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Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv
qdqflhuv

Dqwrlqh Iudfkrw

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh Mdqylhu 5334

Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv

4 Ohv surgxlwv
414 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
415 Ohv dfwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41514 Jìqìudolwìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41515 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*dfwlrqv 1 1 1
41516 Frwdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41517 Sul{ g*dfwlrqv hw wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh
416 Ohv reoljdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41614 Jìqìudolwìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41615 Fdofxo ghv x{ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41616 Txhotxhv h{hpsohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41617 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*reoljdwlrq 1
41618 Wdx{ g*lqwìuíw hw wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh
41619 Hqfruh txhotxhv qrwlrqv srxu qlu 1
417 Ohv pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
418 Ohv wdx{ gh fkdqjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41814 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv wdx{ gh fkdqjh 1 1
41815 Lqwhusuìwdwlrq ìfrqrpltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1
419 Txhotxhv frqfoxvlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
41: Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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5 Surgxlwv gìulyìv dfwlrq
514 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
515 Ohv rswlrqv gh edvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51514 Gì qlwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51515 H{hpsohv gh frqwudw g*rswlrq 0 PRQHS 1 1 1 1
51516 Irupdwlrq ghv sul{ g*rswlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
516 G*dxwuhv rswlrqv hw vwudwìjlhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51614 Elqdu| rx gljlwdo rswlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51615 Exoo hw Ehdu vsuhdgv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51616 Vwudggohv hw Vwudqjohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51617 Exwwhu | hw frqgruv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51618 Fdohqgdu vsuhdgv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
51619 Zduudqw/ erq gh vrxvfulswlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
5161: Reoljdwlrqv frqyhuwleohv hw uhyhuvh frqyhuwleohv
5161; Surgxlwv ã fdslwdo jdudqwl 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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517

Jorvvdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

6 Ohv prgëohv glvfuhwv g*ìydoxdwlrq
614 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
615 Oh fdguh suredelolvwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61514 Od g|qdpltxh gx sul{ gh o*dfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61515 Txhotxhv sursulìwìv gh od g|qdpltxh ghv sul{ 1 1 1
616 O*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh hw oh sul{ ghv surgxlwv
61614 Od irupxoh g*ìydoxdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61615 Lqwhusuìwdwlrq ìfrqrpltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61616 Xwlolvdwlrq sudwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
617 Od frqyhujhqfh yhuv oh whpsv frqwlqx 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61714 Txhotxhv qrwdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61715 Fkdqjhphqw gh sdudpìwudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61716 Frqyhujhqfh yhuv oh whpsv frqwlqx 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61717 Txhotxhv uhpdutxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
61718 Hydoxdwlrq sdu ìtxdwlrq dx{ gìulyìhv sduwlhoohv 1 1

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7 Oh prgëoh gh Eodfn hw Vfkrohv
714 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
715 Od irupxoh gh Eodfn hw Vfkrohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
716 Oh irupdolvph gx whpsv frqwlqx 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
71614 Oh prxyhphqw Eurzqlhq hw ohv ìtxdwlrqv gl ìuhqwlhoohv vwrfkdvwltxhv
71615 Oh ohpph g*Lw÷ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
71616 O*ìtxdwlrq gh Irnnhu0Sodqfn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
717 Uhirupxodwlrq gh o*k|srwkëvh g*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1
718 Dqdo|vh hw xwlolvdwlrq gh od irupxoh gh Eodfn hw Vfkrohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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8 H{whqvlrqv hw dssolfdwlrqv gx prgëoh gh Eodfn hw
814 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
815 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv glylghqghv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
816 Wdx{ g*lqwìuíw hw yrodwlolwì gìshqgdqwhv gx whpsv 1
817 Rswlrqv gljlwdohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
818 Rswlrqv eduulëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
81814 Gì qlwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
81815 Fdofxo gx sul{ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
81816 Dxwuhv rswlrqv eduulëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
819 Rswlrqv orrnedfn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
81: Dxwuhv rswlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
81; Rswlrqv dpìulfdlqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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1 1 1 1 1
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gìulyìv
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1 1 1 1 1

Vfkrohv
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9 Sul{ }ìur0frxsrq/ wdx{ g*lqwìuíw/ sul{ Iruzdug/ sul{ Ixwxuhv
914 Jìqìudolwìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
915 Rsìudwlrqv dx frpswdqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91514 Gì qlwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91515 Mxvwl fdwlrqv wkìrultxhv gdqv oh fdv glvfuhw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91516 Ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
916 Rsìudwlrqv ã whuph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91614 Gì qlwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91615 Duelwudjh frpswdqw0whuph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91616 Glvwlqfwlrq Iruzdug2Ixwxuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
917 Dqqh{h 4 = Gl ìuhqfh hqwuh sul{ iruzdug hw sul{ ixwxuh 1 1 1 1 1
91714 Uìvxowdw 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91715 Uìvxowdw 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
91716 Uìvxowdw 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
918 Dqqh{h 5 = Frqwudw hxuleru 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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qrwdwlrqv hw
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

frqfhswv1
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: Lqwhusrodwlrq hw dqdo|vh idfwrulhooh gh od vwuxfwxuh ghv wdx{1
:14 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:15 Ohv pìwkrghv g*lqwhusrodwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1514 Qrwdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1515 Od prgìolvdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1516 Sulqflshv g*hvwlpdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1517 Ohv sulqflsdohv idploohv gh irqfwlrqv g*lqwhusrodwlrq 1 1 1
:16 O*dqdo|vh idfwrulhooh gh od vwuxfwxuh ghv wdx{ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1614 Prwlydwlrqv qdqflëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1615 Txhotxhv qrwlrqv vxu ohv prgëohv idfwrulhov 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1616 Whvw g*k|srwkëvhv qdqflëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
:1617 Hvwlpdwlrq g*xq prgëoh idfwrulho 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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< Lqwurgxfwlrq dx{ prgëohv hq whpsv frqwlqx1
<14 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<15 Oh fdguh suredelolvwh hw o*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwìv g*duelwudjh +Khdwk/ Mduurz hw Pruwrq,
<1514 Ohv prxyhphqwv gh od vwuxfwxuh ghv wdx{ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1515 Devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwìv g*duelwudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1516 Fkdqjhphqw gh suredelolwì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<16 Oh prgëoh vrxv od suredelolwì ulvtxh0qhxwuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1614 Ohv wdx{ ã whuph lqvwdqwdqìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1615 Surfhvvxv gx wdx{ frxuw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1616 Ohv sul{ }ìur0frxsrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1617 H{hpsoh = iruph gh od frxueh ghv wdx{ gdqv oh fdv g*xqh yrodwlolwì frqvwdqwh 1 1 1
<17 O*lqwurgxfwlrq gh yduldeohv g*ìwdw gdqv ohv prgëohv KMP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1714 Jìqìudolwìv vxu ohv prgëohv idfwrulhov 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1715 Yrodwlolwì gìwhuplqlvwh hw yduldeohv g*ìwdw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1716 Yrodwlolwìv qrq gìwhuplqlvwhv hw yduldeohv g*ìwdw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<18 H{hpsohv gh prgëohv olqìdluhv ã yrodwlolwì vwrfkdvwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1814 Oh prgëoh ã xq idfwhxu +Fr{/ Lqjhuvroo hw Urvv, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1815 Oh prgëoh gh Gx!h hw Ndq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
<1816 Oh prgëoh txdgudwltxh jdxvvlhq +Ho Ndurxl/ P|qhql hw Ylvzdqdwkdq, 1 1 1 1 1 1

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43 H{hpsohv gh surgxlwv gh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
4314 Iruzdug udwh djuhhphqw +IUD, 1 1 1 1 1
4315 Frqwudw Ixwxuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4316 Ohv vzdsv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4317 Fds hw Iorru 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4318 Vzdswlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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; Ohv prgëohv gh wdx{ hq whpsv glvfuhw1
;14 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;15 Oh prgëoh gh edvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1514 Ohv k|srwkëvhv qdqflëuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1515 Oh prgëoh suredelolvwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1516 O*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1517 Sursulìwì gh pduwlqjdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1518 Fkdqjhphqw gh sdudpìwudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;16 Uìvroxwlrq gx prgëoh gdqv xq fdv vlpsoh = oh prgëoh gh Kr hw
;17 Ohv h{whqvlrqv gx prgëoh gh Kr hw Ohh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1714 Oh prgëoh ã yrodwlolwì h{srqhqwlhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1715 Prgëoh ã soxvlhxuv doìd 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1716 Prgëoh gh Eodfn/ Ghupdq hw Wr| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;18 Dssolfdwlrqv ã od ydorulvdwlrq ghv elhqv frqwlqjhqwv 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1814 Sulqflsh g*ìydoxdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
;1815 Dxwuhv suredelolwìv 0 Suredelolwìv iruzdug0qhxwuhv 1 1
;19 Sdvvdjh ã od olplwh gdqv ohv prgëohv glvfuhwv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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4319 Dqqh{h = h{wudlw gh od grfxphqwdwlrq gx Ol h +zzz1ol h1frp, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 46<

4
Ohv surgxlwv

414 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Ohv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv vrqw wuëv glyhuv hw ohxu frpsoh{lwì v*dffurñw gh mrxu hq mrxu1 Lo hvw grqf gh soxv
hq soxv gl!floh gh guhvvhu xqh w|srorjlh ghv surgxlwv1 Srxu idluh vlpsoh/ rq glvfxwhud lfl ghv dfwliv gh
edvh = dfwlrq/ reoljdwlrq/ pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv/ ghylvhv1 Gdqv oh fkdslwuh vxlydqw/ rq frpphqfhud ã sduohu
surgxlwv gìulyìv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh ghv frqwudwv grqw ohv x{ qdqflhuv dvvrflìv gìshqghqw +l1h gìulyhqw, ghv
dfwliv gh edvh glvfxwìv lfl1
V*djlvvdqw ghv dfwliv gh edvh/ qrxv grqqrqv lfl ohxu gì qlwlrq hw gìyhorssrqv ohv pdwkìpdwltxhv ìoìphq0
wdluhv tx*lo hvw qìfhvvdluh gh pdñwulvhu dydqw gh srxuvxlyuh1
Udsshorqv tx*xq dfwli rx lqvwuxphqw qdqflhu hvw xq pr|hq g*h hfwxhu ghv wudqvihuwv lqwhuwhpsruhov gh
ulfkhvvh1 Oruvtxh fhv wudqvihuwv gh ulfkhvvh vrqw sduidlwhphqw frqqxv/ rq sduohud g*dfwliv ã uhyhqx {h
+ {hg0lqfrph vhfxulwlhv, hw/ frqfuëwhphqw/ fhod gìvljqhud w|sltxhphqw ohv reoljdwlrqv1 Gdqv fh fdv/ od
txhvwlrq hvvhqwlhooh gh vdyrlu frpelhq ydxw hq hxur g*dxmrxug*kxl od surphvvh +fhuwdlqh, gh uhfhyrlu xq
hxur ã xqh gdwh ixwxuh grqqìh +l1h1 oh sul{ gx whpsv,1 Ohv dfwlrqv/ ohv ghylvhv/ ohv pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv vrqw/ ã
o*lqyhuvh/ ghv h{hpsohv g*dfwliv shuphwwdqw ghv wudqvihuwv gh ulfkhvvh qrq sduidlwhphqw frqqxv dxmrxug*kxl1
Dlqvl/ xqh dfwlrq g*xqh hqwuhsulvh grqqh gurlw ã xqh sduw ghv eìqì fhv ixwxuv gh fhwwh hqwuhsulvh pdlv fh
sur w q*hvw sdv frqqx dxmrxug*kxl1 Gdqv fh fdv/ lo | d ghx{ glphqvlrqv = xqh glphqvlrq sul{ gx whpsv hw
xqh glphqvlrq sul{ gx ulvtxh1 Hq h hw/ fhv ghuqlhuv dfwliv lpsoltxhqw ìjdohphqw ghv wudqvihuwv gh ulvtxh
hqwuh lqglylgxv1
O*rxyudjh suìvhqw hvw xqh lqwurgxfwlrq ã fhv txhvwlrqv hq hvvd|dqw gh pdulhu ohv frqvlgìudwlrqv sudwltxhv
vxu o*xwlolvdwlrq gh fhv surgxlwv hw ohv uhsëuhv wkìrultxhv +ydorulvdwlrq hw frxyhuwxuh,1 Oh sduwl sulv hvw gh
qh sdv idluh gh wkìrulh gxuh / fhooh0fl ìwdqw wudlwìh gh idêrq frpsoëwh gdqv ohv frxuv gh Pdwkìpdwltxhv
Dssoltxìhv1

415 Ohv dfwlrqv
41514 Jìqìudolwìv
Xqh dfwlrq +htxlw|/ vwrfn/ vkduh, hvw xq wlwuh gh sursulìwì g*xqh hqwuhsulvh grqqìh1 Hooh jìqëuh grqf
srxu vhv gìwhqwhxuv +ohv dfwlrqqdluhv rx vkduhkroghuv, xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh gh gurlwv/ qrwdpphqw oh gurlw gh
uhfhyrlu xqh sduwlh ghv eìqì fhv ixwxuv hw xq gurlw gh yrwh vxu ohv gìflvlrqv vwudwìjltxhv gh o*hqwuhsulvh1
Rq v*lqwìuhvvh lfl dx{ dfwlrqv frpph dfwli qdqflhu/ f*hvw0ã0gluh xq dfwli txl jìqëuh ghv x{ ixwxuv dsshoìv

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

glylghqghv1 Ohv glylghqghv uhsuìvhqwhqw wrxw rx sduwlh ghv eìqì fhv vhorq txh ohv dfwlrqqdluhv gìflghqw
gh uhwhqlu rx qrq xqh sduwlh ghv eìqì fhv gdqv o*hqwuhsulvh1 Ohv glylghqghv vrqw yhuvìv sìulrgltxhphqw1
Rq qh uhjdugh sdv lfl ohv udlvrqv txl srxvvhqw xqh hqwuhsulvh ã ìphwwuh ghv dfwlrqv rx ã v*hqghwwhu1 Srxu
idluh vlpsoh/ glvrqv tx*xqh hqwuhsulvh glvsrvh ã vd fuìdwlrq g*xq fdslwdo dssruwì sdu vhv dfwlrqqdluhv1 Fh
fdslwdo q*hvw sdv irufìphqw frwì vrxv iruph g*dfwlrqv vxu ohv pdufkìv gh fdslwdx{1 Wrxwhirlv/ vl o*hqwuhsulvh
hvw vx!vdpphqw lpsruwdqwh/ hooh shxw idluh dssho ã o*ìsdujqh sxeoltxh hw ohv dfwlrqv gh o*hqwuhsulvh
shxyhqw íwuh frwìhv vxu xq pdufkì g*dfwlrqv1 Hq q/ srxu qdqfhu vhv lqyhvwlvvhphqwv/ o*hqwuhsulvh shxw
vrlw ìphwwuh gh qrxyhoohv dfwlrqv/ vrlw v*hqghwwhu +dxsuëv g*xqh edqtxh rx hq ìphwwdqw ghv wlwuhv gh ghwwh/
l1h1 ghv reoljdwlrqv,1 Od txhvwlrq ghv dydqwdjhv frpsduìv ghv ghx{ prghv gh qdqfhphqw qh vhurqw sdv
derugìhv lfl hw uhoëyhqw g*xq frxuv gh qdqfh g*hqwuhsulvh1
Qrxv dgrswrqv grqf lfl oh srlqw gh yxh ghv pdufkìv soxw÷w txh fhoxl gh o*hqwuhsulvh txl fkhufkh ã qdqfhu
vhv lqyhvwlvvhphqwv1 Od yduldeoh ã fhuqhu hvw oh sul{ gh o*dfwlrq1 Fh sul{ hvw irqfwlrq ghv dqwlflsdwlrqv
ghv lqwhuyhqdqwv vxu oh qlyhdx ghv glylghqghv ixwxuv hw vxu od ydohxu gh uhyhqwh gh o*dfwlrq1 Hq h hw/ xqh
dfwlrq q*d sdv gh whuph gì ql dxwuh txh od idloolwh gh o*hqwuhsulvh +rx vd glvsdulwlrq srxu g*dxwuhv udlvrqv
frpph xqh ixvlrq,1 Sdu frqvìtxhqw/ od ydohxu gh uhyhqwh gh o*dfwlrq gdqv 8/ 43 rx 48 dqv q*hvw sdv soxv
frqqxh dxmrxug*kxl txh ohv glylghqghv ixwxuv1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ ohv ydohxuv glwhv gh od Qrxyhooh Hfrqrplh
rqw frwì ã ghv sul{ ìohyìv xqh sduwlh gh o*dqqìh 5333/ pdojuì ghv glylghqghv frxudqwv ìjdx{ ã 3 hw/ srxu
fhuwdlqhv/ qxov ã o*krul}rq gh ghx{ dqv1 Gdqv fh fdv/ od idleohvvh ghv glylghqghv ixw odujhphqw frpshqvìh
sdu o*dqwlflsdwlrq g*xqh lpsruwdqwh ydohxu gh uhyhqwh gh o*dfwlrq1
Oh sul{ g*xqh dfwlrq vxlw grqf xq surfhvvxv doìdwrluh txl uh ëwh dxvvl elhq ohv lqfhuwlwxghv ixwxuhv +hq
sduwlfxolhu vxu ohv sur wv gh o*hqwuhsulvh, txh ohv dssuìfldwlrqv tx*hq rqw ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv vxu ohv pdufkìv1
Gh idlw/ oh frxuv g*xqh dfwlrq hvw wuëv odujhphqw lpsuìylvleoh ã sduwlu gh o*lqirupdwlrq sxeoltxhphqw
glvsrqleoh1 Vl who q*ìwdlw sdv oh fdv/ rq srxuudlw frqvwuxluh ghv vwudwìjlhv pdmrulwdluhphqw jdjqdqwhv/ fh
txh gìphqwhqw o*revhuydwlrq frxudqwh hw ohv ìwxghv ìfrqrpìwultxhv1

41515 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*dfwlrqv
Ohv txhvwlrqv g*ìydoxdwlrq ghv surgxlwv gìulyìhv qìfhvvlwhurqw gh suìflvhu od prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*df0
wlrqv1 Rq shxw wrxwhirlv g*ruhv hw gìmã grqqhu xqh lgìh gh od iruph ghv prgëohv tx*rq uhqfrqwuhud1
Vxssrvrqv xqh vhfrqgh txh oh prqgh hvw gìwhuplqlvwh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh tx*rq frqqdlw oh sul{ ghpdlq gh o*df0
wlrq dlqvl txh oh glylghqgh yhuvì1 Vl rq qrwh V4 oh sul{ ghpdlq/ V3 oh sul{ dxmrxug*kxl hw gly4 oh glylghqgh
yhuvì ghpdlq/ doruv lqyhvwlu V3 hxurv dxmrxug*kxl udssruwh V4 . gly4 ghpdlq1 Sdudooëohphqw/ rq shxw lq0
yhvwlu od píph vrpph vxu xq dfwli vdqv ulvtxh +l1h1 od fdlvvh g*ìsdujqh, hw rewhqlu ghpdlq +4 . u,=V3 vl u
hvw oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Gdqv xq prqgh gìwhuplqlvwh hw hq qìjoljhdqw ohv frþwv gh wudqvdfwlrq hw ohv wd{hv/
ohv ghx{ sodfhphqwv grlyhqw fròqflghu/ vrlw =
V4 . gly4 @ +4 . u,=V3
rx hqfruh =
V3 @

