element

r" the flame which

il';;i;;
ll-li"rit'.i..*t

has been

.*irrion,p..a*t is simple but the technique
ii.i.i'i" ir'"*,r.* "',TAf
Jll'ff T,:iJTiY"i::'li:
undcr these conditions worK nal

to. develop I tv"it Ylt^l:.-1:
;il;-;;'seven vears
is used as the excitatron source
plasma
inioo-iu.iv .oupr"a
manv more elements can oe
i;;;;; "d a flamt, so that
have manufactured the
:iHil. il;ii;-Iiaird Atomlc.Inc
plasma atomic-fluorescence
it^i'i"a".ii"tii coupled
to combine the best features
ilaimed
is
il;"r;;;;;,;il"h
and atomic-cmission spectroscopy'

b";;';t;;.-6"rption

description of these
The present Peper glves a orief and disadvantages'
,*h"i'.;;;;d lists tfieir advantagcs

1$

ts

fot the

are of the same clement
thc light and are raised
absorb
lamp,
"i"it^Ji.t.ii
f,iir"*..irt"de
l.",rt.
;;",t" In returning to the-'ground state' thev
;;
l he
line characteristic of the element

;"f

source
In order to accomplish this last process a heat
is
aspirated'
solution
sample
the
*rti.h
r.""ir.l'iti"

*:n,:t.T:[I;':lH1iJil.l

J:.1"j[i1

iii""ii,y ay. to absorption of en"+t,:t;::.:::"f i,tl:
atoms in the flame rs recordeo'

"fu;mn

'.":$':jrf6;tt:}
*+*-:lili-tj*H;:iifi
"U. -.on*^at.d,
and used. to obtain the
ian

element

in the solurion being

."ia*t*""

analysed

Advanuges
a simple spectrum u
Spectral'line overlap is rare- because
tamP'
oioduced by the hollow'cathode

low'
spectrum is .simple' an inexpensive
instrument'
the
for
tooit.ftromator is adequate

,rt.
ir.atut.
-r.tofuiio"

March

1984

I

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