george catlin .pdf



Nom original: george catlin.pdfTitre: Letters and notes on the manners, customs, and condition of the North American Indians [microform] : written during eight years' travel amongst the wildest tribes of Indians in North America, in 1832, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39Auteur: Catlin, George, 1796-1872

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V

LETTERS AND NOTES

.")

.T'

/

MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AND CONDITION
OF TIIK

NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
BY GEO. CATLIN.

WRITTEN DURING

EIOIIT YEARS'

TRAVEL AMONGST THE WILDEST TRIBES OF

INDIANS IN NORTH AMERICA,
1832,

In

3;J,

lH,

IN

TWO VOLUMES,

3.'),

and 89.

36, 37, 38,

WITH rorn iiundked illustrations, cahefully engraved from

VOL.

«





.




original paintings.

I.

LONDON:

.



his





I

'.

PimLISHEDrfrrHij.7«jJ;UOR*,.*'Ar3'He

EQYPTIAN hall, PICCADILLY

^ft€NT£I» IIY.TOSSWILL A?ID*S«ViRi{; ^i'jJlDfi'nif^
*••*;
••• •.';
'

:*.•'•:•••.

I84r.--



••••.

^Entered at Stutionen' Hall.]

J

4

-



'""•

-Tfc*««ii

-•



• -

1

-I

CONTENTS
OP

THE FIRST VOLUME.

Frontisi'IECe

Map

The Author painting a Chief

:

in

an Indian

Village.

nf Indian Localities embraced within the Author's Travels.

LETTER— No.
Wyoming,

— His former Profession — First cnuse of his
to
— Delegation of Indians in Philadelphia —

birth-place of the Author, p. i.

Travels to the Indian Country
the Far West, in 1832, p.
visited,

1.

First ;tart

National Gallery— Numbers of Tribes

3.— Design of forming a

— Probable extinction
— Former and present numbers of —The proper mode of approachinfj

and number of Paintings and other things collected, p. 4.

of the Indians, p. 5.

them, and estimating their character, p. 5

— 10.

Certificates of Government Officers, Indian Agents and others, as to the fidelity of the
Portraits

and other Paintings,

p. 11

— 13.

LETTER— No.
Mouth of Yellow
Missouri

Stone, p. 14, pi.

— Politeness

Indian Epicures

M

—New

and true School

LETTER— No.

3,

bluff's, p.

19, pi.

for the

Louis— Difficulties

Arts

— Fur

6.— First

—Beautiful
p.

it,

p.

14—16.

Stone.

—Pic-

prairie shores, p. 19, pi. 5.

appearance of a steamer

mouth of Yellow Stone— M'Keniie— His

of the

Company's Fort

— Beautiful Models,

Mouth of Yellow

and curious conjectures of the Indiana about
at the

St.

of Mr. Chouteau and Major Sanford

Character of Missouri River, p. 18, pi. 4.

turesque clay

2.

3.— Distance from

at the

Yellow Stone,

20.— Fur Company's Establishment
21.— Indian

table and politeness, p.

tribes in this vicinity, p. 22.

LETTER— No.

4,

Mouth

of

Yellow Stone.

Upper Missouri Indians— General character, p. 23.— Buffaloes— Description
pis. 7, 8

—Modes

Wounded

of killing

bull, p. 26, pi.

them— Buflfalo-hunt, p. 25.— Chardon's

10.— Extraordinary

feat of

of,

Leap, p. 26,

Mr. M'Kenrie,

p.

p. 24,
pi.

9.—

27.— Retnrn

from the chase, p. 28.

A 2

IV

LETTKK— No.
Aiitlior'8

iUackfuot
pis.



Mourn of Yellow Stone.

5,

pnintinx-room, und chiiructprs in

t'.',

cliicfH,

13.— Sculps, und

lilnckfout

(rbjects for

hows, HJiinhU, urrows

Ulackfeet, p. 'M, pU. 14,

l.'i,



— red

lllMckfoot chief,

it, ]>. 'J9.

costumeii,

tlipir

itiul

which

riikim

]i.

39, pi. 11.

womun and

Mlackl'oot

:U),

|).

— Other

M,

pi. lU.



30,

j).

pipe's, iind pip«-!itone (luiirry,

iind luucoa, p. oU,

|>.

I'l
1)1

31.

Suvttral distinguished

16, 17.

LETTER— No.

I'l

Ixl

child,

m

Mouth or Yellow Stone.

6,

— medicine-bnij;— origin of the word medicine, p. 3.5.^Mode of
forming the niedicine-hng, p.
— Vulue of the medicine-hag to the Indian, und mate-

Medicines or iny> leries

3(i.

rials for their construction, p. 37, pi.

of curing the sick, p. 39,

19.

pi.



111.



I

(lack foot doctor or

medicine-man

— his mode

and importance of mediciue-men,

Difl'erent offices

p. 41.

LETTER— No.

7,

Mouth of Yellow Stone.

— General character and appearance, p. — Killing and drying
— Crow lodge or wigwam, 43, 20. — Striking their tents and
45.
21. — Mode of dressing and smoking skins,
encampment moving,
44,
Crows — Heauty of
dresses — Horse-stealing or capturing — Reasons why they are

Crows and Blackfeet
meat, p. 43,

pi.

4!2.

pi.

p.

S!2.

pi.

p.

p.

their

called rogues and robbers of the

first

LETTER— No.
Further remarks on the Crnws

Crow

8,

order, &o. p;

Mouth

of

4(>.

Yellow Stone.

— Extraordinary length of

—Their modes

— Peculiarities of the
— Crow and DIackfeet women

hair, p. 49.

head, and several portraits, p. 30, pis. 14, 25, 26, 27.

— Differences between the Crow and
— Different bands— Different languages, and numbers of the
52. — Knisteneaux — Assinneboins, and Ojibbeways, p. 53. — Ass.nneboina
Blackfeet,
32.
54. — Pipe-dance,
a part of the Sioux —Their mode of boiling meat,
55,
28, 29.— His
56. — Dresses
Wi-jun-jon (a chief) and wife,
Washington,
34. — Knisteneaux (or Crees)
of women and children of the Assinneboins,
57,
character and numbers, and several
30, 31,— Ojibbeways— Chief
57,
of dressing and pair.dng, p. 51.

Blackfoot languages, p. 51.
p.

ItJ

p.

p.

pis.

visit to
pi.

p.

portraits, p.

and wife, p. 58,

pi.

p.

pis.

pis. 35, 36.

LETTER— No.
Contemplations of

9,

Mouth

West and

of Yellow Stone.

f



Old acquaintance,
customs, p. 59.
March and effects of civilization, p. 60. The " Far West" The Author in
p. 60.
search of it, p. 62. Meeting with " Ba'tiste," a free trapper, p. 63, 64.
the Ureat Far

its



LETTER— No.
A

10,

strange place— Voyage from

Commencement

— Wi-jun-jon







Mandan Village, Upper
Mouth of Yellow Stone down

— Leave M'Kenzie's

Fort, p.

(

Missouri.

the river to Alandans

— Assinneboins encamped on the river

—Mountain-sheep,

lecturing on the customs of white people

p.

67.

War-PRKles- GriKly

II.— Other

pi.

cliild,

30,

J).

B t|imrry,|>,
I

benrs, p.

68.— Clny

— Rud puniicH stono— A wild

bear iind

cubs— tJournfjeous attack— Cunoe

31.



p. 69,

(irizzly

our meats on a
bufl'alo

p.

p.

bluft's

pi.

p.

to

pi.

p.

44.— Arrival

at the

Mandan

bluft"

village, p. 79.

of

and inute-

lan^iis mode
luediciue-meo.

i

LETTER— No.
Location

— Village, p. 00,

tion of village

interior

j)l.

45.

11,

— Former

Mandan Village.

locations, fortification of their village

and mode of constructing their wigwams,

— Beds— Weapons— Family

— Fire-side
and drying
tents

71.— Eating

in

p. 7U, pis. 43,

leir

robbed, p.

sleep, p. 70.

after

pi.

ig

— Mountainefr'u

in

berries, p.

nificent

35.— Mode

stroll

— Knciunping the night — Voluptuous scene of wild flowers,
74— Magan elk — War-party discovered,
Ti. — Adventure
bush and
— Table land, 75.
scenery
the " (Jrnnd iXitour" —Stupendous clay
40, — " Orand Dome" — Prairie dogs — Village
39. — Antelope shooting,
76,
42. — Pictured
and the Three Domes,
them,
shoot
77,
Fruitless endeavours
pile of drift-wood

(Ii8tiii^ui8lit>d

lian,

" brick-kilns," volranic ipmoins,

bluffsj,

pis. 37, 3a.

fun and

groups, p. 82, 83, pi. 46.

story-telling, p.

84.

— Causes

— Descrip-

p. 131, lit'.— Description

— Indian

garrulity

of

— Jokes

of Indian taciturnity in civilized

society, p. 85.

and

ikins, p. 45.

why

LETTER— No.

they are

12,

Mandan Village.

—The "big canoe"— Medicine-lodge —
89. — llespect
— Mode of depositing the dead on
— Visiting the dead— Feeding the dead— Converse with the dead— Bones of

Bird's-eye view

of the village, p. 87, pi. 47.

strange medley, p. 88.
the (lead

to

scaflfolds, p.

the dead, p. 90, pi. 48.
iarities

ckfeet

of the

women

LETTER— No.

Crow and

the

iimbitrs

of the

AsB.nneboina
J5, pi.

66.

32.—

— Dresses

The wolf-chief

iways

Village.

—Several

portraits, p. 92, pis. .50,

Made

pi.

p.

p.

LETTER— No.

14,

Mandan

— Higli value set upon

of war-eagle's quills and ermine, p. 100,

—A Jewish custom,

gris,

p.

p. 94.

— Chief

cquaictance,

Mandan

Peculiarities

Costumes of the Mandans

10

13,

tribe, p. 92, pi. 49.

— Personal appearance —
—Complexion, 93.—"Cheveux
— Hair of the men — Hair of the women, 95, 54.— Bathing and swimming,
96.— Mode of swimming— Sudatories or vapour-baths,
71.
97-8,

51, 58, 53.

p.

or Crees)

— Head-chief of the

them

pi.

Village.

—Two horses

for a head-dress

101.— Head-dresses with

horns, p. 103.

p. 104.

Author in

LETTER— No.
Astonishment of the Mandans

Mandan Village.

instoUed medicine or medicine-man, p. 106.

UI.

IMandans

on the river
p.

15,

at the operation

67.—

see and to touch him, p. 107,

of the Author's brush, p.

— Superstitious

fears for those

—The

Objections raised to being painted,

p. 109.

Mandan

how brought

doctor, or medicine-man, and

105.—The Author

— Crowds around the Author— Curiosity

f

V

who were

to

painted, p. 108.

Author's operations opposed by a
over, p. 110, pi. 55.

———

VI

LETTER— No.
An

Indian henii or ilondy.

Ui.— A

\t.

toh-pn (thufour boars), sticond

fniitl..«s I'lidenvour

oliU'f

of

Polypnmy— Reasons and excuses
Early marriages

fuuiited in hid

115.— Pemican and marrow-fut— Maudan

pottery

p. liiO.

for

it,

— Paternal and

— Slavish

lives

Man dan

17,

Village.

118.— Marriages, how contracted— Wives

p.

aftection

filial

— Virtue and modesty of women

and occupations of the Indian women,

p.

HI.

— Pomme
in

in

12'^.

in

l'J3.

]>.

salt, p.

salt

124.


LETTER— No.

—"



for the chase

HiifTiilo

Start

Mandan

18,

dance," p. V27, p\.M.

Village.

— Discovery of buffaloes—Preparations

— A decoy — A retreat— Death and scalping,

LETTER— No.

19,

Mandan

p. 129.

Village.

Sham fight and sham scalp dance of the Mandanboys.p. 13l,pl. 57.— Game of Tcliung-kee
p.

132, pi. 59.

p. 133, pi.

— Feasting — Fasting

47.—illain makers and

" The thunder boat"

LETTER— No.
pi.

LETTER — No.

21,

Mah-to-toh-p», Cthe Four IJears)

of Mah-to-toh-pa, with

all

arrow,"

— and

p. 157.

Its

p.

value

pi. 38.

p. 110.

Mandan Village.

20,

p. 141, pi. 60.

Mandan

— Wild

—Horse-racing,

horses

Village, Upper Missouri.

— His costume and

the battles of his

22,

life

his jtortrait, p. 145, pi. 64.

painted on

it,

—The robe

p. 148, pi. 65.

Mandan Village.

156. — Three objects of the
— Mandan
creed,
—Place of holding the ceremony— Big canoe—Season of commencing

religious ceremonies

ceremony,

— White buffalo robe—
— Uain making, 135,

in council, p. 143, pi. 63.