V4 . gly4
4.u

Vl rq surorqjhdlw fhwwh uhodwlrq sdu uìfxuuhqfh/ rq dxudlw doruv +hq vxssrvdqw txh oh prqgh hvw gìwhuplqlvwh
srxu wrxmrxuv hw txh oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw qh erxjh sdv, =
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od iruph =
V4 . gly @ +4 . u, =V3 . %4
rü 4 hvw xq doìd grqw od uìdolvdwlrq qh vhud frqqxh tx*ã od gdwh 41 Od txhvwlrq hvvhqwlhooh hvw grqf gh
vdyrlu txho w|sh gh orl vxlw od yduldeoh %4 1 Rq sduwlud gh fh w|sh gh prgìolvdwlrq srxu ìydoxhu ohv surgxlwv
gìulyìv vxu dfwlrqv1
;

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Ohv dqdo|vwhv qdqflhuv 0 grqw oh u÷oh hvw g*ìydoxhu od ydohxu g*xqh vrflìwì 0 fdofxohqw ghv ydohxuv glwhv
irqgdphqwdohv hq dssoltxdqw od irupxoh +414, hw hq idlvdqw ghv k|srwkëvhv vxu ohv glylghqghv ixwxuv
+pìwkrgh glwh GFI/ Glvfrxqwhg Fdvk Iorz,1 Dlqvl/ vl rq vxssrvh txh ohv glylghqghv furlvvhqw ã xq wdx{
j frqvwdqw +vxssrvì lqiìulhxu ã u,/ doruv od ydohxu irqgdphqwdoh v*ìfulw +dyhf W $ .4, =
V3 @

gly
u j

Fhwwh idêrq g*ìydoxhu grqqh ghv uìvxowdwv txl shxyhqw íwuh wuëv ìorljqìv ghv sul{ revhuyìv vxu ohv pdufkìv/
fh txl hvw orjltxh frpswh0whqx gh wrxwhv ohv k|srwkëvhv uhvwulfwlyhv idlwhv1 Hooh grqqh qìdqprlqv xq jxlgh
vxu fh txh ghyudlw íwuh oh sul{ gh o*dfwlrq1

41516 Frwdwlrq
Hq sudwltxh/ ghx{ w|shv gh pdufkì fr0h{lvwhqw = ohv pdufkìv glwv uìjohphqwìv hw ohv pdufkìv gh
juì ã juì 1 Fh txl ohv glvwlqjxh sruwh vxu ohxu ghjuì g*rujdqlvdwlrq = ohv pdufkìv uìjohphqwìv grlyhqw
vdwlvidluh ã ghv frqwudlqwhv vsìfl txhv g*rujdqlvdwlrq/ gh irqfwlrqqhphqw/ g*dgplvvlrq ghv ydohxuv1 Lov vrqw
g*dloohxuv hq sudwltxh vrxv od wxwhooh g*rujdqlvph gh sodfh +oh Frqvhlo ghv Pdufkìv Ilqdqflhuv hq Iudqfh,1
Ohv pdufkìv gh juì ã juì rqw ghv frqwudlqwhv soxv vrxsohv1 Gdqv od vxlwh/ rq suhqgud o*h{hpsoh ghv pdufkìv
iudqêdlv +rq srxuud vh uìiìuhu dx{ grfxphqwdwlrqv gh zzz1erxuvh0gh0sdulv1iu,1
Ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv +glwv suhvwdwdluhv gh vhuylfhv g*lqyhvwlvvhphqw, vrqw ohv ìwdeolvvhphqwv gh fuìglwv
+edqtxhv/ fdlvvhv g*ìsdujqh hwf1, hw ohv hqwuhsulvhv g*lqyhvwlvvhphqw +h{0vrflìwìv gh erxuvh/ h{0vrflìwìv
gh jhvwlrq,1 Fhwwh rujdqlvdwlrq gdwh g*xqh orl gh 4<<9 ylvdqw ã dgdswhu xqh gluhfwlyh hxursìhqqh vxu
ohv vhuylfhv g*lqyhvwlvvhphqw1 Fh txl fkdqjh sdu udssruw ã od vlwxdwlrq suìfìghqwh hvw od soxv judqgh
olehuwì srxu ohv gl ìuhqwv dfwhxuv g*h{hufhu ohv gl ìuhqwhv dfwlylwìv +froohfwh hw wudqvplvvlrq ghv ruguhv/
qìjrfldwlrq/ jhvwlrq gh sruwhihxlooh hwf1,1 Hq sduwlfxolhu/ od qìjrfldwlrq ghv ydohxuv prelolëuhv q*hvw
soxv oh prqrsroh ghv vrflìwìv gh erxuvh1
Ohv pdufkìv uìjohphqwìv iudqêdlv frpsuhqqhqw +hq ghkruv ghv pdufkìv g*rswlrqv +PRQHS, hw ã
whuph +PDWLI, tx*rq yhuud soxv orlq, = oh Suhplhu Pdufkì/ oh Vhfrqg Pdufkì/ hw oh Qrxyhdx Pdu0
fkì1 Hq jurv/ oh Suhplhu Pdufkì hvw uìvhuyì dx{ ydohxuv ghv soxv judqghv vrflìwìv +iudqêdlvhv rx
ìwudqjëuhv,/ oh Vhfrqg Pdufkì dx{ hqwuhsulvhv gh wdlooh soxv idleoh rx ã fhoohv txl rqw yrfdwlrq ã
uhqwuhu xq mrxu vxu oh Suhplhu Pdufkì1 Hq q/ oh Qrxyhdx Pdufkì hvw uìvhuyì dx{ ydohxuv ã iruw
srwhqwlho gh furlvvdqfh +frpph ohv vwduw0xs,1
Ohv wlwuhv vrqw qìjrflìv vrlw dx frpswdqw/ vrlw hq uëjohphqw gl ìuì +h{0uëjohphqw phqvxho,1 Dx
frpswdqw/ oh sdlhphqw hw od olyudlvrq ghv wlwuhv hvw lppìgldwh1 Hq uëjohphqw gl ìuì/ oh pìfdqlvph hvw
gl ìuhqw = oruvtx*xq dfkhwhxu +lqglylgxho, sdvvh xq ruguh g*dfkdw +ã vd edqtxh sdu h{hpsoh,/ o*lqwhu0
pìgldluh wudqvphw o*ruguh g*dfkdw dx qìjrfldwhxu txl dfkëwh ohv wlwuhv dx frpswdqw +grqf sdlhphqw hw
olyudlvrq lppìgldwh dx qìjrfldwhxu,1 Hq uhydqfkh/ o*dfkhwhxu qdo qh sdlh hw q*hvw olyuì tx*dx ghuqlhu
mrxu gh erxuvh gx prlv1 Lo | d grqf xq gìodl hqwuh od frqfoxvlrq gh od yhqwh hw od olyudlvrq ã o*dfkhwhxu
qdo/ o*lqwhupìgldluh dvvxudqw dlqvl oh sruwdjh ghv wlwuhv shqgdqw txhotxhv mrxuv1 Hylghpphqw/ yx
gx f÷wì gh o*dfkhwhxu/ oh qìjrfldwhxu uhqg xq vhuylfh sxlvtxh g*xqh fhuwdlqh idêrq lo dydqfh shqgdqw
txhotxhv mrxuv ohv irqgv txl shuphwwurqw gh sd|hu ohv wlwuhv1 Fh vhuylfh jìqëuh grqf orjltxhphqw
xqh frpplvvlrq sd|ìh sdu o*dfkhwhxu qdo ã o*lqwhupìgldluh1 Oh pìfdqlvph hvw v|pìwultxh gdqv oh
fdv g*xqh yhqwh > gdqv fh fdv/ oh qìjrfldwhxu idlw o*dydqfh ghv wlwuhv1 Wrxv ohv wlwuhv qh vrqw sdv vxv0
fhswleohv g*hqwuhu gdqv fh pìfdqlvph = vhxov ohv wlwuhv gx VEI 453 +lqglfh gh pdufkì frpsuhqdqw
ohv 453 soxv jurvvhv fdslwdolvdwlrqv gx pdufkì iudqêdlv, rx d|dqw xqh wdlooh vx!vdqwh +4 Pgv hxurv
gh fdslwdolvdwlrq/ 4 Pqv hxurv wudlwìv txrwlglhqqhphqw, vrqw ìoljleohv1 Hq q/ od srvlwlrq shxw íwuh
uhsruwìh g*xq prlv ã o*dxwuh1
Fh v|vwëph gh uìjohphqw gl ìuì glw VUG +vhuylfh uëjohphqw gl ìuì, shuphw g*dfkhwhu ã fuìglw rx
gh yhqguh vdqv dyrlu ohv wlwuhv1 Soxvlhxuv rsìudwlrqv shxyhqw íwuh idlwhv dx frxuv gx prlv = lo hvw
grqf srvvleoh g*dfkhwhu xq hqvhpeoh gh wlwuhv hq gìexw gh prlv hw gh ohv uhyhqguh dx frxuv gx prlv
vdqv dyrlu ulhq ã gìerxuvhu hw hq uhfhydqw vlpsohphqw oh sur w rx od shuwh gh fhwwh frpelqdlvrq
g*rsìudwlrqv/ dxtxho rq uhwudqfkh elhq0vþu ohv frpplvvlrqv gh sruwdjh1
O*ruguh vwdqgdug hvw gx w|sh ruguh dyhf olplwh / l1h1 mh yhx{ dfkhwhu who wlwuh dx sul{ pd{lpxp
gh { hxurv sdu wlwuh rx mh yhx{ yhqguh who wlwuh dx sul{ plqlpxp gh { hxurv sdu wlwuh 1
Oruvtxh { @ .4 srxu xq ruguh g*dfkdw/ hw { @ 3 srxu xq ruguh gh yhqwh/ o*ruguh hvw glw ã wrxw
sul{ 1 Fhv ruguhv vhurqw sulrulwdluhv vxu wrxv ohv dxwuhv1 G*dxwuhv ruguhv h{lvwhqw ìjdohphqw = o*ruguh
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

<

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

wrxw rx ulhq sruwh vxu xqh txdqwlwì qrq iudfwlrqqdeoh ã yhqguh rx ã dfkhwhu dyhf xqh olplwh gh
sul{ grqqìh > ohv ruguhv ã vhxlo gh gìfohqfkhphqw frpsruwhqw xqh olplwh hq ghêd rx dx0ghoã gh
odtxhooh lov vh wudqviruphqw hq ruguhv ã wrxw sul{ > ohv ruguhv dx sul{ gh pdufkì qh frpsruwhqw
dxfxqh lqglfdwlrq gh frxuv1
Fhv pdufkìv vrqw jrxyhuqìv sdu ohv ruguhv1 Soxv suìflvìphqw/ ohv ruguhv vrqw fodvvìv sdu olplwh gh
sul{ hw/ srxu fkdtxh olplwh/ fkurqrorjltxhphqw dx ixu hw ã phvxuh gh ohxu lqwurgxfwlrq1 O*h{ìfxwlrq
ghv ruguhv vh idlw vhorq ghx{ ruguhv gh sulrulwì = vrqw vhuylv hq sulrulwì ohv ruguhv g*dfkdw grqw ohv
olplwhv vrqw ohv soxv ìohyìhv hw lqyhuvhphqw srxu ohv ruguhv gh yhqwh1 Hq fodlu/ rq vhuw g*derug fhx{
txl vrqw suíwv ã dfkhwhu fkhu hw fhx{ txl vrqw suíwv ã yhqguh ã xq sul{ idleoh 1 D olplwh
grqqìh/ ohv suhplhuv duulyìv vrqw vhuylv ohv suhplhuv1
Dydqw o*rxyhuwxuh gx pdufkì +grqf dydqw < k 33 oh pdwlq,/ ohv ruguhv gh yhqwh hw g*dfkdw vrqw plv hq
uhjdug hw xq sul{ +l1h1 oh {lqj, hvw fdofxoì1 Oh sul{ hvw fdofxoì gh whooh vruwh txh o*r uh hw od ghpdqgh
vrlw od soxv ìtxloleuìh srvvleoh / f*hvw0ã0gluh oh sul{ txl pd{lplvh od txdqwlwì gh wlwuhv ìfkdqjìv1
Od qìjrfldwlrq gh ydohxuv prelolëuhv 0 txl ìwdlw dydqw 4<<9 oh prqrsroh ghv vrflìwìv gh erxuvh 0 hvw
gìvrupdlv srvvleoh srxu wrxv ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv1 Yrlfl o*h{hpsoh grqqì gdqv od grfxphqwdwlrq VEI
+zzz1erxuvh0gh0sdulv1iu,

Judskltxh 414 H{hpsohv gh fduqhw g*ruguh

Vl rq qrwh d+o, +uhvs1 y+o,, od txdqwlwì gh wlwuhv ghpdqgìv +uhvs1 r huwv, srxu od olplwh o/ f*hvw0ã0gluh
ohv ruguhv g*dfkdw +uhvs1 yhqwh, srxu xq sul{ qh ghydqw sdv gìsdvvhu +uhvs1 íwuh lqiìulhxu ã, o/ doruv
oh suhplhu {lqj vh idlw dx sul{ s who txh =

S
Ss

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P lq o@s d+o, o@3 y+o,
s
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rü .
o@s d+o, hvw od irqfwlrq gh ghpdqgh gh wlwuhv +irqfwlrq gìfurlvvdqwh gh s, hw o@3 y+o, od irqfwlrq
g*r uh gh wlwuhv +irqfwlrq furlvvdqwh gh s,1 Rq yrlw gdqv fhw h{hpsoh txh o*r uh hw od ghpdqgh qh
fròqflghqw sdv sduidlwhphqw hw grqf vhxov ;33 ghv ;83 wlwuhv ghpdqgìv ã 94143 hxurv vrqw vhuylv1
Dx frxuv gh od mrxuqìh/ fkdtxh lqwurgxfwlrq g*xq qrxyho ruguh jìqëuh xqh wudqvdfwlrq srxu shx tx*lo
| dlw xqh r uh rx xqh ghpdqgh frpsdwleoh +hq sul{, hq idfh1 Vxlydqw ohv fdv/ od frqiurqwdwlrq ghv
ruguhv hvw frqwlqxh1 Gdqv g*dxwuhv fdv/ vhxov ghv {lqjv uìjxolhuv rqw olhx1

41517 Sul{ g*dfwlrqv hw wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh
Ohv sul{ ghv dfwlrqv ydulhqw txdvl0frqwlqþpphqw dx frxuv gx whpsv hw gh idêrq qrq suìylvleoh/ g*rü
o*lgìh g*lqwurgxluh ghv prgëohv doìdwrluhv1 Fhv yduldwlrqv gh sul{ rqw soxvlhxuv ruljlqhv tx*rq shxw yrlu
43

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

ã sduwlu gh od irupxoh g*dfwxdolvdwlrq +414, = fkdqjhphqw gdqv ohv dqwlflsdwlrqv gh sur w ghv hqwuhsulvhv/
prxyhphqwv ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw/ fkdqjhphqw g*dssuìfldwlrq vxu od erqqh vdqwì ghv hqwuhsulvhv hwf1 Oh
u÷oh ghv dqdo|vwhv qdqflhuv hvw mxvwhphqw g*lqwìjuhu wrxv fhv sdudpëwuhv gdqv xqh irupxoh gx w|sh +414,
srxu hq gìgxluh fh txh ghyudlw íwuh oh yudl sul{ gh o*dfwlrq +rq sduoh gh frxuv irqgdphqwdo, d q
gh frqvhloohu ohv lqyhvwlvvhxuv srwhqwlhov1 Hq sudwltxh/ rq frqvwdwh vrxyhqw ghv ìfduwv qrwdeohv hqwuh ohv
ìydoxdwlrqv ghv dqdo|vwhv hw ohv sul{ gh pdufkì revhuyìv = wrxw o*duw gh o*dqdo|vwh hvw gh vdyrlu v*lo v*djlw
g*xqh huuhxu g*ìydoxdwlrq gh vd sduw rx xqh huuhxu gx pdufkì txl vhud grqf w÷w rx wdug fruuljìh1 Ohv sul{
ghv dfwlrqv gh vrflìwìv Lqwhuqhw hq 4<<< hw 5333 frqvwlwxhqw xq h{hpsoh w|sltxh gh fh jhquh g*ìfduw1
Lo idxw qrwhu ìjdohphqw txh oh sul{ gh pdufkì grlw whqlu frpswh gh o*dyhuvlrq dx ulvtxh ghv lqwhuyhqdqwv gx
pdufkì hw soxv jìqìudohphqw gh ohxu irqfwlrq g*xwlolwì/ sdudpëwuh tx*lo hvw ìylghpphqw gl!floh g*hvwlphu1
Hq sudwltxh/ ohv dqdo|vwhv udmrxwhqw xqh sulph gh ulvtxh gdqv od irupxoh g*ìydoxdwlrq +414,/ vrxv od iruph
g*xq whuph vxssoìphqwdluh dx gìqrplqdwhxu +l1h1 u.sulph,1 Fhwwh sulph +srvlwlyh, uìgxlw pìfdqltxhphqw
od ydohxu txh o*rq dwwulexh ã xq hxur doìdwrluh gdqv oh ixwxu hw v|qwkìwlvh ã od irlv oh qlyhdx gh ulvtxh
uhvvhqwl sdu ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv gx pdufkì hw ohxu dyhuvlrq srxu fh ulvtxh1
Gx srlqw gh yxh ghv surgxlwv gìulyìv/ oh frxuv gh o*dfwlrq hvw xqh grqqìh hw vrq ìyroxwlrq hvw prgìolvìh
sdu xq surfhvvxv doìdwrluh gdqv ohtxho rq qh fkhufkh sdv ã lqwurgxluh ohv suìrffxsdwlrqv ghv dqdo|vwhv vxu
ohv yduldeohv vxvfhswleohv g*lq xhqfhu ohv frxuv ixwxuv1 O*lgìh hvw g*xqh sduw tx*lo hvw looxvrluh gh suìyrlu
ohv frxuv ixwxuv hw g*dxwuh sduw tx*rq q*d sdv uìhoohphqw ehvrlq gh idluh fhv suìylvlrqv = oh frxuv g*xqh
dfwlrq hvw xqh vrxufh srwhqwlhooh gh ulvtxh 0 txh oh frxuv prqwh rx tx*lo edlvvh 0 hw od yudlh txhvwlrq hvw
gh vdyrlu frpphqw lo lq xh vxu ohv sul{ ghv surgxlwv gìulyìv1

