English1 Ch05 .pdf



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Chapter 05: System Software

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Competencies (Page 1 of 2)
• Describe the differences between system
software and application software
• Discuss the four types of system software
• Discuss the basic functions, features, and
categories of operating systems
• Describe Windows,
Mac OS, UNIX, Linux,
and virtualization

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-2

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Competencies (Page 2 of 2)





Describe the purpose of utilities and utility suites
Identify the five most essential utilities
Discuss Windows utility programs
Describe device drivers, including Windows’
Add a Device Wizard and Update

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-3

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Introduction
• Computers are ubiquitous in our lives and
we expect them to “be there when we
need them”.
• We give little thought to the processes
and programs running behind the scenes
to keep them functioning effectively.
• Such programs (i.e. operating systems,
utility programs, and device drivers) are
the system software you learn about here.

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-4

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

System Software
• Handles the technical details
– Includes the operating system, utilities,
device drivers, and language translators

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-5

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Operating Systems
• A collection of programs that handle technical
tasks, including managing computer resources
• Every computer has an operating system (OS),
such as Windows 7 or Mac OS X
• The OS provides the interface between the user
and computer, and is required to run applications

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-6

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Functions of an Operating System
• Manages computer resources





Coordinate memory, processing storage, and printers
Monitor system performance
Provide security
Start-up the computer

• Provides user interface
– Character-based interface
– Graphical user interface (GUI)

• Runs applications
– Multitasking
– Foreground and background applications

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-7

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Features of an Operating System
• Booting
• Features in common with application software







McGraw-Hill

Icons
Pointers
Windows
Menus
Dialog boxes
Help

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-8

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Categories of Operating Systems
• Hundreds of operating systems
• Three basic categories
– Embedded operating systems (handheld)
– Network operating systems (linked computers)
– Stand-alone operating systems (desktop)

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-9

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

More on Operating Systems
• An OS is often called the software environment or
platform
• Operating systems commonly used by individuals





McGraw-Hill

Windows – most widely used
Mac OS – powerful and easy to use
UNIX – network; originally designed for Web
LINUX – non proprietary; free from the Web

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-10

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Windows
• The most popular microcomputer operating
system – over 90 percent of the market
• Comes in a variety of different versions
• Windows 7 provides several improvements over
Windows Vista

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-11

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Mac OS
• Mac OS X is designed to run on Apple computers
• One of the most innovative operating systems, but not
used as widely as Windows
• Mac OS (Boot Camp) allows you to run both
the Mac OS and
Windows

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-12

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

UNIX and LINUX
• UNIX operating system
– Originally designed to run on networked
minicomputers

• LINUX is a version of UNIX
– Open source
– Not proprietary

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-13

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Virtualization
• Ability to support multiple operating systems on a
single physical machine
• Virtualization software
– Physical machine can be logically separated into
separate and independent virtual computers called
virtual machines

McGraw-Hill

• Host operating system
• Guest operating system

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-14

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Mobile Phone Operating Systems
• Type of embedded operating system that is
present in every smartphone
• Some of the best known (with release dates):






McGraw-Hill

Symbian (2009)
BlackBerry OS or RIM OS (1999)
iPhone OS (2007)
Android (2007)
Windows Phone 7 (2010)

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-15

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Utilities
• Specialized programs to make computing easier
• Most essential utilities






McGraw-Hill

Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs
Antivirus programs
Uninstall programs
Backup programs
File compression programs

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-16

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Windows Utilities
• Backup and Restore
• Disk Cleanup
• Disk Defragmenter

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-17

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Backup and Restore
• Utility program included with
many Windows versions
• Makes a copy of all files or selected
files that have been saved on a disk
• Helps prevent against disk failure

McGraw-Hill

Return
Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-18

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Disk Cleanup
• Identifies and eliminates
nonessential files
• Frees up valuable space and
improves system performance

McGraw-Hill

Return
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5-19

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Disk Defragmenter
• Identifies and eliminates unnecessary fragments
• Rearranges files and unused disk space to
optimize operations
• Speeds up file access

McGraw-Hill

Return
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5-20

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Utility Suites
• A group of utility programs bundled for sale
• Buying the package is more affordable
• Popular suites
– Norton System Works
– McAfee Office

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-21

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Device Drivers
• Specialized programs that allow communication between
a device and the computer
• Loaded into memory each time a computer is started
• When a new device is added, new device drivers must be
installed

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-22

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Virus Protection and Internet Security
• Internet Security Suite
– Continually monitors your computer

• VirusScan
– Controls the frequency of searches for viruses
– Quarantines or deletes infected files

• Privacy Service
– Helps protect your
privacy online
– Block websites, cookies,
and ads

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-23

A Look to the Future
Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

IBM's Aware Supercomputer

• IBM’s Automatic Computing Initiative (ACI)
– Handles time-consuming maintenance
– Self-regulating and virtually invisible

• Self-maintaining servers
– Self-repairing
– Self-updating
– Self-protecting

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-24

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Open-Ended Questions(Page 1 of 2)
• Describe system software. What are the four
types of system programs?
• What are the basic functions of every operating
system? What are the three basic operating
system categories?
• Explain the differences and similarities between
Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. Discuss
virtualization.

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-25

Computing Essentials 2012: Making IT Work for You

Open-Ended Questions(Page 2 of 2)
• Discuss utilities. What are the five most essential
utilities? What is a utility suite?
• Explain the role of device drivers. Discuss the Add
a Device Wizard and Windows Update.

McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-26




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