LETTER— No.
Mandan

and sacrificing

rain stoppers, p. 131.

— The big double medicine,

Mandan archery — " Game of the
61. — Foot war-party
142,
p.

religious

p.

— Opening the medicine lodge — Sacrifices to the water,
— J3el-lohck-nah-pick,
67. — Pobk-hong (the cutting or torturing scene), p. 169,

manner, p, 158.

p. 159.

Fasting scene for four days and nights, p. 161, pi. 66.

(the bull

dance), p. 164,

pi.

pi,

lul

Local

— Dried meat— Caches — Modes of cooking, and times of eating— Attitudes
— Separation of males and females eating — the Indians moderate eaters
eating, p.
— Curing meat the sun, without smoke or — The wild
— Some exceptions,

Indian dancing

Ml

wiKwani,

blanche

Indians eat no

^A

116.

p.

LETTER— No.
bought and sold,

to puinl one, p. ll:J.— Muli-to-

tribe— The Author

tlu«

I'.ll

t

1'

p. Ill, pi. ().;.— Viands of the feast, p.

— Uobo presented,

Manimn Villaoe.

Ifi,

68.—

Oil

——



vii
Kli-ki'-nah-ka-nnli-pick, (the
|).

,

I

p. 177.

— Miuidau pottvry

Inst

l?.*).

race) p.

— rraditiun

of U-kee-hee-du

Location and numbers

ideaty of

pi.

ii<.).

— r.xtrnorilinary


(he water,

inttan

of

t>s

of tho

(.'iTtificnttis

I7(i.

\>.

Ironi these liorrilile crueltieH, with traditions,

(^the F.vil

Spirit), p. 179.

— .Muiiduns can

ho civi-

lised, p. lH:i.

L1-:TTER— No.

— Wires

Old

women

Green corn dance,

ontracted

17,1,

— Sarriticiii^ to

— Inferences drawn

Mundan ceremonies

wigwam,

tod in Inn

sulf-turture, p.

[ cruelly in

n.).— Mall-to-

chief,

— Oripn,

niack Moccasin,

1«1.— Pomnie
ting— Attitudes in

185.

p.

MiNATAUiK Vui.aok.

23,

— IVincipal
70.— N'npour baths,
— Two portraits, man and woman, pis.
villii(,'i>,

pi. 71.

pi.

p. lUti, pi. 72.

7.1,



71.

p. 189, pi. 75.

p.

I.

LETTER— No.

US moderate eatera

or salt— The wild

pi. 76.

Minataree Vim.aoe.

24,

('rows, in the IVIinataree village, p. 191.



(Iritvr

chief on horseback, in

— I'eculiarities of the Crows— Long hair— Semi-lunar faces, p.

Itats in the

Minataree village, p. 195.

of Minataree girls, p. 196

— Crossing Knife lUverin " bull

full ilress, p. 191?,

77, 78,

19;J, pis.

boat"—Swimming

— llorse-nicir -— A^ianter — Tlidinga " naked horse,"
— Cutting up and carrying in meat,

Cirand buffalo surround, p. 199, pi. 79.

p. 197.

p. 'iOl,

)e8— Preparations

LETTER— No.
An

value

p. 135, pi.

58.—

— Iliccaree

village,

— Kzpedition of Madoc,

of Tchung-kee

robe— Its

p. 209.

— Ha-wan-je-tah

w'ife, p.

812, pls.87, 88.

m

80.

— Portraits of Riccarees, 201,
—Origin of tho Mauduns— Welsh colony

hills

Moutji of Teton Riveu.

— Mississippi and Missouri Sioux,
— Puncahs, Shoo-de-go-cha (chief^ and

Pierre, pi. 85.

p. 211, pi. 86.

— Four wives taken once, p. 213, 90. —
215.
— Early marriages — Causes
at

pi.

i'ortrait

of one of

of, p.

TtroN River.

27, Moirni of

— A tedious march on
— Level
— Mirage— Looming of the
218. — Turning the toes
meadows,
219 — Arrive
assemblage of Sioux
Fort Pierr«—
of the thief— Superstitious objections— Opposed by the doctors,

the aged, p. 216.

Salt

pis. 8.1,

p.

foot, p. Stl8.

" Out of sight of land"

— Uijou —
— Paint the

63.

26,

— Fort

(chief)

LETTER— No.
Custom of exposing

64.—The robe

1.

pi.

the wives, p. 214, pi. 89.

-Horse- racing,

MihsouRi.

p. 206-7.

Sioux or (Dah-co-ta^, p. 208.

50UUI.

p.204,

LETTER— No.
3

Mandan Village, Upper

Indian offering himself for a pillow, p. 203.

81, 82,81.
le

25, Little

prairies

prairies, p.

in

CJreat

at

p.

portrait

p.

220.— Difficulty settled— Death of Ha-wan-je-tah

objects of the

(the

chieO— Mode of,

p.

221.— Por-

— Wampum, 222-3, 91,92. — iSeautiful Sioux women
Daughter of lllack llock — CImrdoii, his Indian wife,
824-5,
94, 95.

traits

of other Sioux chiefs

pis.

p.

p.

pis.

of commencing
R'ater, p.

LETTER— No.

159.

pick, (the bull

169, pi.

68.—

Arrival of the

(iist

28,

Mouth

of

Teton River.

— Indian vanity — Watching
steamer amongst the Sioux,
227. — Dog-feast,

Difficulty of painting Indian

women,

p. 226.

p.

|i.

their portraits-

22il, pl. 9»>.

VIII

LETTER— No.
Voluntnry

tortur«»,

>'iiiokin^ "

k'nick-k'neck"

Tomnliawka



" looking

— Scalp* —

iiiul

gcalpiri)^

at



Mouth

'29,

ilm sim," p.

knives, p.

— H«li^'iouB ceremony,

nf
— CuliimotH or
UH).
— Dance the
— Modea of ryin^ and uaing the
p. 0S.1.

pi. !)7.

V.I'J,

I'ipoM, p. V.'H, pi.

or Tetov River.

I'll.

puiu'H,

pipi'H

iM rule (if tiikinif, un<l oliject, p. 838-'.).

p.V.'J.S

r'liefa, p. i!\7, pi.

of

'i:iS-6, ]>1. 9l>.

cui

HcnIpM, p. ttd, pi. 101.

LETTER— No.

Mouth

30,

Imlion wenponanndinHtrumuntH of music, p. Vtl,
the shield p. 241.

101 J.

— Tohncco

— Hear dunce,

pouchea

p. 2 14, pi.

lOS.

LETTER— No.
Hiaona (or buflnloeH) doacription

wallows

— Fairycirclea,
107. —
851,

arrow, p.

— Drums —
Mouth

of, p.

Hiiflalo

iiml aliifld

chase

tiance, p. 24,i,

of, p. 2111



hiso, p.

1

attackin)^ hulfaloes, p. 2J7-U, pla. 1 \S, 114.

U

P'

i
.•I

!?

-. t

,

S

HulU'

2.^;l,

li(,'hltnp

— Huirnlo

— Conti mplationa on

Iluntin);

pi.

10.



2ti4.

pi.

— Use of the
lOH, 109. —
— Morses destroyed buffalo hunting,

p. '2/14, pi.



of bufTuloea and Indians, p. 250,

'.il'i,

pU. 103, 104.

-Run;. ing the huffoloea.und throwinj; the

111.— Iluffalo calf Mode of catching and bringing'
Immense and wanton destruction of buffaloes 1,400 killed,

p. 26.S, pi.

— Smoking

l.ules, p.

of Teton Riveu.

?t7. — llnbita

p. '^4y, pla. lOft, !()(>.-

pi.

— (Quiver
— Uhiatlea —

ItHttles

— Ueggnra' dance — Scalp

31,

under mn8(|Ue of white wolfskins,

or Teton River.
pi. 101 J.

in

in,
p.

p. i.W,

2.')6.

pi.

112.—

— White wolves

the probable extinction

I

III.

w*i

•TKmony,
of poiUH,
'«r«i.

k

inn:

p. '2S:l.
[1.

p.?.17,

v.S.S

|)l.

_

KK).

ami Uiing the

Cit.

I

^

Hlii..|,l— Smoitiiip

'iK''H'nR— liiifrnio

'

I,

anil throwing'

tlitt

"". >0!).— Hunting
i'l

6

bulTiilo
s?'5,

'•

hunting,

pi.

iia_

— White wolves

fobuhle extinction

.'^^^

I

1

I

;^II^Wt<i

I

"i/i

'o/dUfi'

/'v/y.
7
i)rr,niri^:
'J^l!£_^i_J\^lh,.m
XchvnujtMv«ri,^.\'o

T<:f,wi/iJ:Mv«rs. .\'0

LETTERS AND NOTES
ON THE

NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
*

roqacnsl

fQ'

Oneida*

LETTER— No.

\

1

iTiw

Y

HK

<)

As

tbe following pages have been hastily compiled,-at the urgent request

of a number of

my

friends,

from a

series

of Letters and Notes written by

myself during several years' residence and travel amongst a number of the

\N

I

North American Indians, I have
page the beginning of my book ; dispensing
with Preface, and even with Dedication, other iwjo. that which I hereby

AC

wildest

and most remote

thought

it

best to

make

make

it,

with

my

of

If it

my

<

r.llTOrt

^

readers will understand that I

^eokoat

c

will take the pains to read

it.

had no space

in these,

my

first

volumes,

;

myself the sin of calling this one of the series of Letters of which

spoken

;

although

beginning of

(Mlalei-as

who

nor much time at r y disposal, which I could, in justice,
use for introducing myself and my works to the world.
Having commenced thus abruptly then, I will venture to take upon

away

duce myself
v!^

heart, to those

be necessary to render any apology for beginning thus unceremoniously,

to throw

"Chntles

all

tribes of the

this

I

am

writing

it

several years later,

and placing

it

I

have

at the

my book by which means I will be enabled briefly to intfomy readers (who, as yet, know little or nothing of me), and
;

to

also the subjects of the following epistles, with such explanations of the
customs described in them, as will serve for a key or glossary to the same,

&nd prepare the reader's mind for the information they contain.
Amidst the multiplicity of books which are, in this enlightened age,
flooding the world, I feel it my duty, as early as possible, to beg pardon for
making a book at all and in the next (if my readers should become so
;

much

'^^

interested in

my

narrations, as to censure

work) to take some considerable credit

upon

their time

Leaving

my

VOL.

•M

l.

X fritvm nrrmwlcK^\
Tcf;wJlS:M7er&.':::

I.

in

me

for the brevity

of the

having trespassed too long

and patience.

readers, therefore, to find out

promising them anything,

Wyoming,

for not

I

proceed to say

North America, some

what

—of

is

in

the book, without

myself, that

I

was born

in

thirty or forty years since, of parents

B

;

!

i

entered that beautiful and famed valley soon ofter the close of the
revolutionary war, and the disastrous event of the " Indian massacre."

who

The

early part of

my

life

was whiled away, apparently, somewhat

with books reluctantly held in one hand, and a
and affectionately grasped in the other.

rifle

in vain,

or fishing-pole firmly

my father, who was a practising lawyer, I was
abandon these favourite themes, and also my occasional
dabblings with the brush, which had secured already a corner in my
afTections ; and I commenced reading the law for a profession, under the
I attended the lectures Oi
direction of Reeve and Gould, of Connecticut.
was admitted to the bar and practised
these learned judges for two years
the law, as a sort of Nimrodical lawyer, in my native land, for the term of
two or three years ; when I very deliberately sold my law library and all
(save my rifle and fishing-tackle), and converting their proceeds into brushes
At

the urgent request of

prevailed upon to



and paint pots

;

commenced

I



$

"'J.

the art of painting in Philadelphia, without

teacher or adviser.

my hand
my mind was

there closely applied

I

during which time

to the labours of the art for several years;

continually reaching for some branch or

enterprise of the art, on which to devote a whole life-time of enthusiaspi

or fifteen noble and dignified-looking Indians,
from the wilds of the " Far West," suddenly arrived in the city, arrayed
and equipped in all their classic beauty,—with shield and helmet,—
with tunic and manteau, tinted and tasselled off", exactly for the painter's

when a delegation of some ten
i



II

palette

In silent and stoic dignity, these lords of the forest strutted about the city
for

K

.

a few days, wrapped

in their

pictured robes, with their brows

plumed with

the quills of the war-eagle, attracting the gaze and admiration of

beheld them.

was

all

who

After this, they took their leave for Washington City, and

left to reflect

and

regret,

which

I

did long and deeply, until I

I

came to

and conclusions.
Clack and blue cloth and civilization are destined, not only to veil, but to
Man, in the simplicity and
obliterate the grace and beauty of Nature.
loftiness of his nature, unrestrained and unfettered by the disguises of art,
and the country from
is surely the most beautiful model for the painter,
which he hails is unquestionably the best study or school of the arts in the
world such I am sure, from the models I have seen, is the wilderness of
North America. And the history and customs of such a people, presen'ed
by pictorial illustrations, are themes worthy the life-time of one man, and
nothing short of the loss of my life, shall prevent me from visiting their
country, and of becoming their listorian.
There was something inexpressibly delightful in the above resolve, which
was to bring me amidst such living models for my brush and at the same
time to place in my hands again, for my living and protection, the objects
of my heart above-named
which bad long been laid by to rust and decay
the following deductions



:

;

;

^

;

of the

:Iose

the

city,

without

tlie

remotest prospect of

rhat in vain,

amusement.
I had fully resolved

-pole firmly

got not one advocate or abettor.

lacre."