416 Ohv reoljdwlrqv
41614 Jìqìudolwìv
Ohv wlwuhv reoljdwdluhv vrqw ghv wlwuhv gh ghwwh hw qrq gh sursulìwì frpph ohv dfwlrqv1 Fhv wlwuhv v*ds0
sduhqwhqw frpsoëwhphqw ã xqh rsìudwlrq gh suíw 2 hpsuxqw = xqh hqwuhsulvh txl ìphw ghv reoljdwlrqv
hpsuxqwh ghv irqgv dx{ dfkhwhxuv ghv wlwuhv1 Od vhxoh gl ìuhqfh dyhf ohv rsìudwlrqv edqfdluhv g*hpsuxqw
hw gh suíw uìvlgh gdqv oh fdudfwëuh qìjrfldeoh gh fhv wlwuhv1 O*dfkhwhxu lqlwldo gx wlwuh4 d od olehuwì gh
uhyhqguh vrq wlwuh ã xq dxwuh lqwhuyhqdqw/ fh ghuqlhu ghyhqdqw oh fuìdqflhu gh o*ìphwwhxu gx wlwuh1
Ohv ìphwwhxuv srvvleohv shxyhqw íwuh wuëv glyhuv = Hwdwv/ hqwuhsulvhv/ froohfwlylwìv orfdohv/ irqgv gh fuìdqfhv
hwf1 Ohv x{ jìqìuìv sdu fhv wlwuhv vrqw gh qdwxuh wuëv gl ìuhqwh ghv wlwuhv g*dfwlrq = gdqv oh fdv ghv
dfwlrqv/ ohv x{ vrqw ghv glylghqghv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh ghv sduwv gx eìqì fh gh o*hqwuhsulvh1 V*djlvvdqw ghv
wlwuhv reoljdwdluhv/ ohv x{ vrqw ghv x{ g*lqwìuíw hw gh uhperxuvhphqw gx fdslwdo1 Fhv x{ vrqw prlqv
doìdwrluhv txh srxu ohv glylghqghv g*dfwlrq +g*rü oh whuph dqjodlv gh {hg0lqfrph vhfxulwlhv,1 Soxv
suìflvìphqw/ o*ìphwwhxu gx wlwuh +l1h1 o*hpsuxqwhxu, q*d hq jìqìudo sdv gh ohylhu srxu prgl hu hq frxuv
gh urxwh oh prqwdqw ghv x{ yhuvìv dx{ gìwhqwhxuv gh wlwuh1 Lo v*djlw grqf g*xq frqwudw rü o*hpsuxqwhxu
v*hqjdjh ã uhperxuvhu oh fdslwdo hpsuxqwì dlqvl txh ghv lqwìuíwv vhorq ghv prgdolwìv hw xqh uëjoh gh
{dwlrq gìflgìhv lqlwldohphqw hw lqwdqjleohv sdu od vxlwh +vdxi gìidxw gh o*hpsuxqwhxu,1
Hq q/ oruvtx*lo v*djlw g*xqh hqwuhsulvh hq gl!fxowì qdqflëuh/ ohv fuìdqflhuv vrqw sulrulwdluhv ghydqw ohv
dfwlrqqdluhv1

41615 Fdofxo ghv x{
Ghx{ wlwuhv reoljdwdluhv vh glqvwlqjxhqw sdu od uëjoh gh gìwhuplqdwlrq ghv x{ = reoljdwlrq ã wdx{ yduldeoh/
ã wdx{ {h/ reoljdwlrq lqgh{ìh hwf1 Rq qrwh N oh fdslwdo gh fkdtxh wlwuh +hqfruh dsshoì fdslwdo qrplqdo/
ydohxu idfldoh gx wlwuh/ sulqflsdo, = N uhsuìvhqwh od ghwwh gh o*ìphwwhxu ylv0ã0ylv gx gìwhqwhxu gx wlwuh1
Rq qrwh ìjdohphqw W od gxuìh gx wlwuh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh od gxuìh dx0ghoã odtxhooh ohv lqwìuíwv rqw ìwì sd|ìv hw
oh fdslwdo d ìwì uhperxuvì1 Rq srxuudlw lpdjlqhu xqh gxuìh lq qlh > rq sduoh doruv gh uhqwh shusìwxhooh1
4 Rq sduoh gh pdufkì sulpdluh srxu gìvljqhu od plvh hq yhqwh lqlwldoh ghv wlwuhv/ sxlv gh pdufkì vhfrqgdluh sdu od vxlwh1

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

44

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

D o*ìplvvlrq gx wlwuh/ vrqw vwlsxoìhv ohv frqglwlrqv gh sdlhphqw ghv lqwìuíwv +l1h1 ohv frxsrqv, hw gh
uhperxuvhphqw gx fdslwdo +l1h1 o*dpruwlvvhphqw gx fdslwdo,1 Hq qrwdqw pw oh x{ yhuvì dx gìwhqwhxu gx
wlwuh ã od gdwh w/ rq d grqf xqh pìfdqltxh gx w|sh =
;
pw
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A
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gx fdslwdo
O*dpruwlvvhphqw gx fdslwdo uhsuìvhqwh od txdqwlwì gh fdslwdo uhperxuvìh ã fkdtxh sìulrgh = o*dpruwlvvh0
phqw hq w hvw grqf sdu gì qlwlrq ìjdo dx fdslwdo uhvwdqw gþ +qrwì Fw 4 , hq w 4 prlqv oh fdslwdo uhvwdqw
gþ hq w =
dw @ Nw 4 Nw
Ohv lqwìuíwv vrqw wuëv orjltxhphqw fdofxoìv frpph o*dssolfdwlrq g*xq wdx{ g*lqwìuíw vxu oh fdslwdo uhvwdqw
gþ hq gìexw gh sìulrgh/ vrlw =
lw @ fw =Nw 4
rü fw hvw dxvvl dsshoì wdx{ gh frxsrq1 Ohv prgdolwìv gh fdofxo ghv x{ vrqw frqqxhv dx gìsduw/ fh txl
vljql h tx*rq vh grqqh ohv ghx{ irqfwlrqv =
;
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=

dw

@ d +w> }w ,

hw txl shuphw gh fdofxohu ohv x{ jìqìuìv sdu oh wlwuh1 +}w , hvw xqh yduldeoh gh uìiìuhqfh grqw rq yhuud ghv
h{hpsohv sdu od vxlwh +lq dwlrq/ wdx{ gh pdufkì hwf1,1 Gdqv o*lpphqvh pdmrulwì ghv fdv hw ã o*lqyhuvh ghv
hpsuxqwv dffrugìv sdu oh v|vwëph edqfdluh dx{ sduwlfxolhuv/ od irqfwlrq d+w, hvw qxooh vdxi hq W rü hooh
ydxw N = hq fodlu/ oh fdslwdo q*hvw uhperxuvì tx*ã od q +uhperxuvhphqw glw lq0 qh, hw vhxov ghv x{
g*lqwìuíw vrqw yhuvìv dydqw W 1

41616 Txhotxhv h{hpsohv
Rq shxw grqqhu txhotxhv h{hpsohv hq sduwdqw ghv soxv fodvvltxhv =
Wlwuh ã wdx{ {h hw ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh1 F*hvw oh fdv rü =
;
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=

dw

@ 3 srxu w ? W hw N srxu w @ W

Ohv x{ vrqw grqf frqvwdqwv ìjdx{ ã pw @ f=N hw pW @ +4.f,=N1 Xqh pdmrulwì gh wlwuhv g*reoljdwlrq
irqfwlrqqh vrxv fh vfkìpd1 Dlqvl/ od soxsduw ghv Reoljdwlrqv Dvvlplodeohv gx Wuìvru +RDW, 0 txl vrqw
ohv wlwuhv gh ghwwh ìplv sdu o*Hwdw iudqêdlv 0 hvw ã wdx{ {h hw ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh1
Wlwuh ã wdx{ yduldeoh hw ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh1 Od vhxoh fkrvh txl fkdqjh hvw txh fw hvw
gìvrupdlv xqh irqfwlrq g*xqh uìiìuhqfh yduldeoh =
fw @ f+}w ,
D wlwuh g*h{hpsoh/ o*RDW WHF 43 dqv hvw xqh reoljdwlrq ã wdx{ yduldeoh fw rü od uìiìuhqfh }w hvw ìjdoh
ã xq wdx{ ã 43 dqv +rq yhuud soxv orlq fh tx*rq hqwhqg sdu oã,1 Frqfuëwhphqw/ hooh vh fdofxoh frpph
o*lqwhusrodwlrq olqìdluh ghv wdx{ gh uhqghphqw ghv ghx{ RDW ohv soxv surfkhv gh od pdwxulwì h{dfwh
gh 43 dqv hw g*xq hqfrxuv vxsìulhxu ã 53 Pgv IUI +6 Pgv hxurv, +fh tx*rq hqwhqg sdu wdx{ gh
4
uhqghphqw vhud fodul ì sdu od vxlwh,1 Oh frxsrq hvw yhuvì wulphvwulhoohphqw hw ydxw fw @ +4 . }w , 7 4/
dyhf }w oh wdx{ WHF 43 +gì ql ã o*lqvwdqw, fdofxoì +hq jurv, xq wulphvwuh dydqw yhuvhphqw gx frxsrq
+h{dfwhphqw 8 mrxuv rxyuìv dydqw od gdwh gh mrxlvvdqfh gx frxsrq,1 Rq glw txh oh wdx{ hvw suì {ì5 1
5 Srxu soxv g*lqirupdwlrqv vxu oh WHF 43 hw o*RDWl/ yrlu zzz1iudqfhwuhvru1jrxy1iu

45

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Wlwuh lqgh{ì hw ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh 0 fdv gh o*RDWl1 Sdu udssruw ã od vlwxdwlrq suìfì0
ghqwh/ +}w , hvw oh wdx{ g*lq dwlrq ghv sul{ ghv elhqv hw vhuylfhv +lqglfh LQVHH, hw oh fdslwdo uhperxuvì
hvw jdudqwl frqwuh o*lq dwlrq/ vrlw =
dw @ 3 srxu w ? W hw N= pd{ +L+W ,> 4, srxu w @ W
rü L+w, gìvljqh od kdxvvh ghv sul{ hqwuh od gdwh g*ìplvvlrq +gdwh 3, hw od gdwh w1 Hq fodlu/ od ghwwh gh
o*ìphwwhxu ylv0ã0ylv gx gìwhqwhxu hvw ìjdoh ã xq fhuwdlq fdslwdo N uhydorulvì sdu o*lq dwlrq frqvwdwìh
hqwuh od gdwh g*ìplvvlrq hw od gdwh gh uhperxuvhphqw gx fdslwdo1 Wrxwhirlv/ v*lo | d hx gì dwlrq +l1h1
edlvvh ghv sul{/ L+w, ? 4,/ doruv oh fdslwdo uhperxuvì hvw ìjdo dx fdslwdo qrplqdo N/ fh txl hvw xq
dydqwdjh srxu oh gìwhqwhxu gx wlwuh1 Ohv lqwìuíwv rx ohv frxsrqv vrqw fdofxoìv frpph lw @ f=N=L+w,1
Oh fdofxo gh od yduldeoh L+w, vh idlw ã sduwlu gh o*lqglfh LQVHH ghv sul{ gh frqvrppdwlrq +LSF,/
txl hvw o*lqglfh ghv sul{ kdelwxho gh o*LQVHH/ dyhf wrxwhirlv xqh qxdqfh = o*LSF gx prlv q q*ìwdqw
frqqx tx*hq q gh prlv q . 4/ od uìiìuhqfh L+w, srxu w @ mlëph mrxu gx prlv p hvw ìjdoh ã =
LS Fp 6 . mQ p4 = +LS Fp 5 LS Fp 6 ,/ rü Qp hvw oh qrpeuh gx mrxu gx prlv p1
Wlwuh }ìur0frxsrq1 F*hvw xq wlwuh sduwlfxolhu txl qh yhuvh dxfxq x{ vdxi hq W 1 Fhv wlwuhv rqw xqh
judqgh lpsruwdqfh wkìrultxh fdu lov yrqw mrxhu oh u÷oh g*xqh edvh fdqrqltxh srxu o*hvsdfh ghv wlwuhv
ã x{ {hv1 Gdqv oh fdv g*xq }ìur0frxsrq/ rq d grqf =
pw @ 3 srxu w ? W hw pW @ 4
Hq sudwltxh/ ohv }ìur0frxsrq dssdudlvvhqw sdu gìphpeuhphqw g*reoljdwlrqv h{lvwdqwhv +rq sduoh gh
Vwulsv,1 Hq Iudqfh/ xq judqg qrpeuh g*RDW vrqw gìphpeuìhv ghsxlv od suhplëuh rsìudwlrq hq mxlq
4<<41

41617 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*reoljdwlrq
Rq v*lqwìuhvvh lfl ã ghv wlwuhv reoljdwdluhv grqw ohv x{ vrqw sduidlwhphqw frqqxv ã o*dydqfh píph vl/ gdqv
ohv h{hpsohv suìfìghqwv/ rq d yx txh fh q*ìwdlw sdv wrxmrxuv oh fdv +WHF 43/ RDWl hwf1,1 Vl rq qrwh p4 /111/
pW fhv x{ {hv/ xq wlwuh reoljdwdluh shxw vh frqfhyrlu frpph xq sruwhihxlooh +l1h1 xqh frpelqdlvrq
olqìdluh, gh wlwuhv }ìur0frxsrq1 Hq gì qlvvdqw xq wlwuh }ìur0frxsrq frpph xq wlwuh txl yhuvh 4 hxur ã xqh
gdwh w ixwxuh/ doruv xq wlwuh reoljdwdluh hvw xq sruwhihxlooh frpsrvì gh p4 wlwuhv }ìur0frxsrq g*ìfkìdqfh
4/ 111/ pW wlwuhv }ìur0frxsrq g*ìfkìdqfh W 1
Sdu frqvìtxhqw/ oh sul{ g*xqh reoljdwlrq v*ìfulw =
S @ p4 =E+3> 4, . == . pW =E+3> W ,
rü E+3> w, hvw oh sul{ g*xq wlwuh }ìur0frxsrq dxmrxug*kxl +gdwh 3, txl yhuvh xq hxur ã od gdwh w1 Rq
dsshooh dxvvl fhv sul{ gh }ìur0frxsrq Glvfrxqw Idfwruv1 Lov shuphwwhqw gdqv xq ghx{lëph whpsv gh
gì qlu od qrwlrq gh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Lo hvw lpsruwdqw gh qrwhu txh ohv gl ìuhqwhv qrwlrqv gh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
tx*rq uhqfrqwuhud qh vrqw tx*xqh pdqlëuh g*h{sulphu oh sul{1 Dlqvl/ rq gì qlw gl ìuhqwhv qrwlrqv gh wdx{
g*lqwìuíw frpph =
4
E+w> W , @
^4 . u+w> W ,`W w
rx =
4
E+w> W , @
^4 . +W w,=u+w> W ,`
rx hqfruh =
E+w> W , @ 4 +W w,=u+w> W ,
Fhv wurlv qrwlrqv +uhvshfwlyhphqw wdx{ g*lqwìuíw dfwxdulho/ srvw0frpswì/ suì0frpswì, vrqw fhuwhv
ìtxlydohqwhv dx suhplhu ruguh pdlv shxyhqw lqgxluh ghv ìfduwv vxevwdqwlhov qxpìultxhphqw1 Lo hvw grqf
lpsruwdqw gh vdyrlu/ srxu fkdtxh pdufkì/ od frqyhqwlrq gh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw xwlolvìh/ od idêrq gh frpswhu
ohv gxuìhv +hq mrxuv/ prlv/ iudfwlrq g*dqqìhv hwf1,1
Dx wrwdo/ hq suhqdqw od frqyhqwlrq dfwxdulhooh/ oh sul{ g*xqh reoljdwlrq dxmrxug*kxl +gdwh 3, v*ìfulw =
S @
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

pW
p4
. === .
W
^4 . u+3> 4,`
^4 . u+3> W ,`

+415,
46

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

irupxoh glwh irupxoh g*dfwxdolvdwlrq txl hvw gdqv oh píph hvsulw txh od irupxoh gh ydorulvdwlrq ghv
dfwlrqv +414,1
Ohv pdufkìv gì qlvvhqw ìjdohphqw od qrwlrq gh wdx{ gh uhqghphqw dfwxdulho W UD +|lhog0wr0pdwxulw| rx
lqwhuqdo udwh ri uhwxuq hq dqjodlv, g*xqh reoljdwlrq sdu od irupxoh =
S@

pW
p4
. === .
+4 . W UD,
^4 . W UD`W

Vl rq frpsduh fhwwh irupxoh dyhf od irupxoh g*dfwxdolvdwlrq +415,/ rq shxw wrxmrxuv frqvlgìuhu txh oh WUD
hvw xqh vruwh gh pr|hqqh srqgìuìh ghv wdx{ }ìur0frxsrq1 Xqh irlv gh soxv/ ohv gl ìuhqwhv qrwlrqv gh wdx{
g*lqwìuíw qh vrqw tx*xqh idêrq g*h{sulphu od qrwlrq gh sul{/ txl hooh hvw qrq0dpeljxh1
Hq q/ vl rq v*lqvsluh gh fh txl d ìwì glw vxu od prgìolvdwlrq ghv sul{ g*dfwlrqv/ rq shxw vh sodfhu gdqv xq
prqgh gìwhuplqlvwh rü xq lqyhvwlvvhxu gìwlhqw ã od gdwh 3 xqh vrpph E+3> W , hxurv1 Lo shxw vrlw od sodfhu
vxu xqh sìulrgh hw lo rewlhqgud =
E+3> W ,= ^4 . u+3> 4,`
vrlw dfkhwhu xq wlwuh }ìur0frxsrq g*ìfkìdqfh W +grqw oh sul{ dxmrxug*kxl hvw mxvwhphqw E+3> W ,, hw txl
ydxgud E+4> W , hq 41 Vl oh prqgh hvw gìwhuplqlvwh/ fhv ghx{ vwudwìjlhv grlyhqw íwuh ìtxlydohqwhv =
E+4> W , @ E+3> W ,=+4 . u+3> 4,,
rx hqfruh =
E+4> W , @

E+3> W ,
E+3> 4,

Dlqvl/ oh sul{ ghpdlq vh gìgxlw sdu uìfxuuhqfh ghv sul{ dxmrxug*kxl1 Frpph oh prqgh q*hvw sdv gìwhupl0
qlvwh/ rq prgìolvhud o*ìyroxwlrq ghv sul{ hq udmrxwdqw xq doìd %4 gdqv fhwwh ìtxdwlrq1

