Pronounciation of final ed, s, es .pdf
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I. Simple Past Tense: Pronunciation of “ed endings” of Regular Verbs
The final –ed ending has three different pronunciations: /t/, /d/, and /ed/
Final –ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds.
Voiced sounds come from your throat. If you touch your neck when you
make a voiced sound, you can feel your voice box vibrate.
Examples of voiced sounds: “L”, “V”, “N”, “B” and all vowel sounds.
Final –ed is pronounced /ed/ after “T”, and “D” sounds.
The sound /ed/ adds a whole syllable to a word
Example: Looked Æ look/t/ = one syllable
Needed Æ need/ed/ = two syllables
Final – ed is pronounced /t/ after all voiceless sounds.
Voiceless sounds are made by pushing air through your mouth; no sound
comes from your throat.
Examples of voiceless sounds : “K”, “P”, “S”, “Ch”, “Sh”, “F”
II. Plural Nouns & Present Tense: Use, Pronunciation and Spelling of Final “s, es endings”
A final –s or –es is added to a noun to make the noun plural.
Friend = singular noun, Friends = plural noun
Noun + s: Friends are important
Noun + es: I like my classes
A final –s or –es is added to a present tense verb when the subject is a
singular noun (e.g., Mary, My father, the machine) or third person
(e.g., she, he, it)
Mary works = Singular
She works = Singular
The students work = plural
They work = plural
Verb + ‐S: Mary works at the bank
Verb + ‐ES: John watches birds
Pronunciation of –S, ES
Final –s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds, as in “T”, “P”, and “K”
Final –s is pronounced /z/ after voiced sounds, as in “D”, “B”, “G” and “EE”
Final –s and –es are pronounced /ez/ after “SH,” “CH,” “S,” “Z,” and
The /ez/ ending adds a syllable.
Spelling: Final –S vs. –ES
For most words (whether a verb or noun), a final –s is added
Final –es is added to words ending with –SH, CH, S, Z, and –X.
For words ending in –Y: if –Y is preceded by vowel only –s is added
If –y is preceded by a consonant, the –y is changed to –i and –es is added.
This handout was compiled by Chen Che, ELS Student Facilitator (April 2009)
Source: Azar, B. (1999). Understanding and Using English Grammar (3rd ed.). Longman Press