I

opened

my
I

views to

tried fairly

again

my

contiibuting

friends

and

and

faithfully,

to

my

but
was in

relations,

but

it

vain to reaso.i with those whose anxieties were ready to fabricate every
iwyer,

and danger that could be imagined, without being able to undermy designs, and I broke
from them all, from my wife and my aged parents, myself my only

was

I

difficulty

stand or appreciate the extent or importance of

y occasional
)rner

adviser and protector.

With

e lectures Oi

these views firmly fixed

—armed,

equipped, and supplied,

I

started

the tenn of

year 1832, and penetrated the vast and pathless wilds which are
familiarly denominated the great "Far West" of the North American

and

Continent, with a light heart, inspired with an enthusiastic hope and reliance

nd practised
r





my

in

under the

n,

}rary

all

into brushes
)hia,

without

out

in the

that

I

could meet and overcome

devoted to the production of a

all

literal

the hazards and privations of a

and graphic delineation of the

life

living

manners, customs, and character of an interesting race of people, who
everal years;

branch or

tie

city,

arrayed

helmet,—

id

thus snatching from a hasty
looks and history
what could be saved for the benefit of posterity, and perpetuating
as a fair and just monument, to the memory of a truly lofty and noble

with

enthusiaspi

(ing Indians,

the painter's

fidelity their native

plumed with
n of

I

who

all

and

City,

I

it,

race.

have spent about eight years already

in the pursuit above-named, having
most of that time immersed in the Indian country, mingling
with red men, and identifying myself with them as much as possible, in
their games and amusements; in order the hetter to familiarize myself with
their superstitions and mysteries, which are the keys to Indian life and
I

veil,

but to

mplicity

and

uises of art,

:ountry from
arts in the

e

wilderness of
e,
le

preserved

man, and

isiting

their

was during the several years of my life just mentioned, and whilst I
them in their sports and amusements, that
penned the following series of epistles; describing only such glowing or
It

I

at the

which

same

the objects

and decay

in familiar participation with

my immediate observation ; leavingand many of their traditions, language, &c. for a subsequent and much more elaborate work, for which I have procured the
materials, and which I may eventually publish.
I set out on my arduous and perilous undertaking with the determination

curious scenes and events as passed under
their early history,

of reaching, ultimately, every tribe of Indians on the Continent of North
America, and of bringing home faithful portraits of their principal personages,

both

and
solve,

for the

character.

came to

was
}

;

oblivion

been

bout the city



away from the face of the earth lending a hand to a
dying nation, who have no historians or biographers of their own to pourtray
are rapidly passing

men and women, from each

full

tribe,

views of their villages, games, &c.

notes on their character and history.

I d(

signedj

also,

to procure

and a complete collection of their manuft tures and weaperpetuate them in a Gallery unique^ for the use and instruction

their costumes,

pons, and to

of future ages.
I

claim whatever merit there

may

have been in

Llie

originality of
13

2

such a

design, as

was uiidoubtedly

I

tlie first

out upon sucli a

artist wlio ever set

Mountains

worii, dosigninj^ to carry his canvass to tiie Rocliy

sidorable part of the following;; Letters were written

and

;

and a con-

pid)lished in the

New

York Papers, as early as the years 18;j2 and 183,3; long before the Tours of
Washington Irving, and several others, whoso interesting narratives are
before the world.

means

have, as yet, by no

I

very great way
success than

visited all the tribes

but

have progressed a

I

more complete

expected,

I

have visited forty-eight different

I

;

the enterprise, and with far greater and

witli

of which

tribes, the greater part

I

found

speaking different languages, and containing in all 400,001) souls.
1 have
brought home safe, and in good order, 310 portraits in oil, all painted in
their native dress,
in oil,

and

in their

own wigwams

religious ceremonies

and other amusements (containing

— their

in all,

curious collection of their costumes, and

A

also 200 other paintings
wigwams their games and

and

over 3,000 full-length figures); and

the landscapes of the country they live

the size of a

;


— their dances — their ball plays— their buffalo hunting,

containing views of their villages

wigwam down

in,
all

as well as a very extensive

and

their other manufactures,

from

to the size of a (piill or a rattle.

considerable part of the above-named paintings, and Indian manufac-

tures, will be

found amongst the very numerous

pages; having been,

own hand,

in

illustrations in the following

every instance, faithfully copied and reduced by

my

my

and the reader of
" Catlin's North
this book who will take the pains to step in to
A.MEiiiCAN Indian Gallery," will find nearly every scene and custom
which is described in this work, as well as many others, carefully and
correctly delineated, and displayed upon the walls, and every weapon (and
every

from

for the engraver,

"Sachem" and

every

original paintings

;

"Sagamore" who has wielded them) according

to the tenor of the tales herein recited.

So much of myself and of

my

works, which

is all

that

I

wish to say at

present.

Of

the

Indians,

delineations of them,

I

have

and

much more

to say, and
and customs,

their character

further apology for requesting the attention of

The Indians

rM

and

(as

prairies of

I

I

the following
shall

make no

readers.

shall call them), the savages or red

North America, are at

and some importance

my

to

men of

the forests

time a subject of great interest

this

rendered more particularly so in
and their rapid declension from, the
civilized nations of the earth.
A numerous nation of human beings, whose
origin is beyond the reach of human investigation,
whose early history is
lost
whose term of national existence is nearly expired three-fourths of
whose country has fallen into the possession of civilized man within the short
space of 250 years
twelve millions of whose bodies have fattened the soil in
the mean time
who have fallen victims to whiskey, tlie small-pox and the
tiiis

to the civilized world

;

age, from their relative position to,







;



;

IIS

New

Tiie writer

are

ivc progressed a

who would undertake
all

a short lime

to

the whole history of sucli a

embody

their misfortunes

the race should have passed

more ooinplctc

[

to live

and calamities, must needs have niucli
more space than I hav3 allotted to this epitome; and he must needs begin
also (as I am doing) with those who are living, or he would be very apt to
dwell upon the preamble of his work, until the present living remnants of
people, with

ore the Tours of
narratives

but a meagre proportion

longer, in the certain apprehensicm of soon sharing a similar fate.

;

shed in the

this time

bayonet; leaving at

upon such a
and a con-

It

away

;

and

their existence

and customs,

like

those of figes gone bye, become subjects of doubt and incredulity to the

which

of

J souls.
all

1,

I

whom his book was preparing. Such an historian also, to do them
nmst needs correct many theories and opinions which have, either
ignorantiy or maliciously, gone forth to the world in indelible characters ;
and gatlier and arrange a vast deal which has been but imperfectly recorded,
or placed to the credit of a people who have not had the means of recording
it
tiiemselves
but have entrusted it, from necessity, to the honesty and
world

found
1

painted in

other paintinjis

3

their

for

justice,

have

games and

buffalo hunting,

;

punctuality of their enemies.

Tth figures); ami
sry extensive and
inufactures, from

In such an history should be embodied, also, a correct account of their

and a
and systematical prophecy as to the time and manner of their final
extinction, based upon the causes and the ratio of their former and present
treatment, and the causes which have led to their rapid destruction

;

plain

Indian manufac5

declension.

in the following

reduced by

id

So Herculean a

my

but

nd the reader of
atlin's

Noutii

;ene and custom
carefully and
rs,
ery weapon (and

them) according

I

task

may

my

to

fall

send forth these volumes at

lot at a future period, or

this time,

fresh

and

full

it

may

not

of their livins

deeds and customs, as a familiar and unstudied introduction (at least) to
them and their native character which I confidently hope will repay the
readers who read for information and historical facts, as well as those who
read but for amusement.
The world know generally, that the Indians of North America are coppercoloured, that their eyes and their hair are black, &c.
that they are mostly
uncivilized, and conseauontly unchristianized
that they are nevertheless
;

.

;

wish to say at

I

;

human
the following

to

shall

I

make no

nen of the forests

of great interest
particularly so in
ilension from, the

lan beings, whose
early history

)se

attened the

soil in

small-pox and the

live,

how they

and sympathies

dress,

own;
what
amusements, &c. as

how

like our

they tooi'ship,

It would be impossible at the same time, in a book of these dimensions,
to
explain all the manners and customs of these people; but as far as they are
narrated, they have been described by my pen, upon the spot, as 1

have

seen them transacted
little too

within the short

know how they

are their actions, their customs, their religion, their
they practise them in the uncivilized regions of their uninvaded couniry,
which it is the main object of this work, clearly and distinctly to set forth.

is

—three-fourths of

n

beings, with features, thoughts, reason,

but few yet

;

and

highly coloured,

that pardon which

it

is

I

if

some few of my narrations should seem a

trust the world will

customary to yield to

all

be ready to extend to me
artists whose main faults

exist in the vividness of their colouring, rather than in the

pictures; but tliere

pardon

for,

is

nothing else

in

them,

I

think,

drawing of

that

I

should

their
ii!»k

even though some of them should stagger credulity, and incur

6
for

mo

the censure of those

inercifuliy, sit at

good

home

who sometimes, unthinkingly

critics,

at their desks,

enjoying

simple narration of

cigar, over the

tlic

honest and

weather-worn

traveller (wiio sliortens his half-starved life in catering for

condemn him and

his

work

poverty and starvation

;

to oblivion,

and

and

his wife

or un-

luxury of wine and a

tlie

the world), to

his little children to

merely because he describes scenes which they have

not beheld, and which, consequently, they are unable to believe.

The Indians of North America,
with long black hair, black eyes,

than two millions in number

as

I

tall,

— were

have before
straight,

said, are copper-coloured,

and

elastic forms

originally the undisputed



ar§ less

owners of the

and got their title to their lands from the Great Spirit who created
them on it, were once a happy and flourishing people, enjoying all the
comforts and luxuries of life which they knew of, and consequently cared
for;
were sixteen millions in numbers, and sent that number of daily
prayers to the Almighty, and thanks for his goodness and protection.
Their
country was entered by white men, but a few hundred years since
and
thirty millions of these are now scuffling for the goods and luxuries of life,
soil,





U

;

over the bones and ashes of twelve millions of red

whom

men

;

six millions

of

and the remainder to the sword,
the bayonet, and whiskey all of which means of their death and destruction
have been introduced and visited upon them by acquisitive white men ; and
by white men, also, whose forefathers were welcomed and embraced in the
land where the poor Indian met and fed them with "ears of green corn and
with pemican."
Of the two millions remaining alive at this time, about
1,400,000, are already the miserable living victims and dupes of white man's
cupidity, degraded, discouraged, and lost in the bewildering maze that ia
and the
produced by the use of whiskey and its concomitant vices
remaining number are yet unroused and unenticed from their wild haunts
or their primitive modes, by the dread or love of white man and his
have

fallen victims to the small-pox,
;

J

;

allurements.
It has

chiefly,

been with these, mostly, that

and

I

have spent

my

their customs, that the following Letters

time,
treat.

and of

these,

Their habits

we can see them transacted, are native, and such as I
and preserve for future ages.
Of the dead, and of those who arc dying, of those who have suffered death,
and of those who are now trodden and kicked through it, I may speak more
fully in some deductions at the close of this book
or at some future time,
when I may find more leisure, and may be able to speak of these scenes
without giving offence to the world, or to any body in it.
Such a portrait then as I have set forth in the following pages (taken by
myself from the free and vivid realities of life, instead of the vague and uncertain imagery of recollection, or from the haggard deformities and distortions
of disease and death), I offer to the world for their amusement, as well as for
their information
and I trust they will pardon me, if it should be thought

(and

their's alone) as

have wished to

fix

;

;