41618 Wdx{ g*lqwìuíw hw wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh
Ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw vrqw gì qlv lfl ã sduwlu ghv sul{ +ghv wlwuhv ã x{ {hv whov txh ohv reoljdwlrqv,1 Lo v*djlw
elhq gh od píph qrwlrq lqwxlwlyh kdelwxhooh = u+w> w.4, sdu h{hpsoh gìvljqh elhq oh wdx{ gh uhqghphqw g*xq
sodfhphqw g*xq hxur vxu od sìulrgh +w> w . 4,1 Fh wdx{ phvxuh od suìiìuhqfh ghv lqglylgxv srxu oh suìvhqw1
Od suìiìuhqfh qdwxuhooh gh wrxw lqglylgx hvw ìylghpphqw gh frqvrpphu dxmrxug*kxl soxw÷w txh g*dwwhqguh
ghpdlq/ qh vhudlw0fh txh sdufh txh o*lqglylgx d xqh suredelolwì qrq qxooh g*íwuh pruw ghpdlq1 Ohv sul{
ghv }ìur0frxsrq txl phvxuhqw h{dfwhphqw fhwwh lgìh +l1h1 oh sul{ g*xq hxur ghpdlq ydxw prlqv tx*xq hxur
glvsrqleoh dxmrxug*kxl, grlyhqw grqf íwuh lqiìulhxuv ã 41 Gh idêrq ìtxlydohqwh/ ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw grlyhqw
íwuh srvlwliv1 Hq q/ ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw ìohyìv vljqdohqw xqh iruwh suìiìuhqfh srxu oh suìvhqw = ohv lqglylgxv
h{ljhqw xq gìgrppdjhphqw ìohyì +l1h1 ghv lqwìuíwv ìohyìv, srxu qh sdv frqvrpphu dxmrxug*kxl hw uhsruwhu
fhwwh frqvrppdwlrq ã soxv wdug1
Oruvtx*rq frqvlgëuh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw vxu xq sodfhphqw prqìwdluh +l1h1 rq ìfkdqjh ghv hxurv g*dxmrxug*kxl
frqwuh ghv hxurv ghpdlq,/ rq sduoh doruv gh wdx{ qrplqdo1 Oruvtxh oh elhq q*hvw sdv od prqqdlh pdlv xq
dxwuh elhq/ rq sduoh gh wdx{ uìho1 O*ru hvw xq h{hpsoh = rq shxw lpdjlqhu xq }ìur0frxsrq txl yhuvh xq
judpph g*ru hq W hw grqf oh sul{ gh fh wlwuh h{sulpì hq judpph g*ru dxmrxug*kxl shuphw gh gì qlu xq wdx{
g*lqwìuíw uìho1 Ohv ìfrqrplvwhv dsshoohqw wdx{ uìho od txdqwlwì = wdx{ qrplqdo prlqv wdx{ g*lq dwlrq +ghv
sul{ gh frqvrppdwlrq ghv pìqdjhv/ hq jìqìudo,/ fh txl hvw krprjëqh ã od qrwlrq suìfìghqwh ã frqglwlrq
gh qh soxv frqvlgìuhu o*ru pdlv xq sdqlhu uhsuìvhqwdwli gh od frqvrppdwlrq ghv pìqdjhv +ã o*lqvwdu gx
sdqlhu gh o*LQVHH,1
Rq sduoh gh frxueh sdu whuph ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw rx soxv vlpsohphqw frxueh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
rx hqfruh jdpph ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Fhv whuphv gìvljqhqw od frxueh revhuyìh ã xq lqvwdqw w hw txl
grqqh oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw u+w> w . k, srxu k yduldqw gh 3 ã o*lq ql +hq sudwltxh 63 dqv,1
Frpph srxu ohv dfwlrqv/ ohv sul{ ghv wlwuhv }ìur0frxsrq +hw grqf ohv sul{ ghv reoljdwlrqv, ydulhqw frqvwdp0
phqw1 Dlqvl/ fkdtxh srlqw gh od frxueh ghv wdx{ erxjh g*xq lqvwdqw ã o*dxwuh1 D o*lqyhuvh ghv dfwlrqv/ rq
q*d sdv d dluh ã xq surfhvvxv doìdwrluh gh glphqvlrq 4 +l1h1 oh sul{ g*xqh dfwlrq, pdlv ã xq surfhvvxv
47

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

gh glphqvlrq lq qlh +l1h1 ohv sul{ ghv }ìur0frxsrq srxu wrxwhv ohv pdwxulwìv,1 Qrxv yhuurqv txh ohv lgìhv
qdqflëuhv xwlolvìhv srxu prgìolvhu xq srlqw +fdv ghv dfwlrqv, rx xqh frxueh +fdv ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw, vrqw
irqgdphqwdohphqw ohv píphv1 Hq uhydqfkh/ oh wudlwhphqw pdwkìpdwltxh vhud gl ìuhqw hqfruh txh/ gdqv
o*ìfudvdqwh pdmrulwì ghv prgëohv/ rq uìgxlw od glphqvlrq lq qlh ghv prxyhphqwv gh od frxueh ghv wdx{ ã
ghv glphqvlrqv qlhv1 Dlqvl/ rq frqvlgìuhud sdu h{hpsoh txh/ oruvtxh od frxueh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw erxjh/
rq shxw uìgxluh fh prxyhphqw 0 dx 4hu ruguh 0 ã xq prxyhphqw gh wudqvodwlrq/ dx 5lëph ruguh/ ã xq
prxyhphqw gh shqwl fdwlrq rx g*dsodwlvvhphqw/ dx 6ëph ruguh ã xqh yduldwlrq gh od frqfdylwì +gìulyìh
vhfrqgh gh od frxueh, hwf1 Vxlydqw o*ruguh dxtxho rq v*duuíwh/ oh sureoëph dxud xqh glphqvlrq soxv rx
prlqv judqgh pdlv wrxmrxuv qlh/ fh txl vlpsol h judqghphqw ohv fkrvhv111
D o*lqyhuvh ghv dfwlrqv/ lo q*| d sdv g*lqfhuwlwxgh vxu ohv x{ ixwxuv +kruplv wrxv ohv fdv g*reoljdwlrqv ã
wdx{ yduldeoh/ lqgh{ìhv vxu o*lq dwlrq hwf1, hw ohv yduldwlrqv gh sul{ vrqw grqf hvvhqwlhoohphqw jrxyhuqìhv
sdu ohv yduldwlrqv ghv sdudpëwuhv ghv lqglylgxv/ qrwdpphqw od suìiìuhqfh srxu oh suìvhqw sdu udssruw dx{
gdwhv ixwxuhv whooh tx*hooh vh uh ëwh gdqv o*ìtxloleuh r uh 0 ghpdqgh gh wlwuhv1 Wrxwhirlv/ od vlwxdwlrq hvw
soxv frpsoh{h txh fhod1 Ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw qh uh ëwhqw sdv xqltxhphqw od suìiìuhqfh srxu oh suìvhqw pdlv
ìjdohphqw od srolwltxh prqìwdluh1 Hq h hw/ od edqtxh fhqwudoh g*xq sd|v +od Edqtxh Fhqwudoh Hxursìhqqh
srxu od }rqh hxur/ od Ihghudo Uhvhuyh srxu ohv Hwdwv0Xqlv, shxw frqwu÷ohu ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw frxuwv +l1h1
oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw srxu xq sodfhphqw g*dxmrxug*kxl ã dxmrxug*kxl soxv txhotxhv mrxuv, fdu/ ìwdqw fdsdeoh
gh fuìhu gh od prqqdlh/ hooh shxw suíwhu dxwdqw tx*hooh yhxw hw dx wdx{ g*lqwìuíw tx*hooh vrxkdlwh +dyhf
ghv olplwhv lqvwlwxwlrqqhoohv elhq0vþu,1 Gdqv fhv frqglwlrqv/ hooh frqwu÷oh dvvh} elhq ohv wdx{ frxuwv pdlv
prlqv ohv pdwxulwìv soxv ìohyìhv1 Sdu frqvìtxhqw/ ohv prxyhphqwv gh od frxueh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw uh ëwh/
srxu ohv pdwxulwìv orqjxhv/ o*r uh hw od ghpdqgh gh wlwuhv hw grqf hq ghuqlëuh dqdo|vh od suìiìuhqfh srxu
oh suìvhqw ghv lqglylgxv/ hw/ srxu ohv pdwxulwìv frxuwhv/ od srolwltxh prqìwdluh1
Ohv fkrvhv vrqw hqfruh soxv frpsoltxìhv txdqg rq vrqjh tx*lo q*hvw sdv srvvleoh gh vìsduhu ohv ghx{
skìqrpëqhv1 Lov vhurqw gh idfwr olìv = hq h hw/ xq lqglylgx txl yhxw sodfhu vrq dujhqw vxu sdu h{hpsoh
43 dqv shxw wrxmrxuv dfkhwhu xq wlwuh }ìur0frxsrq gh pdwxulwì 43 dqv/ rx dowhuqdwlyhphqw dfkhwhu xq
}ìur0frxsrq gh pdwxulwì xq dq dyhf o*lgìh gh oh uhyhqguh o*dqqìh surfkdlqh srxu hq udfkhwhu xq dxwuh gh
pdwxulwì xq dq hwf1 Fhv ghx{ sodfhphqwv vrqw gh pdwxulwì 43 dqv pdlv vrqw wuëv gl ìuhqwv fdu rq qh vdlw sdv
dxmrxug*kxl frpelhq ydxgud gdqv xq dq oh }ìur0frxsrq gh pdwxulwì xq dq1 Hq fodlu/ rq qh frqqdlw sdv od
frxueh ghv wdx{ txl vh uìdolvhud gdqv xq dq1 Wrxwhirlv/ v*djlvvdqw gh sodfhphqwv ã 43 dqv/ lo | d fhuwdlqhphqw
xq olhq = hq pr|hqqh/ ohv uhqghphqwv qh grlyhqw sdv íwuh wurs gl ìuhqwv1 Gdqv oh suhplhu fdv/ oh wdx{ gh
4 ^u+3> 4, . u+4> 5, . === . u+<> 43,`
uhqghphqw dqqxho hvw u+3> 43,/ gdqv oh vhfrqg fdv/ lo hvw soxw÷w ìjdo ã 43
+dx suhplhu ruguh,1 Vl wrxv ohv wdx{ frxuwv u+w> w . 4, vrqw soxw÷w jrxyhuqìv sdu od srolwltxh prqìwdluh hw
ohv wdx{ orqjv u+3> 43, sdu o*r uh hw od ghpdqgh/ hw vl hq soxv rq dmrxwh o*lgìh txh u+3> 43, qh grlw sdv íwuh
4 ^u+3> 4, . u+4> 5, . === . u+<> 43,`/ doruv rq hvw irufì gh frqvwdwhu txh ohv
wurs gl ìuhqw gh o*hvsìudqfh gh 43
ghx{ skìqrpëqhv +suìiìuhqfh srxu oh suìvhqw hw srolwltxh prqìwdluh, lqwhudjlvvhqw1
O*lgìh txh ohv wdx{ orqjv grlyhqw íwuh surfkhv g*xqh fhuwdlqh hvsìudqfh gh od pr|hqqh ghv wdx{ frxuwv
lqwhupìgldluhv hvw ã od edvh ghv udlvrqqhphqwv ghv ìfrqrplvwhv hw v*dsshooh k|srwkëvh gh od wkìrulh
ghv dqwlflsdwlrqv1 Hq h{sorlwdqw fhwwh k|srwkëvh/ xqh kdxvvh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw uìyëoh txh ohv pdufkìv
dqwlflshqw ghv kdxvvhv ghv wdx{ frxuwv sdu od edqtxh fhqwudoh +l1h1 xq uhvvhuuhphqw gh od srolwltxh prqì0
wdluh,/ hw lqyhuvhphqw hq fdv gh edlvvh +l1h1 xq dvvrxsolvvhphqw gh od srolwltxh prqìwdluh,1 Gh idlw/ fhwwh
julooh g*dqdo|vh uhqg dvvh} elhq frpswh ghv whqgdqfhv gh irqg ghv prxyhphqwv gh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1
Hq q/ lo idxw uhpdutxhu txh ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw frpsruwhqw xqh glphqvlrq vxssoìphqwdluh ulvtxh gh
frqwuhsduwlh / f*hvw0ã0gluh xq ulvtxh txh o*ìphwwhxu gx wlwuh 0 o*hpsuxqwhxu 0 idvvh gìidxw hw vrlw grqf gdqv
o*lpsrvvlelolwì gh uhperxuvhu vd ghwwh1 Fh ulvtxh hvw qìjoljhdeoh srxu ohv ìplvvlrqv gh od soxsduw ghv Hwdwv
+rq sduoh gh ulvtxh vrxyhudlq, pdlv lo o*hvw prlqv srxu g*dxwuhv dfwhxuv frpph ohv froohfwlylwìv orfdohv1 Lo
o*hvw wuëv qhwwhphqw prlqv srxu erq qrpeuh g*hqwuhsulvhv ìphwwulfhv = oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw txh grlyhqw sd|hu
fhv ìphwwhxuv hvw doruv xqh irqfwlrq furlvvdqwh gh ohxu ulvtxh gh gìidxw1 Hq h hw/ ohv dfkhwhxuv gh wlwuhv
h{ljhqw xq wdx{ g*lqwìuíw g*dxwdqw soxv ìohyì txh o*ìphwwhxu gx wlwuh d xq ulvtxh gh qh mdpdlv uhperxuvhu
vd ghwwh +ã o*h{wuíph/ rq sduoh gh pdufkì ghv kljk |lhogv ,1 Rq gìfrpsrvh doruv ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
vxu fh pdufkì hq xqh sduwlh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw sxu hw xqh sduwlh ulvtxh gh gìidxw 1

41619 Hqfruh txhotxhv qrwlrqv srxu qlu
Rq grqqh lfl hq yudf txhotxhv whuphv xwlolvìhv oruvtx*rq sduoh g*reoljdwlrqv =
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

48

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

od gxudwlrq g*xqh reoljdwlrq hvw gì qlh frpph =
G@

p4
5=p5
W=pW
+4.W UD, . +4.WUD,5 . === . ^4.WUD`W
S

f*hvw0ã0gluh od pr|hqqh srqgìuìh ghv gdwhv ixwxuhv 4/111/ W / od vrpph ghv srqgìudwlrqv ìwdqw ìjdoh
ã 41 Fhwwh txdqwlwì hvw krprjëqh ã xqh gxuìh hw hvw h{dfwhphqw ìjdoh ã W srxu xq }ìur0frxsrq1 Lo
hvw idfloh gh yìul hu txh f*hvw dxvvl od gìulyìh gx orjdulwkph gx sul{ g*xqh reoljdwlrq sdu udssruw dx
wdx{ gh uhqghphqw dfwxdulho W UD +dx vljqh suëv hw ã xq idfwhxu 4 . UD suëv,1 Sdu frqvìtxhqw/ G
v*dsshooh dxvvl vhqvlelolwì gx sul{ > hooh phvxuh gh frpelhq +hq srxufhqwdjh, oh sul{ gx wlwuh ydulh 0
dx 4hu ruguh 0 oruvtxh W UD ydulh1 Txh fhod vljql h0w0lo B Vxssrvrqv txh od frxueh ghv wdx{ vrlw sodwh
dxmrxug*kxl/ l1h1 u+3> w, @ u @ frqvwdqwh +srxu wrxw w,/ doruv W UD @ u hw G phvxuh oh srxufhqwdjh gh
yduldwlrq gx sul{ txdqg od frxueh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw d xq prxyhphqw gh wudqvodwlrq1 G phvxuh grqf
od vhqvlelolwì dx 4hu ruguh gx sul{ gx wlwuh ã xq prxyhphqw ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Fhwwh judqghxu hvw
grqf wuëv xwloh srxu xq qdqflhu fdu hooh shuphw gh txdqwl hu oh ulvtxh olì ã ghv prxyhphqwv gh wdx{
g*lqwìuíw1 Hq sduwlfxolhu/ od vhqvlelolwì g*xq }ìur0frxsrq gh pdwxulwì 43 dqv hvw soxv iruwh txh srxu
xqh reoljdwlrq +ã frxsrqv, gh píph pdwxulwì = oh suhplhu wlwuh uìdjlud grqf soxv ã xq prxyhphqw
ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw txh oh vhfrqg1
sul{ slhg gh frxsrq = oh sul{ gx wlwuh reoljdwdluh hq idlvdqw devwudfwlrq gx surfkdlq frxsrq1 Oh
surfkdlq frxsrq v*dsshooh oh frxsrq frxux1
frqyhqwlrqv gh gdwh = hq sudwltxh/ lo hvw wuëv lpsruwdqw gh vdyrlu frpphqw ohv gxuìhv vrqw phvxuìhv1
Hoohv oh vrqw jìqìudohphqw hq mrxuv pdlv/ frpph ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw vrqw dqqxhov/ lo idxw frqyhuwlu ohv
mrxuv hq iudfwlrq g*dqqìhv1 Vhorq ohv pdufkìv/ rq frqylhqw gh frqvlgìuhu txh o*dqqìh d 693 mrxuv +hw
oh prlv 63 mrxuv, rx 698 mrxuv1

417 Ohv pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv
Qrxv q*lqvlvwhurqv sdv lfl vxu fhv dfwliv txl uhfrxyuhqw ohv pìwdx{ suìflhx{ +ru/ dujhqw hwf1,/ oh sìwuroh hw
vhv vrxv0surgxlwv/ ohv pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv djulfrohv/ hw/ ghsxlv uìfhpphqw/ o*ìohfwulflwì/ od edqgh sdvvdqwh
gdqv o*lqgxvwulh ghv wìoìfrppxqlfdwlrqv/ hw elhqw÷w ohv shuplv g*ìplvvlrq ghv jd} ã h hw gh vhuuh1 Hq
sudwltxh/ rq phw gdqv fhwwh fdwìjrulh wrxw fh txl qh uhoëyh sdv gx pdufkì ghv dfwlrqv/ ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
hw ghv wdx{ gh fkdqjh6 1
Ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv vxu fhv pdufkìv qh vrxkdlwhqw vrxyhqw sdv suhqguh olyudlvrq ghv elhqv hx{0píph +dvvh}
shx gh jhqv rqw uìhoohphqw ehvrlq g*dfkhwhu xqh fdujdlvrq gh sìwuroh111, = ohv wudqvdfwlrqv frqfhuqhqw
vxuwrxw ohv surgxlwv gìulyìv +frqwudwv ã whuph txh qrxv yhuurqv sdu od vxlwh,1 Ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv fkhufkhqw
vrlw ã vsìfxohu/ vrlw 0 hw f*hvw fh txl mxvwl h o*h{lvwhqfh gh fhv pdufkìv gìulyìv 0 ã vh frxyulu frqwuh ghv
yduldwlrqv gh sul{1 Fhod shxw íwuh sdu h{hpsoh xq lqgxvwulho jurv frqvrppdwhxu g*ìqhujlh txl yhxw vh
frxyulu frqwuh xqh kdxvvh ghv sul{ gx sìwuroh/ xq surgxfwhxu gh pdòv txl yhxw suhqguh xqh dvvxudqfh
frqwuh xqh edlvvh gx sul{ gx pdòv hwf1 Frpph o*hqvhljqh od wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh/ o*lqwurgxfwlrq g*xqh
dvvxudqfh frqwuh xq doìd dpìolruh oh elhq0íwuh ghv lqglylgxv = ohv pdufkìv gìulyìv mrxhqw fh u÷oh1
Od vsìfl flwì ghv pdwlëuhv suhplëuhv sdu udssruw dx{ dfwlrqv hw dx{ reoljdwlrqv hvw tx*hoohv qh shxyhqw
jìqìudohphqw sdv íwuh vwrfnìhv/ wrxw dx prlqv vdqv frþw = o*ìohfwulflwì q*hvw sdv vwrfndeoh/ xqh fdujdlvrq
gh sìwuroh hvw frþwhxvh ã vwrfnhu/ hwf1 Oh frþw gh vwrfndjh grlw grqf íwuh lqwìjuì gdqv od prgìolvdwlrq hw
qh shxw íwuh qìjoljì1
6 Rq frqvwdwh xqh whqgdqfh klvwrultxh ã pdufkìlvhu wrxwh vruwh gh elhqv hqwudqw gdqv ohv surfhvvxv gh surgxfwlrq1 Fhv
qrxyhdx{ pdufkìv dssdudlvvhqw vrxyhqw oruvtxh oh uìjxodwhxu fkhufkh ã dpìolruhu o*h!fdflwì gh o*ìfrqrplh hq gìpdqwhodqw
ghv prqrsrohv/ hq lqwhuqdolvdqw ghv h{whuqdolwìv whoohv txh od srooxwlrq hwf1 Gdqv fhv vlwxdwlrqv/ od vroxwlrq od soxv vlpsoh
hvw hq h hw g*lqwurgxluh xq pdufkì rujdqlvì gx elhq/ txl grlw frqgxluh 0 g*dsuëv ohv wkìruëphv irqgdphqwdx{ gh o*ìfrqrplh
0 ã xqh vlwxdwlrq Sduhwr dpìolruìh1

49

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

418 Ohv wdx{ gh fkdqjh
Ohv wdx{ gh fkdqjh shxyhqw vh frqfhyrlu frpph xqh jìqìudolvdwlrq ghv dfwlrqv = dlqvl oh sul{ hq hxur
g*xqh dfwlrq hvw oh wdx{ gh fkdqjh gh o*hxur 2 dfwlrq/ f*hvw0ã0gluh oh sul{ hq hxur srxu dftxìulu xq
wlwuh g*dfwlrq1 Ghylvhv hw dfwlrqv vrqw ghv qxpìudluhv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh xq ìwdorq gh ydohxu1 Dlqvl/ frpph ohv
sul{ g*dfwlrqv/ ohv wdx{ gh fkdqjh xfwxhqw dx frxuv gx whpsv1 Hq rxwuh/ od prgìolvdwlrq vhud vlplodluh1

41814 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv wdx{ gh fkdqjh
Hq vxssrvdqw txh oh prqgh hvw gìwhuplqlvwh/ hw vl rq qrwh V4 +uhvs1 V3 , oh sul{ hq hxur g*4 groodu hq gdwh
4 +uhvs1 gdwh 3, +l1h1 oh wdx{ gh fkdqjh hxur 2 groodu,/ doruv V3 hxurv dxmrxug*kxl lqyhvwlv gdqv o*dfkdw
g*xq groodu udssruwhqw V4 +4 . u4i , hxurv ghpdlq/ rü u4i hvw oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw g*xq sodfhphqw hq groodu vxu
od sìulrgh +3> 4, +i srxu iruhljq ,1 Sdudooëohphqw/ rq shxw lqyhvwlu od píph vrpph vxu xq dfwli vdqv
ulvtxh hq hxur +l1h1 od fdlvvh g*ìsdujqh, hw rewhqlu ghpdlq +4.ug ,=V3 vl ug hvw oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw grphvwltxh1
Gdqv xq prqgh gìwhuplqlvwh hw hq qìjoljhdqw ohv frþwv gh wudqvdfwlrq hw ohv wd{hv/ ohv ghx{ sodfhphqw
grlyhqw fròqflghu/ vrlw =
4 . ug
=V3
V4 @
4 . ui
rx hqfruh =
4 . ui
=V4
V3 @
4 . ug
Vl rq surorqjhdlw fhwwh uhodwlrq sdu uìfxuuhqfh/ rq dxudlw doruv +hq vxssrvdqw txh oh prqgh hvw gìwhuplqlvwh
srxu wrxmrxuv, =
%W 4
&
\ 4 . ui
w
+416,
V3 @ =
g =VW
w@3 4 . uw
Oh prqgh q*ìwdqw sdv gìwhuplqlvwh/ lo hvw doruv orjltxh gh srvwxohu xqh g|qdpltxh ghv sul{ g*dfwlrqv gh
od iruph =
4 . ug
=V3 . %4
V4 @
4 . ui
rü 4 hvw xq doìd grqw od uìdolvdwlrq qh vhud frqqxh tx*hq 41 Od txhvwlrq hvvhqwlhooh hvw grqf gh vdyrlu
txho w|sh gh orl vxlw od yduldeoh %4 1

41815 Lqwhusuìwdwlrq ìfrqrpltxh
Od uhodwlrq +416, grqqh xqh julooh gh ohfwxuh ghv prxyhphqwv gh fkdqjh1 Fhuwhv/ fhwwh uhodwlrq qh wlhqw
txh gdqv xq prqgh gìwhuplqlvwh = ohv ìfrqrplvwhv o*xwlolvhqw hq glvdqw tx*hooh uhvwh yudlh gdqv oh prqgh
uìho pdlv hq pr|hqqh vhxohphqw1 Fh jhquh g*k|srwkëvh uhoëyh gx píph hvsulw txh o*k|srwkëvh
gh od wkìrulh ghv dqwlflsdwlrqv ìyrtxìh fl0ghvvxv ã sursrv ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Ohv ìfrqrplvwhv sduohqw
g*k|srwkëvh gh sdulwì qrq frxyhuwh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw1 Dlqvl/ o*hxur shxw íwuh idleoh ylv0ã0ylv gx
groodu +V3 ìohyì, vrlw sdufh txh ohv pdufkìv dqwlflshqw tx*lo vhud idleoh gdqv o*dyhqlu/ vrlw sdufh txh ohv
pdufkìv dqwlflshqw txh ohv dpìulfdlqv dxurqw xqh srolwltxh prqìwdluh prlqv vrxsoh txh ohv hxursìhqv +l1h1
uwi A uwg ,1

419 Txhotxhv frqfoxvlrqv
Fh fkdslwuh g*lqwurgxfwlrq d idlw xqh suìvhqwdwlrq wuëv lqiruphooh ghv gl ìuhqwv dfwliv gh edvh1 Lo hvw ã
qrwhu tx*rq d ehdxfrxs xwlolvì gh udlvrqqhphqwv rü rq frpsduh ghx{ sodfhphqwv hw rü rq vrxwlhqw tx*lov
grlyhqw dyrlu/ vrxv fhuwdlqhv frqglwlrqv/ oh píph uhqghphqw1 Fh w|sh gh udlvrqqhphqw vhud irupdolvì sdu
od vxlwh hw vhud v|vwìpdwlvì ã wudyhuv o*k|srwkëvh g*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwìv g*duelwudjh1 Xq duelwudjh hvw
xqh rsìudwlrq txl shuphw gh idluh xq jdlq wrxmrxuv srvlwli vdqv ulhq lqyhvwlu1 Glw gh fhwwh idêrq/ lo sdudñw
mxvwl ì gh vxssrvhu txh fh w|sh g*rsìudwlrqv q*h{lvwh sdv rx/ oruvtx*hoohv h{lvwhqw/ hoohv glvsdudlvvhqw
udslghphqw dx sur w ghv suhplhuv lqwhuyhqdqwv txl v*hq vrqw dshuêx1 Fhwwh k|srwkëvh hvw grqf g*dxwdqw
soxv mxvwl ìh txh oh pdufkì irqfwlrqqh elhq1
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

4:

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Rq yhuud sdu od vxlwh txh fhwwh k|srwkëvh hvw ã od edvh gh wrxv ohv prgëohv g*ìydoxdwlrq +dfwlrqv/ wdx{
g*lqwìuíw/ fkdqjh hwf1, hw d 0 dx0ghoã gh vrq dssduhqfh gh wulyldolwì 0 xq frqwhqx pdwkìpdwltxh wuëv
sxlvvdqw1

41: Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv
Rq srxuud xwlohphqw vh uhsruwhu dx{ rxyudjhv vxlydqwv =
P1 Dyhoodqhgd hw S1 Odxuhqfh +5333,/ Txdqwlwdwlyh Prghoolqj ri Ghulydwlyh Vhfxulwlhv = Iurp Wkhru|
wr Sudfwlfh/ Fkdspdq ) Kdoo1
S1 Fkdedugëv hw I1 Ghofodx{ +4<<9,/ Ohv surgxlwv gìulyìv/ Jxdolqr ìglwhxu1
P1 Pxvlhod hw P1 Uxwnrzvnl +4<<:,/ Pduwlqjdoh Phwkrgv lq Ilqdqfldo Prghoolqj/ Dssolfdwlrqv ri
Pdwkhpdwlfv/ yro1 69/ Vsulqjhu0Yhuodj/ Ehuolq1
S1 Zloprww +4<<;,/ Ghulydwlyhv = Wkh Wkhru| dqg Sudfwlfh ri Ilqdqfldo Hqjlqhhulqj/ Mrkq Zloh| )
Vrqv1
hw ìylghpphqw dx frxuv gh Qlfroh Ho Ndurxl gdqv od yrlh Pdwkìpdwltxhv Dssoltxìhv1

4;

5
Surgxlwv gìulyìv dfwlrq

514 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Dsuëv dyrlu lqwurgxlw ohv dfwliv gh edvh dx fkdslwuh suìfìghqw/ rq derugh lfl ohv dfwliv frqwlqjhqwv/ f*hvw0
ã0gluh ohv dfwliv grqw ohv x{ jìqìuìv vrqw ghv irqfwlrqv 0 sdv qìfhvvdluhphqw frqwlqxv 0 ghv sul{ ghv dfwliv
gh edvh1
O*lpdjlqdwlrq ghv pdufkìv ìwdqw vdqv olplwh/ oh qrpeuh hw od ydulìwì ghv surgxlwv frqwlqjhqwv vrqw txdvl0
phqw lq qlhv hw lo hvw grqf gl!floh g*hq idluh xqh suìvhqwdwlrq h{kdxvwlyh1 Hq rxwuh/ ohv surgxlwv gìulyìv
pìodqjhqw frxudpphqw gl ìuhqwv w|shv g*dfwliv gh edvh = dfwlrq hw reoljdwlrq/ wdx{ gh fkdqjh hw wdx{
g*lqwìuíw hwf1 Lo hvw grqf gh soxv hq soxv duelwudluh gh vìsduhu surgxlwv gìulyìv dfwlrq hw surgxlwv gìulyìv
wdx{ g*lqwìuíw/ vìsdudwlrq txh qrxv ihurqv wrxw gh píph1
Dydqw píph gh uhqwuhu gdqv ohv gìwdlov/ rq shxw vh ghpdqghu srxutxrl ohv pdufkìv gh surgxlwv gìulyìv
rqw sulv xqh whooh sodfh ghsxlv od fuìdwlrq gx suhplhu pdufkì rujdqlvì hq 4<:6 +Fklfdjr Erdug Rswlrqv
H{fkdqjh,1 Od uìsrqvh txhotxh shx wdxwrorjltxh hvw txh fhod grlw uìsrqguh ã xq ehvrlq1 Irqgdphqwdoh0
phqw/ ohv surgxlwv gìulyìv shuphwwhqw gh vh frxylu frqwuh fhuwdlqv ulvtxhv/ gh od píph idêrq tx*xq frqwudw
g*dvvxudqfh dxwrpreloh frxyuh frqwuh ohv gìjåwv frqvìfxwliv ã xq dfflghqw dxwrpreloh1 Hq h hw/ xq frqwudw
g*dvvxudqfh +uhvs1 xq dfwli gìulyì, hvw xq surgxlw frqwlqjhqw txl jìqëuh xq x{ oruvtx*xq ìyëqhphqw who
tx*xq dfflghqw +uhvs1 xqh yduldwlrq gx sul{ g*xqh dfwlrq/ xqh edlvvh ghv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw hwf1, vh uìdolvh1 Ru/
hq hqylurqqhphqw lqfhuwdlq/ ohv ìfrqrplvwhv prqwuhqw txh oh elhq0íwuh g*xq lqglylgx dxjphqwh oruvtx*rq
oxl grqqh od srvvlelolwì gh v*dvvxuhu1
Lo idxw qrwhu txh wrxv ohv djhqwv qh vrqw sdv h{srvìv dx{ píph ulvtxhv hw gh od píph idêrq1 Xqh hqwuhsulvh
iruwhphqw lpsruwdwulfh +gh sìwuroh sdu h{hpsoh, vhud wuëv h{srvìh ã xqh kdxvvh gx groodu +sdu udssruw ã
od prqqdlh gh vrq sd|v gh uìvlghqfh, doruv tx*ã o*lqyhuvh xqh hqwuhsulvh h{sruwdwulfh +yhuv ohv Hwdwv0Xqlv,
fudlqgud xqh edlvvh gx groodu1 Rq shxw ìjdohphqw lpdjlqhu xqh hqwuhsulvh txl frqvrpph ehdxfrxs gh
surgxlwv sìwurolhuv gdqv vrq surfhvvxv gh surgxfwlrq pdlv txl h{sruwh yhuv ohv Hwdwv0Xqlv = xqh edlvvh
gx groodu glplqxh vhv frþwv hw vlpxowdqìphqw vhv uhfhwwhv1 Gdqv fh fdv/ hooh hvw sduwlhoohphqw lppxqlvìh
frqwuh ghv yduldwlrqv gx groodu1 Gdqv fhv h{hpsohv/ rq frqvwdwh txh ghv hqwuhsulvhv 0 h{srvìhv gl ìuhpphqw
ã xqh yduldwlrq gx groodu 0 shxyhqw dyrlu lqwìuíw ã vh uhqfrqwuhu hw ã ìwdeolu hqwuh hx{ ghv frqwudwv txl
ohxu shuphwwhqw gh v*dvvxuhu pxwxhoohphqw1
Ohv pdufkìv gh surgxlwv gìulyìv vrqw xqh uìsrqvh qdwxuhooh ã fh ehvrlq g*dvvxudqfh = frpph wrxw pdufkì/
lov shuphwwhqw ã ghv djhqwv gh vh uhqfrqwuhu srxu idluh ghv ìfkdqjhv pxwxhoohphqw eìqì txhv1 Wrxwhirlv/
fhv ìfkdqjhv qh vrqw sdv ghv elhqv sk|vltxhv pdlv ghv txdqwlwìv gh ulvtxh 1

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

515 Ohv rswlrqv gh edvh
51514 Gì qlwlrqv
Gì qlwlrq 4 Xqh rswlrq vwdqgdug g*dfkdw +l1h1 fdoo, hvw xq gurlw g*dfkhwhu xq dfwli grqqì ã xq sul{
frqyhqx ã o*dydqfh/ ã xqh gdwh ixwxuh grqqìh1
Lo v*djlw grqf g*xq gurlw hw qrq g*xqh reoljdwlrq = oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq d wrxmrxuv oh gurlw gh qh sdv
h{hufhu vrq rswlrq/ sdu h{hpsoh hw vxuwrxw vl o*h{huflfh qh oxl hvw sdv sur wdeoh1 Oh sul{ frqyhqx ã
o*dydqfh v*dsshooh oh sul{ g*h{huflfh +l1h1 oh vwulnh hq dqjodlv, = f*hvw oh idlw tx*lo vrlw frqqx ã o*dydqfh
txl grqqh gh od ydohxu ã o*rswlrq1 Hq h hw/ xqh rswlrq txl grqqhudlw oh gurlw g*dfkhwhu xqh dfwlrq ghpdlq
dx sul{ gh pdufkì ghpdlq q*d ìylghpphqw dxfxqh ydohxu1 Od gdwh ixwxuh grqqìh v*dsshooh od gdwh
g*h{huflfh1 O* dfwli grqqì v*dsshooh o*dfwli vrxv0mdfhqw +l1h1 xqghuo|lqj,1
Oruvtxh o*rswlrq qh shxw íwuh h{hufìh tx*ã od gdwh g*h{huflfh/ rq glw txh o*rswlrq hvw hxursìhqqh/ sdu
rssrvlwlrq dx fdv dpìulfdlq rü o*h{huflfh shxw vh idluh ã wrxw prphqw suìfìgdqw fhwwh gdwh g*h{huflfh1
Vl rq vxssrvh txh o*dfkhwhxu gh o*rswlrq hvw udwlrqqho/ lo o*h{hufhud v*lo | d lqwìuíw/ f*hvw0ã0gluh vl oh sul{
gh o*dfwli oh mrxu gh od gdwh g*h{huflfh hvw vxsìulhxu dx sul{ g*h{huflfh1 Pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/ oh x{ jìqìuì
+l1h1 oh sd|r , v*ìfulw =
pd{+VW N> 3,
vl VW hvw oh sul{ gh pdufkì gh o*dfwli vrxv0mdfhqw ã od gdwh g*h{huflfh W 1 Rq qrwh ìjdohphqw fh jdlq vrxv
od iruph =
.
+VW N,

250
200
150
100
50
0
100

cours

Rswlrq g*dfkdw vwdqgdug gh sul{ g*h{huflfh 433
Gdqv oh fdv frqwudluh rü oh sul{ gh o*dfwli hvw lqiìulhxu dx sul{ g*h{huflfh/ oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq q*h{hufh
sdv vrq rswlrq/ uhêrlw grqf 3 hxur/ hw frqvwdwh h{ srvw tx*lo d gìshqvì hq sxuh shuwh oh sul{ g*dfkdw
gh o*rswlrq/ gh píph tx*xq dxwrprelolvwh shxw dyrlu oh vhqwlphqw g*dyrlu sd|ì hq sxuh shuwh vd sulph
g*dvvxudqfh v*lo q*d sdv hx g*dfflghqw shqgdqw od sìulrgh1
Xq lqwhuyhqdqw dfkëwh xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw v*lo fudlqw xqh kdxvvh gx frxuv gh o*dfwli vrxv0mdfhqw = o*rswlrq
oxl shuphw gh vh suìpxqlu frqwuh fh ulvtxh1 D wlwuh g*h{hpsoh/ frqvlgìurqv xq lqwhuyhqdqw txl dfkëwh xqh
53