#

,

inkingly or unthat

of wine and a

r

too

weather-worn

d

The

the world), to
little

the civilized world



who

ar^ less
in the

He

lumber of daily
^ears since

luxuries of

ler to the

of

sword,

h and destruction
and
white men
;

embraced

in

the

green corn and
time, about

this

es of white

man's

ng maze that is
vices; and the
their wild haunts

man and

ne,

and of

e,

his

and such as

should consider, that

I

ve suffered death,

may speak more
future time,

of these scenes

pages (taken by
vague and uncerBs

and

York,

most unfortunate and most abused

if

he has seen the savages of North America with-

who

inhabit the frontier; whose habits

— whose pride has been cut down — whose country has been
ransacked — whose wives and daughters have been shamefully abused — whose
lands have been wrested from them — whose limbs have become enervated and

— whose
— whose

naked by the excessive use of whiskey
prematurely thrown into their graves

distortions

jnt, as well as for

hould be thought

friends

and

native pride

relations have been
and dignity have at

way to the unnatural vices which civilized cupidity has engrafted
upon them, to be silently nurtured and magnified by a burning sense of injury and injustice, and ready for that cruel vengeance which often falls from
the hand that is palsied by refined abuses, and yet unrestrained by the glorious influences of refined and moral cultivation
That if he has laid up, what
he considers well-founded knowledge of these people, from books which he has
read, and from newspapers only, he should pause at least, and withhold his
sentence before he passes it upon the character of a people, who are dying at
the hands of their enemies, without the means of recording their own annals
struggling in their nakedness with their simple weapons, against guns and
gunpowder. against whiskey and steel, and disease, and mailed warriors who
are continually trampling them to the earth, and at last exultingly promulgalast given





ting from the very soil
history of his cruelties

ome

way from

New

books of Indian barbarities, of wanton butcheries and murders; and
the deadly jjrejudices which he has



these,

Their habits

it.

of

have been changed

life,

six millions

city

Rocky Mountains, some two or three thousand
He should forget many theories he has read

sions (in all probability) only from those

and

;

way from the

Letters the

a vast

out making such a tour, he has fixed his eyes upon and drawn his conclu-

Their

rotection.

his

me

part of the race of his fellow-man.

isequently cared

te

he must needs wend

carried from his childhood, against this

the

all

draw from these

divest himself, as far as po-jsible, of

created

enjoying

rii^iitly,u»d

miles from the Atlantic coast.

owners of the

tf

;

base and summit of the

forms

mn

over the Alleghany, and far beyond the mighty Missouri, and even to the

eve.

lirit

reader, then, to understand

children to

copper-coloured

;d

have over-ostimafcd the Indian character, or at other times desrended
into the details and niinuliin of Indian mysteries and absurdities.

information which they are intended to give, must follow

which they have

a

1

much

which they have wrested trom the poor savage, the

and

barbarities, whilst

under the very furrows which

their

So great and unfortunate are the
numbers in weapons and defences



his

bones are quietly resting

ploughs are turning.



disparities

between savage and

in enterprise, in craft,

and

civil,

in

in education,

that the former

is almost universally the sufferer either in peace or in war;
and not less so after his pipe and his tomahawk have retired to the grave wlh
him, and his character is left to be entered upon the pages of history, and
that justice done to his memory which, from necessity, he has intrusted to
his enemy.

Amongst the numerous historians, however, of these strange people, they
have had some friends who have done them justice ; yet as a part of all sys-

X

V

^^^v.

8
whenever

iL'ing oi'jiiHticc,

k

too lute, or

mctt'd to

it Ih

enemies are continually about him, and

it comes invarial.ly
and that too when his

poor Indian,

tlic

an inetfcctual distance

adniiiiiiitcred at

eli'ectually

;

applying the means of

his

destruction.

I

Some

writers,

I

iiave

been greived to see, have written

down

the character

of the North American Indian, as dark, relentless, cruel and murderous
degree

last

than that of

tiie

brutes:



them a high rank,

whilst others have given

as

myself authorized to do, as honourable and iiighly-intellcctual beings

and

utlu rs, l)oth friends

" anomaly

in

nature

In this place

an assertion as

I

this

to the red

foes

I
;

feel

and

man, have spoken of them as an

"

have no time or inclination to reply to so unaccountable
;

contenting myself with the belief, that the term would be

farthest from nature, than
filling

the

!

more correctly applied

far

in

with scarce a quality to stamp his existence of a higher order

;

human family who have strayed
who arc simply moving in, and
were designed by the Great Spirit who made

to that part of the
it

could be to those

the sphere for which they

them.

From what

I

have seen of these people

I

nothing very strange or unaccountable

in

authorized to say, that there

feel

charactei

their

simple one, and easy to be learned and understood,
to familiarize ourselves with

much

in

it

to

it.

Although

it

And

I

its

trust that the reader,

volumes withi:arc, will be disposed to join
North American Indian in his native state

me
is

brave, warlike, cruel, revengeful, relentless,

who

is

is

a

means be taken

dark spots
it

it

;

yet there

is

to the admiration of

looks through these

in the conclusion

:

an honest, hospitable,

that the
faithful,

— yet honourable, contemplative

religious being.

If
fair

the right

if

be applauded, and much to recommend

the enlightened world.

and

has

but that

;

such be the

cd.

I

am

sure there

is

enough

perusal of the world, and charity enough in

in it to

recommend

all civilized

it

to the

countries, in this

enlightened age, to extend a helping hand to a dying race; provided that
prejudice and fear can be removed, which have heretofore constantly held
I!'

the civilized portions in dread of the savage

and friendly embrace,

in

which alone

— and away from that familiar

his true native

character can be justly

Appreciated.
1

am

fully convinced,

from a long familiarity with these people, that the

Indian's misfortune has consisted chiefly in our ignorance of their true native

character and disposition, which has always held us at a distrustful distance

inducing us to look upon them in no other light than that of a
and worthy only of that system of continued warfare and abuse
that has been for ever waged against them.
There is no difficulty in approaching the Indian and getting acquainted
with him in his wild and unsophisticated state, and finding him an honest
and honourable man with feelings to meet feelings, if the above prejudice and
dread can be laid aside, and any one will take the pains, as I have done, to

from them

;

hostile foe,

;

9
)ine8 invariitl.ly
lit

tie

when
means of

too

go and sec him

his

his

iiis

(lo's

own

in the simplicity

of his native state, smoking his pipe under

luuiible roof, with his wife

and children around him, and

his

I'liilhfnl



So tue world unii/
and horses hanging aboiu liis hospitable tenement.
see him and smoke his friendly pipe, which is invariably extended to them
and share, with a hearty welcome, the best that his wigwam itHortls for the
;

n the character
lurderous in the

W

a higher order
rank,

\\

at^

a I beings

I

trampled under foot.

term would be

The very

am

ho have strayed
moving in, and
spirit

lay,

that there
it

is

word

IS

through these

savaije,

as

;

and nearly the whole

civili/ed world

expressive of the most ferocious, cruel, and

apply the

murderous

;

faithful,

contemplative

it

I

it is

The grisly bear is called savage, because he is blood-thirsty, ravenous
and cruel and so is the tiger, and they, like the poor red man, have been
feared and dreaded (from the distance at which ignorance ^uiil prejudice
have kept us from them, or from resented abuses which we have practised
when we have come in close contact with them), until Van Amburgh
shewed the world, that even these ferocious and unreasoning animals wanted
only the friendship and close embrace of their master, to resi)ect and to

that the

iimend

whom

character that can be described.

is

admiration of

,

general sense,

its

deKnition to the adjective

;

itable,

applied in

a

le

:

it is

an abuse of the word, and the people to

is

ts

sion

is

The word, in its true defniition, means no more than wUd, or wild
man; and a wild man may have been endowed by his Maker with all the
Our
humane and noble traits that inhabit the heart of a tame man.
ignorance and dread or fear of these people, therefore, have given a new

means be taken
yet there

use of the word savage, as

inclined to believe

ap|)lied.

who made

but that

he

after

they arc loo far

unaccountable

e

moment

always set out to a stranger the next

But so the mass of the world, most assuredly will tint see these people; for
off, and approachable to those only whose avarice or cupidity
alone lead them to those remote regions, and whose shame prevents iheni
rown down and
from publishing to the world the virtues which they have

feel

of thcin as an

I

is

enters.

and

;

appetite, which

to the

love him.

ounlrics, in this

constantly hehl

As evidence of the hospitality of these ignorant and benighted people,
and also of their honesty and honour, tlicre will be found recorded many

)m that familiar
er can be justly

many

provided that

;

striking instances in the following pages.

And

also, as

an

oft'set

to these,

evidences of the dark and cruel, as well as ignorant and disgusting

excesses of passions, unrestrained by the salutary influences of laws and
people, that the

Christianity.

heir true native

I

ustful distance
t

than that of a

fare

and abuse

ting acquainted

him an honest
e prejudice and
I

have done, to

have roamed about from time

to time during seven or eight

^

years,

and associating with some three or four hundred thousand of these
people, under an almost infinite variety of circumstances; and from the very
many and decided voluntary acts of their hospitality and kindness, I feel
bound to pronounce them, by nature, a kind and hospitable people. I have
been welcomed generally in their country, and treated to the best that they
could give me, without any charges made for my board
they have often
escorted me through their enemies country at some hazard to their own
lives, and aided me in passing mountains and rivers with my awkward bagvisiting

;

!
10

It

>;.»(;(«:

imtl

imdrr

ti';iv<'<l

nic,

slunk

|)i()|M'tly lliat

Tliin

am

I

miyinjj

JM

nil (>rilii'*<'

ii

nic

fiirmnshincr's of

liliiw,

it

(and

;jn'ut dcul,

favoni' of (In* viitni's of

Nlioidd

Im', tlial

that

there

attai'licH

And

lid

all

an<l

pin«'ss,

a sti^:ma to

llms in these

«onee of

systems
ipiiet,

rvrr

lir-

wnilli of

iity

Imliiiii

iiic

ii

i«liilliii^'s

liis

in

llifir

npon

loo,

if

\\w.

wlii>n

it

licad of a

(lie

ii

man

snpremu,

I

it



nor rsin

;

dis^rat-c wliifli

|M'o|tlr nliont

him.
the uh-

havt' often hehelil

for whieli

iim

may seem,

liis
it

mind,

for tlicfl

llictn

lliiff, Kav<< tlif

eoimunniiies, straiine as

jnrisprmlenee,

reiu;nint;

reador will bclicvn

in Itoriii; in

land to pMhiKli

rliaiartcr, in tlic tyos of

little

«tf

it
;

novcr lu'cn divnlp,rd anion|;Ht

liavt>

linniaii rotrihiilinn fall

iiroviiiu;

iIicmi- |)i-o|iIi>

no law

in

commantlincnts

tli(>

no

f\|»OHiir(',

iVniii

iiwarc of.

IIU-) in

nny

ui Htiilc

in

peace and hap-

even kinp;s and empi'rorH

have seen rinhls and virtne protected, and wrongs rcI
have seen conjnpd, lilial and paternal allection in the snnpli'
city and contcntcducss of nature. I have, miavoidahly, formed warm and enmii;ht

envy them.

dresstMl

;

and

I

(ht not winh to for^jet
attachments to somo of these men which
who have hron^ht me near to their hearts, and in onr linal separation have
embraced me in their arms, and commended me and my allairs lo the keep-

(Inrinij

iiii;

I

of the (ireat Spirit.

For the above reasons, the reader will be disposed to foru^ivc; ine for
dwt'Uip"- so lon^v and so stronp,- on the justness of tin; claims of ihest! people;

and
[*'

I

foi

my

occasional expressions of s.idness,

fate that awaits the

when my

hi

heart bleeds for the

remainder of their nidiicky race; which

is

lon^; to

be

outlived by tbe rocks, by the beasts, and even birds and reptiles of the

country they



set upon by their fellow-man, whose cupidity, it is
no bounds to the Indian's earthly c.daniity, short of the

live in;

feared, will lix

grave.
1

red

cannot help but repeat, before

men

dose

I

this lA'tter, that the

of North America, as a nation of

wane; that

(to use their

own

very beautiful

human

tii;ure)

tribes of the

beings, arc on their

" they are

fast travelling

to the shades of their fathers, towards the setting sun ;"

and that the traveller, who would sec these people in their native simplicity, and beauty must
needs be hastily on his way to the prairies and Hocky Mountains, or he will
see them only as they are now seen on the frontiers, as a basket of dead
(jamr,
harassed, chased, bleeding and dead w ilh their plumage and colours
despoiled, to be ga/ed amongst in vain for some system or moral, or for
some scale by which to estimate their true native character, other than that
which has too often recorded them
but a dark and unintelligible mass of



;

;

and barbarity.
Without further eouuncnts I close this Letter, introducing my readers at
once to the heart of the Indian country, only asking their forgiveness for
having made it so long, and their patience whilst travelling through the
cruelty

following pages (as

1

journeyed through those remote realms)

inrormaliou and rational amusement

;

iu tracing

in

search of

out the true character of

if

11
iiiliiiii

" »tra»;ir iinninnltf" of

rvcr

Itf-

i\\nt

of

my

diosolve<l or

wiiitli

<

man

('ompoiimled into

the simple rltineiilH of \\U nature, un-

in

of

llie niysteiieit

eiili|;hteiie<l

and fashionalilu

life.