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

rswlrq g*dfkdw gh sul{ g*h{huflfh 68 hxurv hw g*h{huflfh gdqv xq prlv1 Vxssrvrqv txh gdqv xq prlv oh
frxuv gh o*dfwlrq vrlw gh 6; hxurv = o*dfkhwhxu gh o*rswlrq gìflghud g*h{hufhu vrq rswlrq hw dfkëwhud o*dfwlrq
ã 68 hxurv srxu ìyhqwxhoohphqw od uhyhqguh lppìgldwhphqw dx sul{ gh pdufkì/ vrlw 6; hxurv/ hpsrfkdqw
dlqvl xq jdlq gh 6;068 @ 6 hxurv sdu rswlrq dfkhwìh1 Vl dx frqwudluh oh frxuv gdqv xq prlv hvw gh 63 hxurv/
oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq q*h{hufh sdv/ uhêrlw 3 hxur hw grqf frqvwdwh xqh shuwh wrwdoh ìjdoh dx sul{ g*dfkdw
gh vhv rswlrqv1
Lo idxw qrwhu tx*ã sduwlu gx prphqw rü rq gìwlhqw xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw/ rq shxw vrxkdlwhu od uhyhqguh vl ohv
frqglwlrqv gh pdufkì rx vl o*h{srvlwlrq dx ulvtxh gx gìwhqwhxu rqw fkdqjì1 Ohv rswlrqv g*dfkdw shxyhqw
jìqìudohphqw vh yhqguh rx v*dfkhwhu frpph q*lpsruwh txho dfwli qdqflhu1
V|pìwultxhphqw/ rq gì qlw o*rswlrq gh yhqwh +l1h1 sxw, gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =
Gì qlwlrq 5 Xqh rswlrq vwdqgdug gh yhqwh +l1h1 sxw, hvw oh gurlw gh yhqguh xq dfwli grqqì ã xq sul{
frqyhqx ã o*dydqfh/ ã xqh gdwh ixwxuh grqqìh1
O*dfkhwhxu g*xqh rswlrq gh yhqwh dqwlflsh rx fudlqw xqh edlvvh gh o*dfwli vrxv0mdfhqw1 Frpph suìfhpphqw/
rq shxw dfkhwhu xqh rswlrq gh yhqwh rx od yhqguh txdqg rq hq gìwlhqw1 Pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/ oh sur o gh
jdlq hvw ìylghpphqw oh vxlydqw =
pd{+N VW > 3,

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ghv 73 soxv jurvvhv fdslwdolvdwlrqv gh od Erxuvh gh Sdulv hw grqf ìyroxh dx mrxu oh mrxu frpph oh ihudlw
q*lpsruwh txhooh dfwlrq1 Rq shxw grqf frqvlgìuhu ghv rswlrqv vxu fhw lqglfh = fh w|sh g*rswlrq shuphw
grqf gh vh frxyulu rx gh vsìfxohu vxu xqh kdxvvh rx xqh edlvvh jìqìudoh gx pdufkì ghv dfwlrqv +wrxw dx
prlqv ghv 73 soxv jurvvhv fdslwdolvdwlrqv,1 D wlwuh g*h{hpsoh/ yrlfl od qrwlfh h{solfdwlyh gh fhwwh rswlrq
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Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

W|sh gh o*rswlrq = Rswlrq gh w|sh hxursìhq/ f*hvw ã gluh h{huêdeoh xqltxhphqw ã o*ìfkìdqfh1
Dfwli vrxv0mdfhqw = O*lqglfh FDF 73/ frpsrvì ghv 73 ydohxuv ohv soxv uhsuìvhqwdwlyhv ghv gl ìuhqwv
vhfwhxuv g*dfwlylwì uhsuìvhqwìv vxu oh suhplhu pdufkì gh od Erxuvh gh Sdulv1 Od jhvwlrq gh o*ìfkdqwloorq ghv
vrflìwìv uhsuìvhqwìhv gdqv o*lqglfh FDF 73 hvw sodfìh vrxv o*dxwrulwì g*xq frqvhlo vflhqwl txh g*h{shuwv lq0
gìshqgdqwv txl hq gìflgh oh uhqrxyhoohphqw oruvtxh oìyroxwlrq gx pdufkì rx ohv prgl fdwlrqv lqwhuyhqdqw
gdqv oh fdslwdo ghv vrflìwìv oh qìfhvvlwhqw1
O*lqglfh FDF 73 hvw fdofxoì hq frqwlqx sdu Hxurqh{w Sdulv VD hw gl xvì wrxwhv ohv 63 vhfrqghv1 O*dwwhqwlrq
ghv grqqhxuv g*ruguhv hvw dsshoìh vxu oh idlw txh oruvtxh ohv ydohxuv uhsuìvhqwdqw soxv gh 68 ( gh od
fdslwdolvdwlrq gh o*lqglfh FDF 73 qh vrqw prphqwdqìphqw sdv vxvfhswleohv g*íwuh frwìhv +vrlw gx idlw g*xq
lqflghqw whfkqltxh/ vrlw gx idlw gh phvxuhv gh uìvhuydwlrq gh frwdwlrq d hfwdqw ohv ydohxuv gh o*ìfkdqwloorq,/
xq ìfodluhxu gh whqgdqfh hvw vxevwlwxì ã o*lqglfh = o*lqirupdwlrq sxeolìh gdqv fhv flufrqvwdqfhv h{sulph od
yduldwlrq gh frxuv ghv vhxohv ydohxuv txl irqw o*remhw g*xqh frwdwlrq1
O*h{wudsrodwlrq gh fhwwh yduldwlrq ã fhooh gh o*lqglfh wrxw hqwlhu qh shxw íwuh h hfwxìh tx*dyhf suxghqfh
hw hq irqfwlrq g*k|srwkëvhv txl vrqw gh od vhxoh uhvsrqvdelolwì gh ohxuv dxwhxuv1
Xqlwì gh qìjrfldwlrq = O*xqlwì gh qìjrfldwlrq hvw frqvwlwxìh g*xq frqwudw gdqv ohtxho fkdtxh srlqw
g*lqglfh hvw d hfwì g*xqh ydohxu gh 4 hxur1 Od wdlooh gx frqwudw hvw ìjdoh ã od ydohxu gh o*lqglfh { 4 hxur
hw vd ydohxu dx frxuv gh o*rswlrq { 4 hxur1
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sdu frqwudw1
Hfkìdqfhv ghv rswlrqv = Ohv rswlrqv shxyhqw íwuh qìjrflìhv mxvtx*dx ghuqlhu mrxu gh erxuvh gx prlv
g*ìfkìdqfh1 Ohv qìjrfldwlrqv sruwhqw vxu kxlw ìfkìdqfhv jolvvdqwhv = 6 phqvxhoohv/ 6 wulphvwulhoohv gx f|foh
pduv/ mxlq/ vhswhpeuh/ gìfhpeuh hw 5 vhphvwulhoohv gx f|foh pduv/ vhswhpeuh1
Sul{ g*h{huflfh = Ohv sul{ g*h{huflfh vrqw ghv ydohxuv vwdqgdug {ìhv sdu dmrxw rx vrxvwudfwlrq gh 83
srlqwv g*lqglfh vxu ohv ìfkìdqfhv phqvxhoohv +ìfkìdqfhv glwhv udssurfkìhv,/ 433 srlqwv vxu ohv ìfkìdqfhv
wulphvwulhoohv hw 533 srlqwv vxu ohv ìfkìdqfhv vhphvwulhoohv sdu udssruw dx sul{ g*h{huflfh ã sdulwì1 Ohv
sul{ g*h{huflfh vrqw gl ìuhqwv srxu ohv rswlrqv g*dfkdw hw ohv rswlrqv gh yhqwh1 Q1E1 Srxu ohv ìfkìdqfhv
rxyhuwhv ã od qìjrfldwlrq dydqw oh 4hu iìyulhu 4<<</ ohv lqwhuydoohv uhvwhqw {ìv ã 483 srlqwv mxvtxã fh
tx*hoohv ghylhqqhqw ghv ìfkìdqfhv udssurfkìhv1 Oruv gh o*rxyhuwxuh g*xqh ìfkìdqfh/ ghv vìulhv vrqw fuììhv
+rswlrqv g*dfkdw hw rswlrqv gh yhqwh, dx{ sul{ g*h{huflfh ohv soxv surfkhv gh od ydohxu gh o*lqglfh/ xq ã
sdulwì hw ghx{ hq0ghkruv ghv frxuv1
H{hpsoh = srxu xq lqglfh gh ydohxu 6 <85 hw srxu ghv vìulhv dyhf ghv sul{ g*h{huflfh fuììv ã lqwhuydoohv
gh 533 srlqwv g*lqglfh/ fuìdwlrq g*rswlrqv g*dfkdw dx{ sul{ g*h{huflfh 7 333/ 7 533/ 7 733 hw g*rswlrqv gh
yhqwh dx{ sul{ g*h{huflfh 7 333/ 6 ;33/ 6 9331
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vxu fkdfxq ghv w|shv g*rswlrqv +rswlrqv gdfkdw hw rswlrqv gh yhqwh,1
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k 73 hw 49 k 33 oh mrxu gh o*ìfkìdqfh +| frpsulv od suhplëuh ydohxu gh o*lqglfh gl xvìh dsuëv 49 k 33,1
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gh od yhlooh1 Oruvtxh fhwwh olplwh hvw iudqfklh vxu xqh ghv ghx{ ìfkìdqfhv ohv soxv surfkhv/ ohv frwdwlrqv
shxyhqw íwuh prphqwdqìphqw vxvshqgxhv vxu ohv frqwudwv g*rswlrqv hw ohv frqwudwv ã whuph ihuph frwìv
vxu oh PRQHS hw sruwdqw vxu o*lqglfh FDF 731 Lo shxw/ sdu dloohxuv/ íwuh surfìgì ã xq dssho gh jdudqwlh
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od kdxvvh hvw 9 833 . 5:8@ 9 ::8 > oh vhxlo gh uìvhuydwlrq srwhqwlhooh ã od edlvvh hvw 9 833 0 5:8 @ 9
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55

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Gìs÷w gh jdudqwlh = Oh sulqflsh uhwhqx frqvlvwh ã joredolvhu ohv srvlwlrqv gìwhqxhv sdu xq píph
grqqhxu g*ruguhv hq rswlrqv FDF 73 ã pdwxulwì frxuwh hw orqjxh +frqwudwv gh 4 hxur hw frqwudwv gh
urpsxv, hw ã ydorulvhu oh sruwhihxlooh dlqvl rewhqx vxu od edvh g*xqh vhxoh hw píph k|srwkëvh g*ìyroxwlrq
gh o*lqglfh1 Ohv grqqhxuv g*ruguhv gìwhqdqw xqh srvlwlrq joredoh qhwwh yhqghxu vh yrlhqw dsshohu xq gìs÷w
gh jdudqwlh dmxvwì txrwlglhqqhphqw/ g*xq prqwdqw uhsuìvhqwdqw od ydohxu oltxlgdwlyh od soxv gìidyrudeoh
gh ohxu srvlwlrq gdqv o*k|srwkëvh g*xqh yduldwlrq gh od ydohxu gh o*lqglfh gh .20 633 srlqwv sdu udssruw ã
o*lqglfh gh fo÷wxuh gx mrxu1 O*dpsohxu gh fhwwh yduldwlrq shxw íwuh dmxvwìh sdu od fkdpeuh gh frpshqvdwlrq
hq irqfwlrq ghv frqglwlrqv gx pdufkì1
Od jdudqwlh shxw íwuh frqvwlwxìh g*hvsëfhv hq hxurv rx hq ghylvhv/ gh Erqv gx Wuìvru +EWI hw EWDQ,/
g*RDW/ gh W1Eloov/ gh Exqgv/ gh wlwuhv vxssruw rx gh wlwuhv hqwudqw gdqv od frpsrvlwlrq gh o*lqglfh FDF
73/ ghv lqglfhv Grz Mrqhv VWR[[VP vxssruwv g*lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv frwìv vxu oh PRQHS/ g*dfwlrqv
gh VLFDY rx gh sduwv gh irqgv frppxqv grqw od olvwh hvw duuíwìh sdu FOHDUQHWVEI VD/ hw gh wrxw
dxwuh dfwli djuìì sdu FOHDUQHWVEI VD1 Ohv dfwliv dgplv hq jdudqwlh/ dxwuhv txh ohv hvsëfhv hq hxurv/
vrqw ydorulvìv txrwlglhqqhphqw ã ohxu frqwuhydohxu hq hxurv vdjlvvdqw ghv ghylvhv/ ã ohxu ydohxu gh pdufkì
rx ã ohxu ydohxu qrplqdoh v*djlvvdqw ghv wlwuhv gh fuìdqfh/ ã ohxu ydohxu gh pdufkì vdjlvvdqw ghv wlwuhv
gh fdslwdo/ hw ã ohxu ydohxu oltxlgdwlyh v*djlvvdqw ghv RSFYP/ dyhf dssolfdwlrq oh fdv ìfkìdqw g*xq wdx{
g*dedwwhphqw {ì sdu FOHDUQHWVEI VD hq irqfwlrq gh od qdwxuh hw gh od pdwxulwì ghv wlwuhv1
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ghv vìulhv duulydqw ã ìfkìdqfh fhvvh ã 49 k 33 oh mrxu gh o*ìfkìdqfh,1
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g*xqh frpplvvlrq gh frpshqvdwlrq g*xq prqwdqw yduldeoh hq irqfwlrq gx prqwdqw ghv fdslwdx{ qìjrflìv1
Ohv wdx{ dssolfdeohv dx prqwdqw gh fkdtxh qìjrfldwlrq vrqw ohv vxlydqwv =
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gh 483 333 hxurv ã :83 333 hxurv = 3/43 (
gh :83 333 hxurv ã 4 833 333 hxurv = 3/38 (
dx0ghoã gh 4 833 333 hxurv = 3/358 (
Oh prqwdqw gh od frpplvvlrq gh qìjrfldwlrq shuêxh sdu rsìudwlrq qh shxw íwuh vxsìulhxu ã 4 ( ghv
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fdudfwìulvwltxhv gìfulwhv gdqv od suìvhqwh fkh vrqw fhoohv txl v*dssoltxhqw ã frpswhu gx 6 qryhpeuh 5333
hw vrqw vxvfhswleohv g*íwuh prgl ìhv1

51516 Irupdwlrq ghv sul{ g*rswlrq
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frkìuhqfh lo grlw | dyrlu hqwuh oh sul{ g*xqh dfwlrq hw oh sul{ g*xqh rswlrq grqw oh vrxv0mdfhqw hvw fhwwh
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od ydohxu gh o*dfwlrq dxmrxug*kxl >
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gh vrq sd|r >
oh sul{ g*h{huflfh = soxv oh sul{ g*h{huflfh hvw ìohyì/ prlqv xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw ã gh fkdqfhv g*íwuh
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oh sul{ gh o*dfwlrq d gh fkdqfhv gh sdvvhu dx0ghvvxv rx hq0ghvvrxv gx sul{ g*h{huflfh1
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56

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

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hw hq ìphwwdqw xq }ìur0frxsrq gh qrplqdo N1 Od ydohxu dxmrxug*kxl +gdwh w, gh fhwwh vhfrqgh vwudwìjlh
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516 G*dxwuhv rswlrqv hw vwudwìjlhv
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Rq shxw elhq ìylghpphqw lpdjlqhu xqh lq qlwì gh sd|r srvvleohv1 Rq v*lqwìuhvvh lfl ã txhotxhv h{hpsohv
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51614 Elqdu| rx gljlwdo rswlrqv
Xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw +uhvs1 gh yhqwh, elqdluh rx gljlwdo hvw xqh rswlrq txl yhuvh 4 hxur vl oh frxuv gh
o*dfwlrq vrxv0mdfhqwh hvw dx0ghvvxv +uhvs1 hq ghvvrxv, g*xq sul{ g*h{huflfh grqqì ã od gdwh g*h{huflfh1
Pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/ oh sd|r v*ìfulw =
4 +VW A N,
srxu o*rswlrq g*dfkdw hw =

4 +VW ? N,

srxu o*rswlrq gh yhqwh1 Hq frpsdudlvrq/ o*rswlrq vwdqgdug gh od vhfwlrq suìfìghqwh v*ìfulydlw =
+VW N, =4 +VW A N,
Frpph suìfìghpphqw/ lo h{lvwh xqh uhodwlrq gh sdulwì fdoo0sxw txl v*ìfulw lfl =
F+w> W> N, S +w> W> N, @ E+w> W ,
hq frqvhuydqw ohv píphv qrwdwlrqv1
57

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1

100
100

199

298

cours
Rswlrq g*dfkdw elqdluh

51615 Exoo hw Ehdu vsuhdgv
Fhv rswlrqv vrqw ghv frpelqdlvrqv g*rswlrqv vwdqgdugv1 Soxv suìflvìphqw/ fhwwh vwudwìjlh vxssrvh g*dfkhwhu
hw gh yhqguh ghx{ rswlrqv gh píph w|sh hw gh píph gdwh g*h{huflfh/ pdlv gh sul{ g*h{huflfh gl ìuhqwv1
Oh exoo vsuhdg fruuhvsrqg ã xq dfkdw hw xqh yhqwh g*xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw/ vrlw xq sd|r =

pd{+VW N4 > 3, pd{+VW N5 > 3,

dyhf N5 A N4 hw/ srxu oh ehdu vsuhdg +ìplvvlrq g*xqh rswlrq gh yhqwh hw dfkdw g*xqh rswlrq gh yhqwh , =

pd{+N4 VW > 3, pd{+N5 VW > 3,

dyhf N5 ? N4

Ohv judskltxhv gh fhv vwudwìjlhv prqwuhqw txh ohv sd|r v*dssurfkhqw ghv sd|r v ghv rswlrqv elqdluhv1
Gdqv oh fdv gx exoo vsuhdg/ o*lqyhvwlvvhxu v*dwwhqg ã xqh kdxvvh gx frxuv gx wlwuh vrxv0mdfhqw +hw lqyhuvhphqw
srxu oh ehdu vsuhdg,1
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

58

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

50
40
30
20
10
0
100

140
cours
Exoo vsuhdg

50
40
30
20
10
0
100

140
cours
Ehdu vsuhdg

51616 Vwudggohv hw Vwudqjohv
Oh vwudggoh hvw xq sruwhihxlooh frpsrvì g*xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw hw g*xqh rswlrq gh yhqwh gh píph sul{
g*h{huflfh/ vrlw xq sd|r =
pd{+VW N> 3, . pd{+N VW > 3,
Frpph rq oh frqvwdwh vxu oh judskltxh txl uhsuìvhqwh fh sd|r / fhwwh vwudwìjlh vhud fkrlvlh sdu xq
lqyhvwlvvhxu txl shqvh txh oh frxuv gx vrxv0mdfhqw yd ydulhu vljql fdwlyhphqw vdqv vdyrlu h{dfwhphqw gdqv
59

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

txho vhqv1 D o*lqyhuvh/ xq lqyhvwlvvhxu txl dqwlflsh txh oh frxuv uhvwhud vwdeoh dxwrxu gh od ydohxu gh N
v*hqjdjhud gdqv od vwudwìjlh rssrvìh1
Oh vwudqjoh hvw h{dfwhphqw gx píph w|sh pdlv ohv sul{ g*h{huflfh gh o*rswlrq g*dfkdw hw gh o*rswlrq gh
yhqwh vrqw gl ìuhqwv1