Iwlicvc

Icr will

iiiiiiil, iiH it

ill

;

mil

lor

llinii

llu'l'l

nor can

;

iliw^iiKT

uhoiit

(*

ciiiiMTnrs

aiitl

wMiins

iitid

iM

IT-

liu- siinpli-

i)i

warm ami

(I

NOTi:.

ttl>-

and Imp-

ii'Ufc

n
1

liiin.

in llif

(•(•Ill,

1

wliii'li

t'li-

Af

llif fiiiKuliir

miiiire

III

I

oliiiiliirilii

Id

^infuhle unit

iill

iiiliiiiliiif;

J'or

ifjiK'teiili'il

nii'iiCK

ini/iiiiiri/

ill

me

Jur

to

llu!

kccp-

I

mill

ii/npir liie>,

fori^ivo

mc

for

bleeds for

win

/m/ic

I

lollow,

li

men

Ihffl

the ritrii-

tiiiil

mii/i «

of

rhuriirlrr ««

mil ruinf me

i/iriil,

lirrn

Iniii-

iiliiili

iiinl

he urn, Iniie Inrii

iiill

the

;

me

/mif,

in i^ienl

work;

unil miiiiiieiii srljoiih in Iha

tiprt'hy ciTtifv,

lliiil

Mr. ('mi

tliiit

llix |H)rNiiiiH wIiiiho Mi^iiiiliin'M iirc iifFixiMl (o

IN, iiro

llit'ir ii|iiiiiiiiiH

his

••xliiliiti'd liy liiiii in

i)flici>r.i

iirilio iicciiriiry
'

Imiun

lo

loiip;

is

cupidity,

(iallkiiv,

"J.
" With ro^nril to tho

1>«

it

is

wiirniiitt'il in Hiiyin^,
lt'il^(<

of

tlic

of

(l(>liiHMitiunH,

with

tribes of the

are on

pfoiitlonicii

lliiit

no

'

ii.s

liiTciii Hi'l I'orlli

rorri'ctiKms of

liki>ii*tHsii,-i, iiiiil

iiri<

lliii

;

vitiWN, Ni'.

to full iicilit,

luililli'il

I'OlN.Sr.rr, AVrifMn/

11.

whoHn

iniliviilMiil.s

of the jirrHoiis, hiihilM, coitiiiiM'N,

cliiiiiiM n|iiiii tliK

y, short

uf llm

ciTliliciilxN iimimI

llii<

in llic Mi'rvicn ofllic I'nilfil SIiiIi-m,

.•/•

It'./r,

ll',iWiiH^'(i.»."

tlie.

reptiles of tlu5

10

il

('oiiiilr'j, 1111(1 injiiiiiiliiiiity iiilh

of llu'so people;

L!

iniilrin

llu;

imgn,

IIik fnllniiiiitf

CI'IlTiriCATI'S.
"

licltiw, liy

1

of

('rrlijiciilfn

iiiiiiiiToiif

sc|iara(i()ii li«v«

•t

in

illiinliiiliiiiin,

to r()i^;(;l—

vi»li

irs

iiiimrrniiii

niiliijiirliiin

llie

//ic

mm

Ini

irni

tlif

ill

/'/'lie

lliii

Jiiiiiithfd

llie liiiliiiii

nf ih* Vounlry ut Jurlh

tiiiin»fr$

piihlin coiiliili-nctt in

iiiid

uiiil

of iIionh

liiiliiiiiM

liiiii

whom

s|iorlM

of

llii<

they

(iAi.i.Kiiv
I

I

iim fully

hiiltitr o|i|iiirtiiniti)'N ol' iiui|iiirin^

tli<< Htiili'iiu'iils

6n\ of Mr, Oam.in'h Indian

ri'^aril lo iniiiiy

colluctiun,

niininH nr<i nffixed tnonrtiliciitus h«<lnw,

havi<

Imvo

;

Iniliiin trilifs,

or

|iohh<>.sh

iiiiiki>, ri'M|ic(tlin};

anil

iimy

I

him'ii, iind

iidil

kiiow-

it

Htron^nr

the ciirrKCtniiHH

my own

tn.ttiinony,

wlio.st< likuiKi.SHeii

iirit

in thti

Hkutcl.ud with lidtdily and currt'ctiD'ss.

"('. A. IIAIIRIS, Commis$ioiiir of Iniliiin Ajjiiiri, IVnJiiniflon,"

llieir

e fast travelling

that the travel-

beauty must

iid

tains, or

lie

will

basket of dead
lage

and colours

"

I

Imve Hflon Mr.C^ATi.iN's Collection of 1'ortniit.sof Indinii.s.cnstof (ho Rocky iMoiintainH,
of which wcri< fiiiiiiliur to me, iind pnintod in my |ir(<Henc« and as far bh tliuy havo

miiiiy

:

incliidiMl biditiMS of

my

a('i|uaiiitan(M', tliu Ulieiicssrs

other than that
lli<;iblc

;

my

mass of

readers at

fomiveness for

through the
ns) in search of
ue character of
iig

ht^uriii^r thti

inoHt

Htrikin^ rbsumblaiice to ihu originals, as wet! as faithful rcpre.sentations of thoir costuiiiHS.

" VV.

moral, or for

r

aro i-asily rttco^ni/.cd,

CLARK,

SuperiiUendeut of Indinn

ytj/liir*, .S(.

I.ouin."

" I hnvo examined Mr. Catlin's Collection of the I 'ppfir Missouri Indians to the Hocky
Mountuins, all of which I am acquainted with ; und indeed most of them were ]iaiiite<t wiien
1 was present, and 1 do not hesitate to pronouncu them correct likenesses, and readily to
be recojjnized.
jireientations I

And

I

consider

tlie

costuma, us painted

l»y

him, to ho the only correct re*

have ever seen.

".lOIIN

F. A.

SANFORI),

" U. SS. Indian Agent for Mandunx, liickurces, Minntiireei,
Crows, Knisleneaax, Aasinneboin^, lilachfcet,

6jc."

12
"

Wo

SOPH

liiivo

C.mi.in's I'citriiits of

l\lr.

ol whicli uro faiiiilard) us;

iho

hlaiii'o to

ori(,'iiials,

llio

likoiicssos

us w('ll as a

oust of

liiiliiiiis

iiro

oasily

faitliful roiiri'si'iitalion

of llicii

"

Nove'iher 27(/i,

lii;!7.

Indun

Caii.in's

vidunis sut to

wero

(Jai.i.kuv,

j>aiiiliMl

from

in the costuino.f pri'iiscly i"

liiai

lifo liy

Mr.

" New York, IIW.
"

my

I

haveseon

and

ftlr.

in

]>aintt<d

(ii.o.

Mr.
iridi-

which thoy aro painted,

Cati.in's CoUoctioii of Indian Portraits,

prosonco at

tin-ir

own

viilap;es.

anu)nnst tho trihos and individuals ho

lifo

in

Cmi.in, and that the

aro

I'awnecs,

O imhaws,

iiint

Utoes.

CIAM T."

.1.

my

A)init.

I'awiioo.s,

ll(<|iii)>lican

Missourie.s, wliicli

"J. DOIMJIIKUI'V, l.A.Jor

ino,

co.stiiiiios.

luirohy certify, tlmt the rortrn'ls of tlio (iraiul I'awiioos,

\\\\

icsciii-

(iAM"!'."

.1.

I'awiioo Loiips, 'lappaf^o I'awiiGos, O'.oos, Oinalmws, and

iimiiv

a struii;;

DOl'tillKKTV, Imfkn

".I.
•'

llocky iMoiintainx,

ilio

rccof,'iii/.('il, Itoaiiiij,'

lias

I

many of which wore

familiar to

liavo spout tho ^'^('al(r part

ropresontod, and

1

of

do not hesitate to

also his sketches of their
pronounce them correct likenesses, mid easily recoijjnizod
think, aro excellent
and tho Idiidscai'e iiViiji on tho Missouri and
iiiinitiirs and custi'iiis,
;

I

;

iMississippi, are correct representations.

M'KLNZIK,

" K.

"

We

hereby certify that the Portraits of Semiiiolos and r.ucheos, in Mr. C
iiaiuti'd hy him, from the lite, at Fort Moullrio; that the Indians

M.u\ were
ill

oftLc Am. Fur Co. McuiJ/i o/Yellom Sloiie."

which they

the costumos precisely in

xii.in's (iai.-

sat or stood
aro painted, and that the likenesses are remark-

ahly good.

"

1>.

MOHHISON,

.1. i^.

i'iir(

"

IIA

1

l\J(ii((t»((',

Ilaviuf,'

kh

Cnpt.

llAWA

V,

Inft.

'.M l.ieut

II.

1st Art.

F.

WHARTON, 'M F.ieut. C.ih Inft.
WKKDON, Assistant Surgeon.

Jiin. 'Jo, llioU."

examined

the llocky Mountains,

Air.

Catmn's Collection of Po-Iraits of Indians of tho Missouri

have no hesilalion

to

them, so far as
am aeiinainted
with the individuals, to he the best I have ever seen, both as reifards (lu^ expression of
coiiiitenauce, and the exact and complete uiuimer in which tlie cosluiuo has been painted

1

I

in ])ronouiiciii<;

1

by him.

"J.

"I have been

I..

BEAN,

S.

Agent for

lii,li,iii

Afuirs."

many

years past in familiar acquaintance witli the Indian tribes of
Uocky iMouisains, and also with the landscape and other
scenes represented in Mr. Cati.in's Collection
and it -rives mo f,'reat ideasure to assure
for

the I'pper Missouri to the

;

the world, that on

be recoi^nized

^

ii

;

them over,
found tho likenesses of my old friends
sketches of Manners and Customs to he pourtrayed with

lookiii','

and his

I

easilv to
siii'Milar

truth and correctness.
".I.

"

gives

me

PILCIIEH,

.(_i,'c»t/<ir ('/.;mt

Missouri huliuus."

my name lo the list of those who
expressed their a]ipiobation of jMr. Caii.in's Collection of Indian
I'aintiugo.
His Cidlection of materials jilaco it. in his ]iower to throw much light on tlio
Indian character, and his portraits, so far as 1 have seen them, are dru>vn with gnat
ijdelilv as to character and likeness.
It

great pleasure in being enabled to add

Jiuve spontane<iusly

I

"

II.

SClIOOLCUAt'T,

hiiti^ni A'^tul

Jor Wincousin Tvr nU'ni,

.

13
miiiiy

loiiiitiiiiiM,

losciu-

strorijj;

!i

I'S,

'\

AjU'iit.

liiifidii

,

m

'•

Hnvinf^ lived and dealt with the lUack Feet Indians for five years past,

I

was enabled

the Portraits of those people, luul of the Crows also, which
Mr. Cati.in has in his Collection, from the faithful likuudSHoa they bore to the orit,'imiln.
" St. Louis, ia3.S.
" .1. K. IJKAZKAII."

to recoffnize even) one

>.f

llrtvinp spent sixteen years in the continual acquaintance with the Indians of th<!
several trihes of the Missouri, represented in Mr. Cati.in'* Gallery of Indian Paintings,
1 was enabled to judge of the correctness of the likenesses, and I instnnllif recof^nized
'

PiiwiicM's,

ibliciin

am

liicli

iml

tliiit

in

Mr.

till-

indi-

every one of them,
originals

l(l/l(ll('S, (!»(/

lu'sitate

skclclips of

I

IIONOUE I'lCOTTE."

" The Portraits, in the possession of Mr. Cati.in, of Pawnee Picts, Kiowayb, Cumarches,
Wecos, and Osdges, wore painted by him/r«m life, when on a tour to their ". mtry, with
The likenesses are good, very easily to br recogniied, and
tlie United States Dragoons.
the costumes faithfully represented.

lu

DODGE, Col. of Drag.
MASON, Major of Ditto.
Ditto.
HUNTER, Capt.

" IIKNIIY

tlic'ir

11. II.

Missouri and

llii)

looked them over, from the striking resemblance they bore to the
"

};n'alt'r |iarl ot

Im

I

OlVC!l>

liw<>r(' fiiniiliar to

du not

when

—so also, of the Landscapes on the Missouri.

D.

D.

PERKINS.

M. DUNCAN,
T.

Capt. of Drag.
Ditto.

WIIEELOCK,

U.

Lieut. Drag."

" The Landscapes, Buffalo-Hunting scenes, &c. above-mentioned, 1 have seen, and
it has been thirty years since I travelled over that country ; yet a considerable
number of them I recognized as faithful representations, and the remainder of them are

of Yellow Sloiie."

although

Mr. C\ri.iN'»

(lAi.-

so

or stood

idiaiis sat

much

fi

the peculiar character of that country as to

" The Landscape Views on the Missouri,
l,i('Ut, (>lli

I II

seem

WM. CLARK,

esses aro rriiiark-

ft.

liuffulo

entirely familiar to me.

Superintendent of Indian Affairs."

Hunts, and other scenes,

take.?

by

my

friend JMr. Catlin, are correct delineations of the scenes they profess to represent, as

staiit Sui'Kt'ou.

•\m perfectly

well acijuiiinted with the country, having passed through

it

1

more than a

And further, I know, that they were taken on the spot, from nature, as 1
was present when Mr. Catlin visited that country.
" JOHN F. A. SANFORD, U. SS. Indian AgetU."
dozen times.

Missouri to

th<>

am

I

i((

a<'(|uaiiiti>d

cxprt'ssioii

lias

" It gives me great pleasur j to be able to pronounce the Landscape Views, Views of
Hunting, and other scenes, taken on the Upper Missouri by Mr. Catlin, to be correct

of

(tainted

Iji'i'ii

delineations of the scenery thoy profess to represent
ir

liiiliiin

when they were taken

A[J\nrs."

in the field, I

was

;

and although

I

was not present

able to identify almost every one betweea St.

Louis and the grand bend of the Missouri.
Indian

tribes of

sca|ie

and other

" J. L.
"

leasure to assure

judge them, and do unhesitatingly pronounce them
good and unexaggerated representations.
" JNO. DOUGHERTY, Indian Agent for Pawnees, Omahauis, and Utces."

Iiutidiis."

of those wlio

ection of Indian
iiiiicli linlit,

on the

ilranii

with Liiiat

fcouiiii

Tf n

1 1 ii

Agent of Indian Affairs."

have examined a series of paintings by Mr. Catlin, representing Indian Buffclo
Ufa., and from an aciiuaintance of twenty-seven years with such scent.i

as are represented, 1 feel qualified to

lyed with siii-^ulur

list

S.

Hunts, Landscapes,

friends easilv to

Missouri

I

BEAN,

ni

.v

14

i
'i

LETTER— No.

2.

MOUTH OF YELLOW STONE. UPPER

MISSOURI,

1832.

I ARRIVED at this place yesterday in the steamer " Yellow Stone," after a
voyage of nearly three months from St. Louis, a distance of two thousand
miles, the greater part of which has never before been navigated by si cam ;

and tlie almost insurmountable difficulties which continually opposi' the
voyageur on this turbid stream, have been by degrees overcome by the
indefatigable zeal of Mr. Chouteau, a gentleman of gieat perseverance, and
part proprietor of the boat.
To the politeness of this gentleman I am
indebted for

my

passage from St. Louis to this place, and

I

h\A

also the

pleasure of his company, with that of Major Sanford, the government agent
for the Missouri Indians.

The American Fur Company have

erected here, for their protection against

300 ffcC* square, with bastions armed
(plate 3) and our approach to u under the continued rear of
cannon for half an hour, and the shrill yells of the half-affrighted savages
who lined the shores, presented a sc°ne of the most thrilling and picturesque
appearance.
A voyage so full of incident, and furnishing so uany novel
scenes of the picturesque and romantic, as we have passed the numerous
villages of the " astonished natives," saluting them with the pufSng of
steam and the thunder of artillery, would afford subject for many epi&tles
and I cannot deny myself the pleasure of occasionally giving you some
little sketches of scenes that I have witnessed, and am witnessing
and of
the savages, a very substantial Fort,

with ordnance

;

;

'

'

u

:

the singular feelings that are excited in the breast of the stranger travelling

through

this interesting country.

for this is truly

feasts

Interesting (as

the land of Epicures;

we

I

have

are invited

said)

and luxurious,

by the savages

qf dog's meat, as the most honourable food that can be presented to

a stranger, and glutted with the more delicious food of beavers'
buffaloes' tongues.

You will, no

startled,

when

I tell

you that

I

tails,

and

doubt, be somewhat surprised on the receipt

of a Letter from me, so far strayed into the Western

my

to

am

here in the

full

World

;

and

still

more

enthusiasm and practice of

me into this remote region, 3500
2000 of which have furnished me with
almost unlimited models, both in landscape and the human figure, exactly
suited to my feelings.
I am now in the full possession and enjoyments of
art.

That enthusiasm alone has brought

miles from

u

\-:

my

native soil; the last

>Si

;

1833.

Stone," after a

two thousand
itedby sicam;
the

oppoti'

lly

ercome by the

and

•severance,

jntleman
I

>ad

I

am

also the

y^y

rernment agent
jtection against

armed

bastions

;i

ontinued rear of
righted savages

ind picturesque

uany

so

novel

the numerous
the puffing of

many

epis-tles

you some
and of
messing

iving

;

nger travelling

and luxuriom,
the savages to

presented to

le

Lvers' tails,

and

on the receipt
and still more

id

and practice of
region, 3500

ite

lished
figuT-e,

me with
exactly

enjoyments of

'jrtiiilihfaxs

1;

those conditions, on which alone
fession

;

and

in anticipation of

I

was induced

to pursue the art as a pro-

my

admiration for the art could

which alone,

ever have been kindled into a pure flame.

I

mean

the free use of nature's

If I am here
undisguised models, with the privilege of selecting for myself.
losing the benefit of the fleeting fashions of the day, and neglecting that

elegant polish, which the world say an artist should draw from a continual
intercourse with the polite world ; yet have I this consolation, that in this

country,

I

am

entirely divested of those

dangerous steps and allurements

and have little to steal my thoughts
away from the contemplation of the beautiful models that are about me.
If, also, I have not here the benefit of that feeling of emulation, which is
yet am
the life and spur to the arts, where artists ?,re associates togethej
I surrounded by living models of such elegance and beauty, that i feel an

which beset an

artist in

fashionable

life

;

:



the certainty that I am
unceasing excitement of a much higher order
drawing knowledge from the true source. My enthusiastic admiration of
man in the honest and elegant simplicity of nature, has always fed the
warmest feelings of my bosom, and shut half the avenues to my heart against

the specious refinements of the accomplished world.

with the desire to study

my

art,

This feeling, together

independently of the embarrassments which

the ridiculous fashions of civilized society have thrown in

me

way, has led

its

to the wilderness for a while, as the true school of the art?

I

have

for

a long time been of opinion, that the wilderness of our

country afforded models equal to those from which the Grecian sculptors

and beauty and I am now
more confirmed in this opinion, since 1 have immersed myself in the midst of
thousands and tens of thousands of these knights of the forest whose whole
lives are lives of chivalry, and whose daily feats, with their naked limbs,

transferred to the marble such inimitable grace

;

;

might

vie

with those of the Grecian youths in the beautiful rivalry of the

Olympian games.

No

all the aids of description that can be given
can ever picture the beauty and wildness of scenes that may be daily
witnessed in this romantic country ; of hundreds of these graceful youths,

to

man's imagination, with

it,

without a care to wrinkle, or a fear to disturb the

and enjoyment that beams upon
with their horses'

tails,

their faces



full

expression of pleasure

their long black hair

mingling

floating in the wind, while they are flying over the

carpeted prairie.and dealing death with their spears and arrows to a band of

inmriated buffaloes

or their splendid procession in a war parade, arrayed in
gorgeous colours and trappings, moving with most exquisite grace
and manly beauty, added to that bold defiance which man carries on his front,
who acknowledges no superior on earth, and who is amenable to no laws
except the laws of God and honour.
;

all their

In addition to the knowledge of

hope

to acquire

in view,

which,

by
if it

this

human

nature and of

toilsome and expensive undertaking,

my
I

art,

which

I

have another

should not be of ecjual service to me, will be of no less

/



I

16
interest

and value

to

posterity.

the noble races of red

and boundless

prairies,

1

iiave, for

many

years past, contemplated

men, who are now spread over these trackless forests
melting away at the approach of civilization. Their

rights invaded, their morals corrupted, their lands wrested from them, their

customs changed, and therefore lost to the world; ai.d they at last runk
into the earth, and the ])l()u.ihsharo turning the sod over their graves,
and I have flown to thtir rescue not of their lives or of their race (for they



are "

doomed" and must

perish), but to the rescue of their looks

and

their

which the acquisitive world may hurl their poison and every
besom of destruction, and trample them down and crush them to death ;
yet, phoenix-like, they may rise from the " stain on a painter's palette," and
modes,

at

again upon canvass, and stand forth for centuries yet to come, the

live

monuments of a noble

living

For

race.

this purpose,

every tribe of Indians on the Continent,

visit

if

my

life

I

have designed to

should be spared

;

for

the purpose of procuring portraits of distinguished Indians, of both sexes in

each

tribe,

painted in their native costume

their villages, domestic habits,

;

accompanied with pictures of

games, mysteries, religious ceremonies, &c.

with anecdotes, traditions, and history of their respective nations.
If

I

should live to accomplish

my

doubtless be interesting to future ages

design, the result of
;

who

will

have

my

little

labours will

else left

from

judge of the original inhabitants of this noble race of beings, who
require but a few years more of the march of civilization and death, to deprive
them of all their native customs and character. I have been kindly supplied

which

if

to

by the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and the Secretary of War, with
letters to the commander of every military post, and every Indian agent on
the Western Frontier, with instructions to render

power, which will be of great service to

The opportunity
beings
fair

K

in

afforded

me by

me

i
:

ijiil

all

the facilities in their

arduous an undertaking.

familiarity with so

many

tribes of

human

the simplicity of nature, devoid of the deformities of art, of drawing

conclusions in the interesting sciences of physiognomy and phrenology,

of their manners and customs,

rites,

ceremonies, &c.; and the opportunity

of examining the geology and mineralogy of

If

me

in so

plored country, will enable

me

tliis

western, and yet unex-

occasionally to entertain you with

and interesting information, which I shall take equal pleasure
cating by an occasional Letter in my clumsy way.

in

much new
communi-

17
contcmpliitcd
•acklcss forests

zation.

Tlieir

im them, their
y at last runk
their graves,
:

race (for they

LETTER— No.

ooks and their

and every

son

lem to death

;

and

palette,"

i

designed to

be spared

for

;

both sexes in

f

pictures of

ith

eremonies, &c.
ans.

my

labours will

else left

from

beings,

who

)f

MOUTH OF YELLOW STONE.

come, the

to
re

Since the date of my former Letter, I have been so much engaged in the
amusements of the country, and the use of my biush, that I have scarcely
been able to drop you a line until the present moment.
Before I let you into the amusements and customs of this delightful
country, however (and which, as yet, are secrets to most of the world), I
must hastily travel with you over the tedious journey of 2000 miles, from St.
Louis to this place over which distance one is obliged to pass, before he
;

can reach

Kindly supplied

of War, with

idian agent on
cilities in their
n

undertaking.

ibes of
art,

human

of drawing

id

phrenology,

le

opportunity

ind yet unex^ith

much new

in

communi-

!

and lovely spot.

this wild

The Missouri

is,

iath, to deprive

'

3.

perhaps, different in appearance and character from

other rivers in the world

the

moment we

mouth of

its

Missouri,

with

and

for a canoe.

water

there

its

is

a terror in

muddy

its

manner which

is

is

all

sensibly

felt,

From

the

waters from the Mississippi.

the Yellow Stone River, which

writing, to

current;

enter

;

the place from whence

I

am now

junction with the Mississippi, a distance of 2,000 miles, the
its

in the

boiling,

ti".l-;d

waters, sweeps

whole distance there

Owing

is

off,

in

one unceasing

scarcely an eddy or resting-place

to the continual falling in of its rich alluvial banks, its

always turbid and opaque ; having, at all seasons of the year, the
colour of a cup of chocolate ov coffee, with sugar and cream stirred into it.
is

To

give a better definition of its density and opacity, I have tried a number
of simple experiments with it at this place, and at other points below, at the
results of which I was exceedingly surprised.
By placing a piece of silver
(and afterwards a piece of shell, which is a much whiter substance) in a

tumbler of this wat'^r, and looking through the side of the glass, I ascertained that those substances could not be seen through the eighth part of an
inch

this, however, is in the spring of the year, when the freshet is upon
;
the river, rendering the water, undoubtedly, much more turbid than it would
be at othei seasons ; though it is always muddy and yellow, and from its
boiling and wild character and uncommon colour, a stranger would
think

even

in its lowest state, that there was a freshet upon it.
For the distance of 1,000 miles above St. Louis, the shores of this river
(and, in many places, the whole bed of the stream) are filled with
snags and
raft, formed of trees of the largest size,
which have been undermined by the

VOL.