250
200
150
100
50
0
100
cours
Vwudggoh

51617 Exwwhu | hw frqgruv
Oh exoo vsuhdg srxydlw v*dssduhqwhu ã xqh vruwh gh gl ìuhqfldwlrq ã o*ruguh 4 gh o*rswlrq hxursìhqqh sdu
udssruw dx sul{ g*h{huflfh1 Rq rewhqdlw dlqvl xqh irqfwlrq dqdorjxh ã xqh irqfwlrq gh Khdylvlgh1 Lfl/ rq
v*lqwìuhvvh ã o*ruguh 51 Lo v*djlw g*xqh vwudwìjlh Exwwhu | grqw oh sd|r hvw gx w|sh =

pd{+VW +N . N, > 3, 5 pd{+VW N> 3, . pd{+VW +N N, > 3,

f*hvw0ã0gluh o*dfkdw gh 5 rswlrqv g*dfkdw hw o*ìplvvlrq g*xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw1 Wuëv orjltxhphqw/ oh sd|r d
xqh iruph gh Gludf1 Fhwwh vwudwìjlh vhud fkrlvlh sdu xq lqyhvwlvvhxu txl dqwlflsh txh oh frxuv gx vrxv0mdfhqw
uhvwhud wuëv surfkh gh N hw /qh erxjhud sdv ql gdqv xq vhqv ql gdqv xq dxwuh1
Xq frqgru hvw xqh vwudwìjlh Exwwhu | pdlv dyhf 7 sul{ g*h{huflfh hw qrq 6 frpph suìfìghpphqw1
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

5:

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

30

20

10

0
100
cours
Exwwhu |

51618 Fdohqgdu vsuhdgv
Ohv fdohqgdu vsuhdgv vrqw ghv vwudwìjlhv lpsoltxdqw ghv rswlrqv gh gl ìuhqwhv gdwhv gh pdwxulwìv1 Fhv vwud0
wìjlhv shxyhqw íwuh xwlohv oruvtxh o*lqyhvwlvvhxu dqwlflsh xq prxyhphqw gx vrxv0mdfhqw +hw ìyhqwxhoohphqw
oh vhqv gh fh prxyhphqw, ã xq prphqw suìflv gdqv oh ixwxu/ sdu h{hpsoh ã o*rffdvlrq gh od sxeolfdwlrq
ghv uìvxowdwv gh o*hqwuhsulvh/ g*lqirupdwlrqv pdfur0ìfrqrpltxhv/ gh gìflvlrqv hwf1

51619 Zduudqw/ erq gh vrxvfulswlrq
Ohv zduudqwv hw ohv erqv gh vrxvfulswlrq vrqw ghv dfwliv srvvìgdqw xqh glphqvlrq rswlrqqhooh1 Ohv
zduudqwv vrqw ìplv sdu xq ìwdeolvvhphqw qdqflhu doruv txh ohv erqv gh vrxvfulswlrq vrqw ìplv sdu ghv
vrflìwìv1 Ohv sulqflsdohv gl ìuhqfhv vrqw h{soltxìhv gdqv oh grfxphqw fl0ghvvrxv txh od Vrflìwì Jìqìudoh
grqqh ã vhv folhqwv1
5;

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

5<

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

5161: Reoljdwlrqv frqyhuwleohv hw uhyhuvh frqyhuwleohv
Ohv reoljdwlrqv frqyhuwleohv vrqw ghv reoljdwlrqv ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh txl yhuvhqw xq frxsrq frpph
wrxwh reoljdwlrq pdlv txl shxyhqw íwuh frqyhuwlhv hq dfwlrqv dydqw od pdwxulwì gh o*reoljdwlrq1 Oruvtx*lo |
d frqyhuvlrq hq dfwlrqv/ oh wlwuh reoljdwdluh glvsdudñw1 Ohv sd|r jìqìuìv sdu fh wlwuh vrqw grqf =
;
f
hq w vl A w/ 3 vlqrq
?
=

+4 . f, hq W vl A W / 3 vlqrq

rü hvw od gdwh gh frqyhuvlrq/ f oh frxsrq hw W od gdwh gh pdwxulwì gh o*reoljdwlrq1 D fhv x{/ lo idxw
elhq0vþu dmrxwhu o*rsìudwlrq gh frqyhuvlrq hooh0píph +vl ? W , txl frqyhuwlw fhv reoljdwlrqv hq wlwuhv
g*dfwlrqv gh od vrflìwì1 Od gdwh gh frqyhuvlrq hvw xqh yduldeoh gh frppdqgh gx gìwhqwhxu gh o*reoljdwlrq
frqyhuwleoh = lo o*h{hufh oruvtxh oh frxuv gh o*dfwlrq hvw vx!vdpphqw kdxw srxu tx*lo vrlw lqwìuhvvdqw gh
frqyhuwlu o*reoljdwlrq hq dfwlrq1
Xqh reoljdwlrq uhyhuvh frqyhuwleoh hvw/ frpph suìfìghpphqw/ xqh reoljdwlrq ã uhperxuvhphqw lq0 qh hw
txl yhuvh xq frxsrq1 Wrxwhirlv/ oh uhperxuvhphqw hvw frqglwlrqqì ã o*ìyroxwlrq gx vrxv0mdfhqw1 D pdwxulwì/
vl oh frxuv gx vrxv0mdfhqw hvw vxsìulhxu ã xq sul{ gh uìiìuhqfh/ oh fdslwdo gh o*reoljdwlrq hvw hqwlëuhphqw
uhperxuvì hq hvsëfh1 Gdqv oh fdv frqwudluh/ +l1h1 o*dfwlrq hvw lqiìulhxuh dx sul{ gh uìiìuhqfh,/ o*reoljdwlrq hvw
uhperxuvìh hq dfwlrqv/ hq sudwltxh srxu xqh ydohxu lqiìulhxuh dx fdslwdo gh o*reoljdwlrq +sul{ gh uìiìuhqfh
? qrplqdo,1 Ohv frxsrqv vrqw orjltxhphqw soxv ìohyìv txh srxu xqh reoljdwlrq fodvvltxh srxu frpshqvhu
oh idlw txh oh fdslwdo q*hvw sdv jdudqwl1 Oh ulvtxh sulv sdu o*lqyhvwlvvhxu hvw grqf txh oh frxuv gh o*dfwlrq
edlvvh wurs1 O*lqyhvwlvvhxu fkrlvlud fhwwh vwudwìjlh v*lo dqwlflsh xqh kdxvvh gx frxuv gh o*dfwlrq1
63

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

D wlwuh g*h{hpsoh/ rq wurxyhud fl0ghvvrxv g*dxwuhv h{hpsohv soxv vrsklvwltxìv wluìv ghv r uhv Fuìglw
O|rqqdlv +zzz1fozduudqwv1frp,1

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

64

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

65

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

66

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

67

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

68

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

69

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

6:

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

5161; Surgxlwv ã fdslwdo jdudqwl
Fh vrqw ghv dfwliv txl jdudqwlvvhqw xq qlyhdx gh fdslwdo hw2rx xq wdx{ g*lqwìuíw plqlpxp jdudqwl hw grqw oh
uhqghphqw gìshqg gh o*ìyroxwlrq g*xq vrxv0mdfhqw grqqì1 Yrlfl txhotxhv h{hpsohv +zzz1fozduudqwv1frp, =
6;

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

Fhwwh lgìh shxw íwuh gìfolqìh hq surgxlwv hqfruh soxv vrsklvwltxìv +zzz1fozduudqwv1frp, =
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

6<

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

73

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

74

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

75

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

H{hpsohv zzz1fozduudqwv1frp

517 Jorvvdluh
Oh yrfdexodluh olì dx{ rswlrqv hvw ulfkh hw wuëv dqjor0vd{rq1 Yrlfl xq jorvvdluh srxu v*| uhwurxyhu =
Sulph 0 Suhplxp = oh sul{ gh o*rswlrq1 Lo v*djlw gh od píph whuplqrorjlh tx*hq dvvxudqfh +rq sduoh
gh sulph g*dvvxudqfh,/ fh txl hvw orjltxh gdqv od phvxuh rü xqh rswlrq hw soxv jìqìudohphqw xq dfwli
gìulyì shxyhqw íwuh yxv frpph xq rxwlo gh frxyhuwxuh frqwuh xq ulvtxh1
Vrxv0mdfhqw 0 Xqghuo|lqj = o*lqvwuxphqw qdqflhu txl hqwuh gdqv od gì qlwlrq gx sd|r gh o*rswlrq1 Lo
shxw v*djlu g*xqh dfwlrq/ g*xq wlwuh g*reoljdwlrq/ g*xqh pdwlëuh suhplëuh/ g*xq shuplv g*ìplvvlrq gh
srooxhu/ hwf1
Sul{ g*h{huflfh 0 Vwulnh = vhxlo gh uìiìuhqfh hqwudqw gdqv od gì qlwlrq gx sd|r gh o*rswlrq +yrlu ohv
h{hpsohv grqqìhv gdqv fh fkdslwuh,1 Lo v*djlw hq sudwltxh gx vhxlo gh gìfohqfkhphqw ã sduwlu gxtxho
oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq h{hufh vhv gurlwv +g*dfkhwhu rx gh yhqguh,1
Gdwh g*h{sludwlrq 0 H{sludwlrq = Gdwh dx0ghoã gh odtxhooh o*rswlrq h{sluh1
Hq pdujh gh fh yrfdexodluh/ lo idxw qrwhu ohv qrwlrqv vxlydqwhv tx*rq uhwurxyhud gdqv ohv fkdslwuhv vxlydqwv =
Od ydohxu lqwulqvëtxh 0 Lqwulqvlf ydoxh fruuhvsrqg dx sd|r tx*rq uhfhyudlw vl o*rswlrq ìwdlw rx srxydlw
+fdu oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq q*hq d sdv qìfhvvdluhphqw oh gurlw, íwuh h{hufìh dxmrxug*kxl1
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

76

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Od ydohxu0whpsv rx Wlph ydoxh hvw od gl ìuhqfh hqwuh oh sul{ gh pdufkì gh o*rswlrq dxmrxug*kxl hw
vd ydohxu lqwulqvëtxh1 Fhod fruuhvsrqg dx vxssoìphqw gh ydohxu gþ dx idlw txh o*rswlrq vhud h{hufìh
gdqv oh ixwxu1
Gdqv od prqqdlh 0 Lq wkh prqh| = vh glw g*xqh rswlrq txl d xqh ydohxu lqwulqvëtxh srvlwlyh1 Hq fodlu/
vl od gdwh g*h{huflfh ìwdlw dxmrxug*kxl/ oh gìwhqwhxu gh o*rswlrq h{hufhudlw vrq gurlw1
D od prqqdlh 0 Dw wkh prqh| = vh glw g*xqh rswlrq srxu odtxhooh oh vrxv0mdfhqw hvw surfkh gx sul{
g*h{huflfh +l1h ydohxu lqwulqvëtxh surfkh gh 3,1
Hq ghkruv gh od prqqdlh 0 Rxw ri wkh prqh| = vh glw g*xqh rswlrq grqw od ydohxu lqwulqvëtxh hvw qxooh1
Fhod qh vljql h sdv srxu dxwdqw txh oh sul{ gh pdufkì gh o*rswlrq hvw qxo = o*rswlrq d jìqìudohphqw
xqh ydohxu0whpsv qrq qxooh1

77

6
Ohv prgëohv glvfuhwv g*ìydoxdwlrq

614 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Ohv fkdslwuhv suìfìghqwv rqw ìwì frqvdfuìv ã od ghvfulswlrq ghv dfwliv gh edvh g*xqh sduw hw ghv dfwliv
gìulyìv g*dxwuh sduw1 Sdupl fhx{0fl/ qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvrqv lfl dx pdufkì ghv dfwlrqv hw gh vhv surgxlwv
gìulyìv/ píph vl od iurqwlëuh hqwuh surgxlwv gìulyìv dfwlrqv/ wdx{ g*lqwìuíw rx fkdqjh hvw hq sudwltxh xq
shx rxh1
Od sureoìpdwltxh hvw od vxlydqwh = ìwdqw grqqì ohv sul{ ghv dfwliv gh edvh +l1h1 ohv dfwlrqv,/ txhoohv ydohxuv
grlyhqw suhqguh ohv sul{ ghv surgxlwv gìulyìv frqvwuxlwv ã sduwlu gh fhv dfwliv vrxv0mdfhqwv B Lo v*djlw grqf gh
gìwhuplqhu ghv uhodwlrqv gh frkìuhqfh hqwuh ohv sul{ ghv dfwlrqv hw fh txh ghyudlhqw íwuh ohv sul{ ghv dfwliv
gìulyìv gh fhv dfwlrqv1 Fhwwh gìpdufkh vh irqghud srxu o*hvvhqwlho vxu o*k|srwkëvh g*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì
g*duelwudjh/ gìmã ìyrtxìh soxv kdxw hw vxu odtxhooh qrxv uhylhqgurqv derqgdpphqw1
Gdqv xq ghx{lëph whpsv hw xqh irlv wurxyìh od uhodwlrq hqwuh sul{ gh o*dfwli gìulyì hw sul{ gx vrxv0
mdfhqw/ qrxv ìwxglhurqv ohv txhvwlrqv gh frxyhuwxuh1 Hq h hw/ ohv dfwliv gìulyìv vrqw g*derug ghv frqwudwv
shuphwwdqw gh vh frxyulu frqwuh fhuwdlqv ulvtxhv olìv dx vrxv0mdfhqw = lo qh vx!w grqf sdv gh frqqdñwuh
frpelhq xq dfwli gìulyì grlw ydorlu dxmrxug*kxl pdlv lo idxw ìjdohphqw vdyrlu hq txrl lo shuphw gh vh
frxyulu frqwuh ghv doìd olìv dx vrxv0mdfhqw1
Hq q/ qrxv qrxv uhvwuhlqgurqv gdqv fh fkdslwuh ã ghv prgìolvdwlrqv rü oh whpsv hw ohv doìd vrqw glvfuhwv1
O*dydqwdjh gh fh w|sh gh prgëoh hvw ohxu wulyldolwì pdwkìpdwltxh/ fh txl shuphw gh vh frqfhqwuhu vxu ohv
lqwxlwlrqv qdqflëuhv soxv txh vxu ohv sureoëphv pdwkìpdwltxhv1 Hq rxwuh/ rq prqwuhud tx*rq shxw ohv
idluh frqyhujhu yhuv ghv prgëohv rü oh whpsv hvw frqwlqx1 Odvw exw qrw ohdvw/ fhv prgëohv glvfuhwv vrqw
wuëv frxudpphqw xwlolvìhv hq sudwltxh hw frqvwlwxhqw xq rxwlo rsìudwlrqqho lqfrqwrxuqdeoh1

615 Oh fdguh suredelolvwh
61514 Od g|qdpltxh gx sul{ gh o*dfwlrq
Gdqv wrxv ohv sureoëphv g*ìydoxdwlrq/ lo idxw hq suhplhu olhx vh grqqhu xq fdguh suredelolvwh srxu gìfuluh
ohv dfwliv gh edvh +l1h1 ohv vrxv0mdfhqwv,1 Uhsuhqdqw o*ìedxfkh gh prgìolvdwlrq hqylvdjìh dx gìexw gh fhw
rxyudjh/ oh sul{ g*xqh dfwlrq shxw vh yrlu frpph oh sul{ txl dssdudlwudñw vl oh prqgh ìwdlw gìwhuplqlvwh
+hw vl ohv glylghqghv hw wdx{ g*lqwìuíw ixwxuv ìwdlhqw frqqxv gëv dxmrxug*kxl, dxtxho rq dmrxwh xq doìd
srxu lqwurgxluh o*lgìh txh oh prqgh q*hvw mxvwhphqw sdv gìwhuplqlvwh1 Rq dydlw rewhqx dlqvl ã sduwlu g*xqh
orjltxh g*duelwudjh =
Vw . glyw Vw 4 @ uw 4 =Vw 4 . %w

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

rü %w hvw xq doìd +l1h1 xq fkrf qdqflhu , txl vh uìdolvh hqwuh w 4 hw w1 Pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/ lo hvw
soxv vlpsoh gh idluh xq fkdqjhphqw gh sdudpìwudjh hw gh frqvlgìuhu soxw÷w xq prgëoh pxowlsolfdwli gh od
iruph =
4 . uw 4
=Kw
Vw @ Vw 4 =
4 . w
rü =
Vw hvw oh sul{ gh o*dfwlrq hq w >
w
w hvw oh wdx{ gh glylghqgh gì ql sdu w @ gly
Vw
uw 4 hvw oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw srxu od sìulrgh doodqw gh w 4 ã w >
Kw hvw xqh yduldeoh doìdwrluh1
Srxu vlpsol hu oh prgëoh/ qrxv vxssrvhurqv ohv k|srwkëvhv vxlydqwhv =
oh wdx{ gh glylghqgh hw oh wdx{ g*lqwìuíw vrqw vxssrvìv frqvwdqwv dx frxuv gx whpsv >
o*doìd K vxlw xqh orl gh Ehuqrxlool/ f*hvw0ã0gluh tx*lo ydxw x + xs , dyhf xqh suredelolwì s hw g +
grzq , dyhf xqh suredelolwì 4 s >
ohv yduldeohv +Kw ,w vrqw lqgìshqgdqwhv hqwuh hoohv hw lghqwltxhphqw glvwulexìhv1
Hq fodlu/ rq qh v*lqwìuhvvh sdv lfl dx{ txhvwlrqv olìhv dx fdudfwëuh doìdwrluh ghv glylghqghv hw ghv wdx{
g*lqwìuíw pdlv vhxohphqw dx fdudfwëuh doìdwrluh gx sul{ gh uhyhqwh gh o*dfwlrq1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oh prgëoh gh
Ehuqrxlool glw hqfruh prgëoh elqrpldo hvw oh soxv vlpsoh tx*rq sxlvvh hqylvdjhu1 Fh prgëoh suredelolvwh
frqvlgëuh grqf lpsolflwhphqw tx*lo qh shxw | dyrlu txh ghx{ fkrfv = xq fkrf kdxvvlhu hw xq fkrf
edlvvlhu 1 Dlqvl/ qrxv rewlhqgurqv xq prgëoh vdqv dxfxqh frpsoh{lwì pdwkìpdwltxh hw txl srxu0
wdqw dssruwh o*hvvhqwlho ghv lqwxlwlrqv qdqflëuhv/ lqwxlwlrqv tx*rq uhwurxyhud gdqv oh fdguh ghv prgëohv
pdwkìpdwltxhv hq whpsv frqwlqx1
Srxu qlu/ hq qrwdqw uh od txdqwlwì whooh txh =
4 . uh @

4.u
4.

txl ydxw grqf dx suhplhu ruguh u / oh prgëoh g|qdpltxh gh vrxv0mdfhqw v*ìfulw =
;
? Vw 4 = +4 . uh, =x dyhf suredelolwì s
Vw @ Vw 4 = +4 . uh, =Kw @
=
Vw 4 = +4 . uh, =g dyhf suredelolwì 4 s

+614,

txl hvw od g|qdpltxh gh edvh txh qrxv frqvlgìurqv srxu o*dfwlrq1 Lo v*djlw grqf g*xqh ìtxdwlrq gh uì0
fxuuhqfh dyhf wrxwhirlv xq whuph doìdwrluh1 Txdqg qrxv vhurqv hq whpsv frqwlqx/ fhwwh ìtxdwlrq vhud
uhpsodfìh sdu xqh ìtxdwlrq gl ìuhqwlhooh vwrfkdvwltxh1

61515 Txhotxhv sursulìwìv gh od g|qdpltxh ghv sul{
Rq shxw wudydloohu o*ìtxdwlrq suìfìghqwh srxu gìgxluh txhotxhv uìvxowdwv1 Hq sduwlfxolhu/ rq shxw ìfuluh
o*ìtxdwlrq +614, hq gìurxodqw od uìfxuuhqfh/ vrlw =

w 4
w \K
Vw @ V3 = +4 . uh, =
w n
n@3

+615,

gh whooh vruwh txh oh sul{ gh o*dfwlrq dxmrxug*kxl dssdudñw frpph od uìvxowdqwh gh wrxv ohv fkrfv erxuvlhuv
sdvvìv1
Rq shxw qrwhu ìjdohphqw txh od orl gh Vw frqglwlrqqhoohphqw ã V3 hvw xqh orl elqrpldoh txl suhqg ohv
ydohxuv V3 = +4 . uh,w =xm =gw m dyhf xqh suredelolwì =

w
=sm = +4 s,w m
m

w

@ m $+ww $ m,$
m
Rq shxw ìjdohphqw uhpdutxhu txh =

79

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Sursrvlwlrq 4 Vl rq lpsrvh frqyhqwlrqqhoohphqw txh g ? x/ doruv rq d =
g?4?x
Lo v*djlw oã g*xq uìvxowdw qdqflhu hw qrq pdwkìpdwltxh1 Hq h hw/ vxssrvrqv x> g A 41 Xq lqyhvwlvvhxu ã
od gdwh w 4 shxw hpsuxqwhu od vrpph Vw 4 srxu dfkhwhu xqh dfwlrq1 Oh elodq gh fhwwh rsìudwlrq hq w hvw
oh vxlydqw =
uhperxuvhphqw gh o*hpsuxqw = Vw 4 =+4 . u,
uhyhqwh gh o*dfwlrq/ vrpph ã odtxhooh rq dmrxwh oh glylghqgh yhuvì = Vw =+4 . ,
Dx wrwdo/ o*lqyhvwlvvhxu q*d ulhq gìerxuvì hq w 4 sxlvtxh o*dfkdw gh o*dfwlrq v*hvw idlw sdu oh eldlv g*xq
hpsuxqw hw uhêrlw Vw =+4 . , Vw 4 =+4 . u, hq w/ vrpph txl hvw wrxmrxuv srvlwlyh vl x> g A 41 Lo v*djlw
fodluhphqw g*xqh rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh fdu fhwwh vwudwìjlh hvw vdqv ulvtxh/ qh qìfhvvlwh sdv gh plvh gh
irqgv lqlwldoh/ hw udssruwh ã wrxv frxsv xqh vrpph srvlwlyh1 Vl rq vxssrvh 0 frpph qrxv oh ihurqv wrxw oh
whpsv 0 txh oh pdufkì ìolplqh lqvwdqwdqìphqw fhv rssruwxqlwìv/ qrxv srxyrqv dgphwwuh tx*hoohv q*h{lvwhqw
grqf sdv hw txh x> g qh shxyhqw sdv íwuh vlpxowdqìphqw vxsìulhxuv ã 41 Lqyhuvhphqw sdu oh píph w|sh
g*dujxphqw/ rq qh shxw dyrlu x> g ? 41

616 O*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh hw oh sul{ ghv surgxlwv gìulyìv
61614 Od irupxoh g*ìydoxdwlrq
Oh fdguh suredelolvwh ìwdqw srvì/ qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvrqv dx sul{ ghv surgxlwv gìulyìv grqw oh vrxv0mdfhqw
vxlw xqh g|qdpltxh gx w|sh suìfìghqw1 Hq rxwuh/ srxu vlpsol hu/ qrxv vxssrvrqv w @ 41 O*ìtxdwlrq +614,
v*ìfulw grqf =
V4 @ V3 = +4 . uh, =K4
Lo hvw qdwxuho gh vxssrvhu gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv txh oh sul{ gx surgxlw gìulyì hvw xqh irqfwlrq gx sul{
gx vrxv0mdfhqw hw gx whpsv1 Dlqvl/ F4 / oh sul{ gx surgxlw gìulyì hq 4 suhqgud ghx{ ydohxuv srvvleohv vhorq
od uìdolvdwlrq gh o*doìd1 Rq qrwhud F4>x hw F4>g fhv ghx{ ydohxuv1
Rq shxw doruv idluh o*rsìudwlrq vxlydqwh ã od gdwh 3 =
ìplvvlrq g*xqh rswlrq g*dfkdw >
dfkdw g*xqh txdqwlwì gh wlwuhv g*dfwlrq vrxv0mdfhqwh >
sodfhphqw rx hpsuxqw g*xqh vrpph +vl A 3/ lo v*djlw g*xq sodfhphqw hw g*xq hpsuxqw gdqv oh
fdv frqwudluh,
O*lqyhvwlvvhxu grlw gìerxuvhu +hqwuh jxloohphwv fdu fhwwh vrpph shxw íwuh qìjdwlyh, =
F3 =V3
hw uhêrlw hq 4 =

F4 . =V4 =+4 . , . =+4 . u,

Ru/ g*dsuëv oh fdguh suredelolvwh gìfulw soxv kdxw/ fhwwh vrpph qh shxw suhqguh txh ghx{ ydohxuv =
;
dyhf xqh suredelolwì s
? F4>x . =V3 =+4 . u,=x . =+4 . u,
=

F4>g . =V3 =+4 . u,=g . =+4 . u,

dyhf xqh suredelolwì 4 s

Lo hvw wrxmrxuv srvvleoh gh fkrlvlu srxu txh fh sruwhihxlooh vrlw vdqv ulvtxh1 Lfl/ fhod vljql h txh ohv ghx{
ydohxuv suìfìghqwhv vrqw ohv píphv = hq fodlu/ txhotxh vrlw oh fkrf erxuvlhu hqwuh 3 hw 4/ oh sruwhihxlooh
d xqh ydohxu lqgìshqgdqwh gh fh fkrf1 Rq glw tx*rq d frqvwuxlw xq sruwhihxlooh gh frxyhuwxuh1 Fh
sdudpëwuh grlw grqf yìul hu =
4 F4>x F4>g
=
@
4 . u V3 =+x g,
hw hvw wrwdohphqw fdofxodeoh hq w 41
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

7:

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

Vl o*lqyhvwlvvhxu xwlolvh fhwwh ydohxu srxu frqvwuxluh vrq sruwhihxlooh/ doruv lo d frqvwuxlw gh idfwr xq sruwh0
ihxlooh vdqv ulvtxh1 Vl gh soxv lo d fkrlvl who txh o*lqyhvwlvvhphqw lqlwldo vrlw qxo/ l1h1 F3 =V3 @ 3
doruv/ dyhf fhv ghx{ ydohxuv gh hw +hw xqltxhphqw dyhf fhv ghx{ ydohxuv,/ rq grlw dyrlu sdu devhqfh
g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh =
F4 . =V4 =+4 . , . =+4 . u, @ 3
txl wudgxlw tx*xq sruwhihxlooh vdqv ulvtxh hw txl qh qìfhvvlwh dxfxq lqyhvwlvvhphqw lqlwldo qh grlw sdv
udssruwhu dxwuh fkrvh txh 3 hxur1
Hq uhpsodêdqw hw sdu ohxu ydohxu/ rq rewlhqw/ dsuëv fdofxov/ od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh =
F3 @

4
= + =F4>x . +4 , =F4>g ,
4.u

dyhf =

4 g
x g
Soxv jìqìudohphqw/ vl rq qrwh Fw oh sul{ gx surgxlw gìulyì ã od gdwh w/ rq d =
@

Fw @

4
=Hw +Fw.4 ,
4.u

+616,

rü Hw +=, gìvljqh o*hvsìudqfh frqglwlrqqhooh +vdfkdqw Vw hw vrq sdvvì, fdofxoìh dyhf od suredelolwì
hw qrq od suredelolwì s1 Rq d grqf od sursrvlwlrq vxlydqwh =
Sursrvlwlrq 5 Vrxv o*k|srwkëvh g*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwìv g*duelwudjh/ lo h{lvwh xqh suredelolwì whooh txh
ohv sul{ dfwxdolvìv ghv dfwliv gìulyìv vrlhqw pduwlqjdohv1
Hq h hw/ vl rq frqvlgëuh oh surfhvvxv ]w @
surfhvvxv yìul h =

Fw

+4.u,w

doruv rq yrlw wrxw gh vxlwh txh/ vrxv od suredelolwì / fh

]w @ Hw +]W ,

srxu wrxw w ? W 1 Hq rxwuh/ hvw elhq xqh suredelolwì fdu hvw frpsulv hqwuh 3 hw 4/ uìvxowdw txl gìulyh
gluhfwhphqw gh od sursulìwì g ? 4 ? x1
H{hpsoh 4 O*ìydoxdwlrq g*xqh rswlrq vwdqgdug hxursìhqqh shxw doruv vh idluh hq uhpdutxdqw tx*ã od
gdwh g*h{huflfh =
.
FW @ +VW N,
hw grqf =
Fw @

.
W w =Hw +VW N,
+4 . u,
4

Ru/ frpph rq o*d uhpdutxì gdqv od vhfwlrq suìfìghqwh/ od orl gh VW frqglwlrqqhoohphqw ã Vw hvw xqh orl
elqrpldoh1 Frqfuëwhphqw/ g*dsuëv +615, =

W
w 4
\
KW n
VW @ Vw = +4 . uh,W w =
n@3
g*rü =
Fw @
vrlw hqfruh =

Vw

=Hw
+4 . ,W w

#W w 4
\

n@3

KW n

N

$.

Vw = +4 . uh,W w

#
$.

W[
w
N
W w
W

w

m
m
m
W

w

m
=

x =g
Fw @
= = +4 ,
m
+4 . ,W w m @3
Vw = +4 . uh,W w
Vw

Fhwwh irupxoh shuphw grqf g*h{sulphu oh sul{ gh o*rswlrq hq w hq irqfwlrq gh w hw Vw 1
7;

+617,

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

61615 Lqwhusuìwdwlrq ìfrqrpltxh
Od irupxoh g*ìydoxdwlrq +616, hvw irqgdphqwdoh = hooh h{sulph txh oh sul{ g*xq dfwli shxw vh yrlu frpph
o*hvsìudqfh ghv x{ ixwxuv tx*lo jìqëuh/ o*hvsìudqfh ìwdqw fdofxoìh vrxv xqh fhuwdlqh suredelolwì grqw
o*h{lvwhqfh gìulyh gh o*k|srwkëvh g*devhqfh g*rssruwxqlwì g*duelwudjh1 Dx sdvvdjh/ rq d/ g*dsuëv +614, oh
píph w|sh gh irupxoh +dx{ glylghqghv suëv, srxu oh sul{ gx vrxv0mdfhqw =


4
W w
V
H
=
+4
.
,
Vw @
w W
+4 . u,W w
Od suredelolwì v*dsshooh od suredelolwì ulvtxh0qhxwuh = hooh q*d d sulrul ulhq ã yrlu dyhf od suredelolwì
lqlwldoh s/ tx*rq dsshooh dxvvl suredelolwì remhfwlyh rx suredelolwì klvwrultxh1 Oh fdofxo gx sul{ g*xq
surgxlw gìulyì qh idlw grqf sdv lqwhuyhqlu od yudlh suredelolwì ghv ìyìqhphqwv1 Oh
whuph gh ulvtxh0qhxwuh ylhqw gluhfwhphqw gh od wkìrulh ìfrqrpltxh = oruvtxh ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv g*xq
pdufkì q*rqw sdv g*dyhuvlrq srxu oh ulvtxh +rq glw hqfruh tx*lov vrqw ulvtxh0qhxwuhv,/ lov yrqw v*dffrughu
srxu ìydoxhu oh sul{ g*xq dfwli frpph o*hvsìudqfh dfwxdolvìh ghv x{ tx*lo jìqëuh1 Od irupxoh g*ìydoxdwlrq
rewhqxh lfl shuphw gh idluh frpph vl ohv lqyhvwlvvhxuv q*dydlhqw sdv g*dyhuvlrq srxu oh ulvtxh1 Fhod qh
vxssrvh devroxphqw sdv txh ohv lqwhuyhqdqwv vrqw ulvtxh0qhxwuhv1 Hq fodlu/ o*devhqfh g*rssruwx0
qlwì g*duelwudjh vh wudgxlw pdwkìpdwltxhphqw sdu o*dssdulwlrq g*xqh suredelolwì = fhwwh suredelolwì hvw
xq duwl fh pdwkìpdwltxh txl shuphw/ gdqv ohv fdofxov g*ìydoxdwlrq/ gh idluh frpph vl ohv lqyhvwlvvhxuv
ìwdlhqw qhxwuhv dx ulvtxh1

61616 Xwlolvdwlrq sudwltxh
Gëv oruv tx*rq frqqdñw ohv sdudpëwuhv u/ / x/ hw g/ rq vdlw fdofxohu oh sul{ gh wrxw surgxlw gìulyì +dx
prlqv gh w|sh hxursìhq/ dx vhqv gì ql dx fkdslwuh suìfìghqw,1 O*lpsoìphqwdwlrq qxpìultxh qh srvh sdv
gh sureoëph sxlvtx*lo vx!w g*lpsoìphqwhu xq dueuh elqrpldo1 Od vhxoh txhvwlrq hvw gh vdyrlu frpphqw
rq ìydoxh ohv sdudpëwuhv1

617 Od frqyhujhqfh yhuv oh whpsv frqwlqx
Oh irqfwlrqqhphqw ghv pdufkìv qdqflhuv uhqg gl!floh o*lgìh tx*lo h{lvwh xq sdv gh whpsv ìoìphqwdluh hw
lqvìfdeoh1 Lo hvw gh idlw soxv orjltxh g*ìfuluh xq prgëoh hq whpsv frqwlqx sxlv gh oh glvfuìwlvhu d q gh
o*dgdswhu dx{ uìdolwìv ghv pdufkìv1 Lfl/ qrxv doorqv ìfuluh oh prgëoh suìfìghqw hq idlvdqw dssdudñwuh oh sdv
gh whpsv hw hq oh idlvdqw whqguh yhuv 31 Qrxv rewlhqgurqv dlqvl xq prgëoh hq whpsv frqwlqx txl q*hvw ulhq
g*dxwuh txh oh prgëoh gh Eodfn hw Vfkrohv1

61714 Txhotxhv qrwdwlrqv
Rq qrwh oh sdv gh whpsv hw rq vxssrvh txh ohv gdwhv frqvlgìuìhv lfl vrqw ghv pxowlsohv gh fh sdv gh
whpsv1 Srxu vlpsol hu ohv h{suhvvlrqv/ qrxv vxssrvhurqv/ vdqv shuwh gh jìqìudolwì/ txh ohv wdx{ g*lqwìuíw
hw wdx{ gh glylghqgh vrqw qxov1 Oh surfhvvxv gx vrxv0mdfhqw v*ìfulw grqf g*dsuëv +614, =
Vw @ V 3

w 4
\

n@3

K+ w n,=


rx hqfruh +sdu fkdqjhphqw g*lqglfh, =
w

Oq Vw @ Oq V3 .


[

n@4

Oq Kn=

61715 Fkdqjhphqw gh sdudpìwudjh
Ohv sdudpëwuhv x hw g rqw xqh lqwhusuìwdwlrq qdqflëuh txl q*hvw sdv ìylghqwh1 Rq lqwurgxlw grqf od qrwlrq
gh yrodwlolwì frpph o*ìfduw0w|sh frqglwlrqqho gx orjdulwkph gx sul{ gx vrxv0mdfhqw/ vrlw =
4

^Y duw +Oq Vw ,` 5
Hfroh Sro|whfkqltxh

7<

Wkìrulh hw sudwltxh ghv lqvwuxphqwv qdqflhuv

txl hvw grqf ìjdoh ã +frpph srxu wrxwh orl gh Ehuqrxlool,4 =
4

^Y du +Oq Kw ,` 5 @
Rq qrwhud grqf =

k
s
xl
= +4 ,= Oq
g

s
x
= +4 ,=Oq
g
Frpph/ sdu dloohxuv/ rq d sdu gì qlwlrq gh =
@

=x . +4 ,=g @ 4
rq hq gìgxlw ohv ìtxdwlrqv gh sdvvdjh hqwuh oh sdudpìwudjh +x> g, hw oh sdudpìwudjh + > ,/ vrlw =
;
x @
A
A
A
?
A
A
A
= g @

4

.+4 ,= h{s

s = +4 ,



4

+4 ,. = h{s s = +4 ,

61716 Frqyhujhqfh yhuv oh whpsv frqwlqx
Lo qh uhvwh soxv tx*ã gì qlu frpphqw od yrodwlolwì gìshqg gx sdv gh whpsv 1 Srxu txh oh prgëoh frqyhujh
yhuv txhotxh fkrvh / lo idxw vxssrvhu txh =
s
@ =
Rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =
Oq Vw

@ Oq V3 .

S w
n@4 Oq Kn=

@ Oq V3 .

s
S w
n@4 = =%n . =Oq x . +4 ,=Oq g

dyhf =

Oq Kn= + =Oq x . +4 ,=Oq g,
s
=
Fhwwh qrxyhooh yduldeoh doìdwrluh d o*dydqwdjh g*íwuh fhqwuìh hw uìgxlwh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh gh pr|hqqh qxooh hw
gh yduldqfh 4 vrxv od suredelolwì 1
%n @

S w
Od frqyhujhqfh
s gx whuph n@4 =Oq x . +4 ,=Oq g hvw wulyldoh = lo vx!w gh uhpsodfhu x hw g hq irqfwlrq
gh @ = / gh idluh xq gìyhorsshphqw olplwì dx yrlvlqqdjh gh @ 3/ hw gh frqvwdwhu tx*lo frqyhujh
yhuv =
5
=w
5
Oh whuph vwrfkdvwltxh frqyhujh sdu xq wkìruëph gh w|sh wkìruëph fhqwudo olplwh1 Fh whuph v*ìfulw =
s

= w

v

w


4[
%n
w
n@4

hw frqyhujh grqf hq orl yhuv xqh orl qrupdoh g*hvsìudqfh qxooh hw gh yduldqfh 5 =w1
Dx wrwdo/ Oq Vw frqyhujh/ txdqg oh sdv gh whpsv whqg yhuv 3/ yhuv xqh orl qrupdoh =


5
Oq Vw $ Q Oq V3 =w > 5 =w
5
$3
4 Oh frqglwlrqqhphqw glvsdudñw fdu rq d vxssrvì txh ohv yduldeohv

83

M|

ìwdlhqw lqgìshqgdqwhv1


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