I.

-

]

18
falling

banks and cast into the stream

bottom of the
pointing

down

;

their roots Ijecoming fastened in tlie

with their tops floating on the surface of the water, and
the stream, forming the most frightful and discouraging

river,

(See plate 4.)
Almost every island and sand-bar is covered with huge piles of these
floating trees, mid when the river is flooded, its surface is almost literally
covered with floating raft and drift wood which bids positive defiance to
keel-boats and steamers, on their way up the river.
With what propriety this " Hell of waters" might be denominated the
" River Styx," I will not undertake to decide but nothing could be more

prospect for the adventurous voyageur.

;

;

appropriate or innocent than to call

the River

of Sticks.
The scene is not, however, all so dreary; there is a redeeming beauty in
the green and carpeted shores, which hem in this huge and terrible deformity
of waters. There is much of the way though, where the mighty forests of
stately cotton wood stand, and frown in horrid dark and coolness over the
fdthy abyss below into which they are ready to plunge headlong, when the
njud and soil in which they were germed and reared has been washed out
from underneath them, and is with the rolling current mixed, and on its way
it

;

to the ocean.

The greater part of the shores of this river, however, are without timber,
where the eye is delightfully relieved by wandering over the beautiful prairies ;
most of the way gracefully sloping down to the water's edge, carpeted with
the deepest green, and, in distance, softening into velvet of the richest hues,

if
i!

entirely beyond the reach of the artist's pencil.
Such is the character of the
upper part of the river especially ; and as one advances towards its source,
and through its upper half, it becomes more pleasing to the eye, for snags
and raft are no longer to be seen ; yet the current holds its stiff and onward,

turbid character.
It
iiifv

has been, heretofore, very erroneously reoresented to the world, that the

scenery on this river was monotonous, and wanting

in

picturesque beauty.

and that because it has been brought
perhaps, by men who are not the best judges in the world of Nature's
beautiful works
and if they were, they always pass them by, in pain or
desperate distress, in toil and trembling fear for the safety of their furs and
This intelligence

surely incorrect,

is

;

i

iiP

peltries, or for their lives,

which are at the mercy of the yelling savages who

inhabit this delightful country.

One thousand

miles or more, of the upper part of the river, was, to

eye, like fairy-land

;

and during our

my

transit through that part of our voyage,

was most of the time rivetted to the deck of the boat, indulging my eyes
and tireless pleasure of roaming over the thousand hills,
and bluffs, and dales, and ravines where the astonished herds of buffaloes,
of elks, and antelopes, and sneaking wolves, and mountain-goats, were to be
seen bounding up and down and over the green fields each one and each
tribe, band, and gang, taking their own way, and using their own means to
I

in the boundless

;

;

m
\i:

-I

and

look
It

;

;

10
fastened in

i<r

tlie

the greatest advantage possible, to leave the sight

of the water, and
;nd discouraging

of our boat; which was, for the

gc piles of these

one continued prairie
along the bank of the

of the Missouri with the din of mighty steam.

From
almost

s

literally

defiance to

siiive

The summit

in

Jias

coolness over the

when the

been washed out
ed, and on its way

been lodged and

left

Amongst

before

which

down

its

shores in

and colours imaginable

all

— some

the most picturesque

with their green sides

in the

eyes

may be

figures, of the

and behind

seen tens and hundreds of thousands of
sublime and the picturesque; in many places
is

one continued appearance,

us, of

of these clay-built ruins;

hills,



shedding a glory over the solitude of this wild
realize unless he travels here and

and pictured country, which no one can
looks upon it.

lerds of butFaloes,

to

and

by the thousand crystals of gypsum
which are imbedded in the clay of which they are formed (plate 6). Over and
through these groups of domes and battlements (as one is compelled to imagine them), the sun sends his long and gilding rays, at morn or in
the evening
giving life and light, by aid of shadows car* to the different glowing
colours

my

goats, were to be
ach one and each

these groups

as the sun's rays are refracted back

who

of our voyage,

heir

either side; through



of their furs and

own means

meadows on



world of Nature's
sm by, in pain or

my

debris

some ancient and boundless city in ruins ramparts,
terraces, domes, towers, citadels and castles may be seen,
cupolas, and magnificent porticoes, and here and there a solitary column and crumbling
pedestal, and even spires of clay which stand alone
and glistening in distance,

has been brought

he thousand

its

deposits have

with a horizontal surface, spreading the deepest and

for miles together, as the boat glides along, there

icturesque beauty.

indulging

its

serpentine course, alternately running from one bluff to

beautiful shapes

different forms

the world, that the

was, to

its

immense space, and sent

carrying them into the river.

and onward,

river,

this

continual overflowing of the river,

These strange and picturesque appearances have been produced by the
and frosts, which are continually changing the dimensions, and varying
the thousand shapes of these denuded hills, by washing down their sides and

eye, for snags

)art

west and the

rains

source,

elling savages

which

most lovely groups to the wnter'sedge (plate 5);
immense masses
of clay of different colours, which arrest the eye of tlie traveller, with the
most curious views in the world.

character of the

still'

and gorges,

By the

gracefully slope

dge, carpeted with
the richest hues,

J

it,

whilst others, divested of their verdure, present themselves in

[f

ie

floods

the other; which present themselves to

without timber,

its

and the streams which are falling into
growth of forest timber.

level of the great prairies stretching off to the

its

the river winds

beautiful prairies

owards

is

river, to

into the ocean.

and

le

river,

richest alluvion over the surface of its

s

,re

miles,

with the exception of a few of the bottoms formed

been evidently produced by the force of the current, which has gradually

excavated, in

forests of

mighty

2600

the falls of the Missouri, a distance of
;

an almost boundless extent, is from two to three hundred feet above the level of tne river; which has formed a bed or valley for its
This ch -.nel or valley
course, varying in width from two to twenty miles.

from the

east

terrible deformity

eadlong,

I

St. Louis to

are often covered with the most luxuriant

denominated the
iig could be more
leeming beauty

and sound of the puffing
and wild shores

time, saluting the grecu

first

-,#

It

is

amidst these wild and quiet haunts that the mountain-sheep, and the
viitclope sport and live in herds, secure from their enemies,

boundi

c 2

;

I

•20

fo wliom the sides nnd slopes of
bound) are nearly inuceessible.

H

llicso blufTs

(arnimd

wliii-h tlicy fearlessly

The {jrizzly bear also lias eliosen these places for iiis abode he sullcidy
sneaks through the (jnlphs and chasms, and ravines, and frowns away the
;

if

and antelope are boundinf:; over
hami of man and beast.
Such is a hasty sketch of the river scenes and scenery for 2,0()0 miles,
over which we tui^iicd, and puffefl, and blowed, and toiled for three months,
before we reached this place.
Since we arrived here, the steamer has returned, and left me hero to explore the country and visit the tribes in this
vicinity, and then descend the river from this place to St. Louis; which
'lour, if 1 live through it, will furnish material for many a story and curious
incident, which 1 may t?ive you in detail in future epistles, and when I have
more leisure than I have at the present moment. I will then undertake to
tell how we astonished the natives, in many an instance, which I can in
this Letter but just hint at and say at'ieu.
If anything did ever literally and

linkin;^ Indian

whilst the inountain-sheep

;

and around the

tops, safe and. free from

hill

completely " astonish (and astound) the native. ," it was the appearance of
our steamer, puffing and blowing, and paddling and rushing by their villages
which were on the banks of the river.

These poor and ignorant people,

'/

2,000 miles, had never

for the distance of

before seen or heard of a steam-boat, and in some places they seemed at a

know what to do, or how to act they could not, as the Dutch did at
Newburgh, on the Hudson River, take it to be a floating saw-mill and they
liad no name for it
so it was, like every thing else (with them), which is
mysterious and unaccountable, called medicine (mystery).
We had on board
one twelve-pound cannon and three or four eight-pound swivels, which we
were taking up to arm the Fur Company's Fort at the mouth of Yellow Stone
and at the approach to every village they vere all discharged several times
loss to

;





in rapid succession,

which threw the inhabitants

amazement— some of them threw
Great

Spirit

— some shot

their faces to the

their horses

ground, and cried to the

and dogs, and sacrificed them to appease

whom

they conceived was offended

and ran

to the

tops of the bluffs

some

places, as the boat landed

in

confusion and

into utter

the Great Spirit,
villages,

some miles

—some deserted

distant;

front of their villages,

and

their

others, in

came with

great

and peeped over the bank, of the river to see the fate of their chiefs
whose duty it was (from the nature of their office) to approach us, whether
friends or foes, and to go on board. Sometimes, in this plight, they were instantly thrown neck and heels over each other's heads and shoulders
men,
women and cnildren, and dogs — sage, sachem, old and young all in a mass,
at the frightful discharge of the steam from the escape-pipe, which the captain of the boat let loose upon them for his own fun and amusement.
There were many curious conjectures amongst their wise men, with regard
to the nature and powers of the steam-boat.
Amongst the Mandans, sonie
caution,

;





called

1

it

the

*'

big thunder canoe ;" for,

when

'Ml

in distance

below the

village,

./>;

,

tlicy fearlessly

h

(Ic

he sullenly

;

frowns away

tlie

J

bounding over

[1

beast.

2,000 miles,

for

or three months,

steamer has retribes in this

he

which
and curious

Louis;

t.

jtory

when

ind

have

I

then undertake to
J,

which

I

can

in

ever literally and
of
lie appearance
r

by

~*<i

\

^

'

^^-/-^c

<^'

XV:

their villages

N-lrV''.

\'

f

had never
they seemed at a
the Dutch did at
and they
iw-mill
them), which is
We had on board
swivels, which we
miles,



of Yellow Stone;
ired

several times

confusion and

;er

and cried to the
d them to appease

me

deserted their

nt

and

;

others, in

came with

great

ate or their chiefs

;

iroach us, whether
ght, they

were inmen,

d shoulders



ng— allin

a mass,

pe,

which the cap-

nusement.

men, with regard
he Mandans, son.e
below the

c

,

,^ c^

"7^

-or-

village,
t)

-:;:^-

II

M

91
tlipy
it

;

saw tho

lii;litnini; fli»sh

called

otiitis

it

''

tlio

from

hit;

its

sides, ancl

iiKMiiciiio

(mystery) hocause thoy coiihl not understand
said they,

|>

"

it

sees

its

own way, and

heard

it;

and

fhimdor come

llu*

canoe with eyes
it

;"

fioiii

was mcdUine
must have eyes, fur
it

takes the deep water in the middle of tho

i'liannel."

They had no idea of the hoat hciii'^ stceri-d by \\w man at the wheel,
and well they m i;ht have been astonished at its takiui; the (hiepest water.
I may (if I do not forget it) hereafter give you an account of some other
cinious incidents of this kind, which we met with in this voyage for we met
;

niany, and some of them were really laughable.
Tlie Fort in

now

occupies

it

which
;

and

I

am now

it is

residing

was

built

by Mr. M'Kcnzie, who

the largest and best-built establishment of the kind

river, being the great or principal head-(|uarters and depot of the
Fur Company's business in this region,
A vast stock of goods is kept on
hand at this place; and at certain times of the year the numerous out-posts
concentrate here with the returns of their season's trade, and refit out with

on the

a fresh supply of goods to trade with the Indians.

The site for the Fort is well selected, being a beautiful prairie on the bank
near the junction of the Missouri with the Yellow Stone rivers; and its inmates and

its stores well protected from Indian assaults.
Mr. M'Kcnzie is a kind-hearted and I.igh-minded Scotchman: and seems
to have charge of all the I'ur Companies' business in this region, and from
I
Jthis to the Rocky Mountains.
He lives in good and comfortable stylo,
(inside of the Fort, which contains some eight or ten log-houses and stores,
'and Kas generally forty or fifty men, and one hundred and fifty horses

,^
:,

about him.

He

has, with the

same

Pierre Chouteau treated

welcome

spirit

of liberality and politeness with which Mons.

me on my

passage up the river, pronounced

me

which groans under the luxuries of the country ; with
buffalo meat and tongues, with beavers' tails and marrow-fat; but sans coft'ee,
tans bread and butter. Good cheer and good living wc get at it however,
and good wine also; for a bottle of Madeira and one of excellent Port are
at his table,

set in a pail of ice every day,

and exhausted at dinner.
At the hospitable board of this gentleman I found also another, who
forms a happy companion for mine host ; and whose intellectual and
polished society has added not a little to my pleasure and amusement since
I arrived here.

The gentleman of whom I am speaking is an Englishman, by the name of
Hamilton, of the most pleasing and entertaining conversation, whose mind
seems to be a complete store-house of ancient and modern literature and art;
free and familiar acquaintance with the manners and men of his
country ^ve him the stamp of a gentleman
who has had the curiosity to

and whose

;

bring the embellishments of the enlightened world, to contrast with the rude
and the wild of these remote regions.

22

We three bons oivants form the group about the dinner-table, of which I
have before spoken, and crack our jokes and fun over the bottles of Port
and Madeira, which 1 have named and a considerable part of which, this
gentleman has brought with great and precious care from his own country.
;

This post

is

these regions,

the general rendezvous of a great

who

number of Indian

trade; sometimes coming, the whole tribe together, in a mass.

now here, and encamped about
at

work w'*h

my

tribes in

are continually concentrating here for the purpose of

brush

;

the Fort, a great many, and

we have now around us

I

am

There are
continually

the Knisteneaux, Crows,

Assinneboins and Blackfeet, and in a few days are to have large accessions.

The
before
tries:,

finest
I

;

tribes

own

I shall

make

excursions into their respective coun-

and there study their looks and peculiar
enabling me to drop you now and then an interesting Letter.
which I shall be enabled to see and study by my visit to this

to their

customs

The

specimen of Indians on the Continent are in these regions; and

leave these parts,

native fire-sides;

region, are the Ojibbeways, the Assinneboins, Knisteneaux, Blackfeet, Crows,

Shiennes, Grosventres, Mandans, and others

;

ther

^-M

•^1

^>

!/

i

and minute accounts.

whom and their customs,
due season, give you fur-

of

their history, traditions, costumes, &c., I shall in

2:3

-table, of

»art

I

of which, this

his

1

which

bottles of Port

le

)f

own

country.

Indian tribes in

or the purpose of

mass.

There are

am

continually

d

I

LETTER— No.

4.

listeneaux. Crows,

have large acceshese regions;
ir respective

MOUTH OF YELLOW STONE.

and

The several

coun-

looks and peculiar

4

and of whom

tribes of Indians inhabiting the regions of the
I

spoke

in

my

last Letter, are

Upper Missouri;

undoubtedly the

finest looking,

equipped, and most beautifully costumed of any on the Continent.
I'Thcy live ia a country well-stocked with buffaloes and wild liorses, which
is pure, which
I furnisli them an excellent and easy living ; their atmosphere
llbest

interesting Letter.
)y
,

my

visit to this

Blackfeet, Crows,

J*

md

their customs,

ion,

give you fur-

and they are the most independent and
have met with : they are all entirely in a

produces good health and long

life;

the happiest races of Indians

I

state of primitive rudeness and wildness, and consequently are picturesque
and handsome, almost beyond description. Nothing in the world, of its
kind, can possibly surpass in beauty and grace, some of their games and
amusements their gambols and parades, of which I shall speak and paint

'



\.

hereafter.

As far as my travels have yet led me into the Indian country, I have
more than realized my former predictions; that those Indians who could be
found most entirely in a state of nature, with the least knowledge of civilized
society, would be found to be the most cleanly in their persons, elegant in
,itheir dress and manners, and enjoying life to the greatest perfection.
Of
Buch tribes, perhaps the Crows and Blackfeet stand first; and no one would
he able to appreciate the richness and elegance (and even taste too), with
which some of these people dress, without seeing them in their own country.
1 will do uU I can, however, to make their looks as well as customs known
to the world; I will paint with my brush and scribble with my pen, and
bring tlicir plumes and plumage, dresses, weapons, &c., and every thing but
the Indian himself, to prove to the world the assertions which I have made
above.

Every one of these red sons of the
knight and a lord



Iiis

squaws are

forest (or rather of the prairie)

his slaves

;

is

a

the only things which he

deems worthy of his exertions are to mount his snorting steed, with his bow
and quiver slung, his arrow-shield upon his arm, and his long lance glistening
in the war parade; or, divested of all his plumes and trappings, arme(
vith
a simple

bow and

buffaloes,

deep to

and with

life's

quiver, to plunge his steed
his

amongst the

sinewy bow, which he seldom bends

fountain the whizzing arrow.

flying herds of

in vain, to drive

24
in ahnost countless numbers on these
them an abundance of meat and so much is it
preferred to all other, that the deer, l^e elk, and the antelope sport upon
the prairies in herds in the greatest security
as the Indians seldom kill
them, unless they want their skins for a dress. The buffalo (or more correctly
speaking bison) is a noble animal, that roams over the vast prairies, from
the borders of Mexico on the south, to Hudson's Bay on the north.
Their
size is somewhat above that of our common bullock, and their flesh of a
delicious flavour, resembling and equalling that of fat beef.
Their flesh,

The

bufTalo

liertls,

which graze

beautiful prairies, afford

;

;

1

1:;

Avhich

easily procured, furnishes the

is

savages of these vast regions the

means of a wholesome and good subsistence, and they live almost exclusively
upon it converting the skins, horns, hoofs and bones, to the construction
of dresses, shields, bows, &c. The buffalo bull is one of the most formidable
and frightful looking animals in the world when excited to resistance his
long shaggy mane hangs in great profusion over his neck and shoulders,
and often extends quite down to the ground (plate 7). The cow is less



;

in

stature,

and

less ferocious

;

though not much

and fnghtful

less wild

in

her appearance (plate 8).

The mode

I

this noble animal is spirited and thrilmust in a future epistle, give you a minute account
of it. I have almost daily accompanied parties of Indians to see the fun, and
have often shared in it myself; but much oftener ran my horse by their sides,
to see how the thing was done
to study the modes and expressions of these
splendid scenes, which I am industriously putting upon the canvass.
They are all (or nearly so) killed with arrows and the lance, while at full
speed and the reader may easily imagine, that these scenes afford the most
spirited and picturesque views of the sporting kind that can possibly be
in

which these Indians kill

ling in the extreme

h

;

and

I



;

seen.

At

present, I will give a

with Mr, M'Kenzie and a

little

sketch of a bit of fun

number of

his

I

joined in yesterday,

men, without the company or

aid

of Indians.
I mentioned the other day, that M'Kenzie's table from day to day groans
under the weight of buffalo tongues and beavers' tails, and other luxuries of
his western land. He has within his Fort a spacious ice-house, in which he

preserves his

when

meat

fresh for

his larder runs low,

any length of time required and sometimes,
starts out, rallying some five or six of his

best hunters (not to hunt, but to

mounted on

;

he

"go

for meat").

He

his favourite buffalo horse {i.e. the horse

leads the party,

amongst

his whole

group which is best trained to run the buffalo), trailing a light and short
gun in his hand, such an one as he can most easily reload whilst his horse
is

at full speed.

Such was the condition of the ice-house yesterday morning, which caused
these self-catering gentlemen to cast their eyes with a wishful look over the
prairies

;

and such was the plight

in

which our host took the lead, and

I,

^

numbers on
and so

these

much

is

it

upon
ndians seldom kill
(or more correctly

ritelope sport

>

vast prairies, from

he

north.

Their

.nd their flesh of

Their

beef.

vast regions the

le
!

a

flesh,

almost 'exclusively
to the construction

most formidable

the

to resistance

[

;

his

eck and shoulders,

The cow is less
d and frightful in

).

spirited

is

)u

and

thril-

a minute account

s to see

the fun, and

horse by their sides,
fexpressions of these
;he canvass.

ance, while at

full

nes afford the most

can possibly be

lat

oined in yesterday,
le

1

company

or aid

day to day groans
d other luxuries of
which he
and sometimes,

louse, in
;

five or six

of his

e leads the party,

amongst

his whole

a light and short
>ad whilst his horse

ling,

A:
^^y

,

which caused

ihful look over the
>k

the lead, and

I,
--"••••"

"

^
8
.iryfrsAC:.

i

'$

i;,i:

25
and then Mons. Chaudon, and Batiste, Defonde and Tullock (wlio is a
amongst tlie Crows, and is here at this time, with a large party of
that tribe), and there were several others whose names I do not know.
\s we were mounted and ready to start, M'Kenzie called up some four
or five of his men, and told them to start immediately on our trail, with as
many one-horse carts; which they were to harness up, to bring home the
[meat " ferry them across the river in the scow," said he, " and following our
trail through the bottom, you will find us on the plain yonder, between the
Yellow Stone and the Missouri rivers, with meat enough to load you home.
trader

,

;

.

My watch on yonder bluff has just told us by his signals, that there are cattle
aplenty on that spot, id we are going there as fast as possible." We all
crossed the river, and galloped away a couple of miles or so, whe.i we
mounted the bluff; and to be sure, as was said, there was in full view of us
;

herd of some four or five hundred buffaloes, perfectly at

•a fine

Jtheir

own

;|others

rest,

and in
and

grazing,

were lying down and sleeping; we advanced within a mile or so of

view, and came to a halt. Mons. Chardon " tossed the feather"
custom always observed, to try the course of the wind), and we commenced

Ithem
^(a

Some were

estimation (probably) perfectly secure.

in full

stripping " as

termed (i. e. every man strips himself and his horse of
and unnecessary appendage of dress, &c. that might be an
iincumbrance in running): hats are laid off, and coats and bullet pouches;
Jsleeves are rolled up, a handkerchief tied lightly around the head, and

,',i**

it is

/,|every extraneous





cartridges are prepared and placed in the waist|coat pocket, or a half dozen bullets " throwed into the mouth," &c., &c.,

Janother around the waist

%11 of which takes up some ten or fifteen minutes, and
|lr in effect,

lehase,
iire

Our leader lays

unlike a council of war.

and preliminaries

mount and

all fixed,

start for the onset.

is

not, in appearance

the whole plan of the

guns charged and ramrods

The

horses are

all

in

our hands,

trained for this busi-

much enthusiasm, and with as restless
While "stripping" and mounting, they
exhibit the most restless impatience
and when " approaching" (which is,
all of us abreast, upon a slow walk, and in a straight line towards the herd,
lintil they discover us and run), they all seem to have caught entirely the
ifjpint of the chase, for the laziest nag amongst them prances with an elastifity in his step
champing his bit— his ears erect his eyes strained out of
ibis head, and fixed upon the game before him, whilst he trembles under the
J|€ss,
i|

and seem

to enter into

spirit as their riders

it

with as

themselves.



;





Ajaddle of his

way we carefully and silently marched, until
when the herd discovering us, wheeled and
lid their course in a mass.
At this instant we started (and all must start,
jfor no one could check the fury of those steeds at that moment of excite(lent,) and away all sailed, and over the prairie flew, in a cloud of dust which
ms raised by their trampling hoofs. M'Kenzie was foremost in the throng
?ithin

some

rider.

In this

forty or fifty rods

;

!

|nd soo!i dashed off amidst the dust and was out of sight— he was after the
litest and the fastest.
1 had discovered a huge bull whose shoulders

;

2»)

towered above the whole band, and
get alongside of him.

head and horns.

my

,:

i!'

ii

went not

picked

I

my way

" meat," but

for

through the crowd

for a trophy

I

;

wanted

to
his

dashed along through the thrnderingmass, as they swept

I

tell whether I was on a buffalo's back or
aod hooked, and jostled about, till at length I found myself
alongside of my gaine, whta I gave him a shot, as I passed him.
I saw
guns flash in several directions about me, but I heard them not. Amidsi the
trampling throng, Mons. Chardon had wounded a stately bull, and at this
moment was passing him again with his piece levelled for another shot
they were both at full speed and I also, within the reach of the muzzle of my
gun, when the bull instantly turned and receiving the horse upon I.is horns,
and the ground received poor Chardon, who made a frog's leap of some
twenty feet or more over the bull's back (plate 9), and almost under my
horse's heels.
I wheeled my horse as soon as possible and rode back, where
lay poor Chardon, gasping to start his breath again and within a few paces of
him his huge victim, with his heels high in the air, and the horse lying across
him. I disMounted instantly, but Chardon was raising himself on his hands,
with his eyes and mouth full of dirt, and feeling for his gun, which lay about
thirty feet in advance of him. " Heaven spare you are you hurt, Chardon ?"

away over

•'

I

horse

the plain, scarcely able to



hit,

;

!

"

hi



hie

hie

no

hie-

no,

no,

Oh! this is not much, Mons.
a damned hard piece of ground

believe not-

eyes,

this is

this is

!"

arose, picked

and

the dirt

up

this

his gun, took

he, with a hie

his horse

in a few moments
which then opened its
sprang upon his feet shook off

by the



turned

my

bit;

and a ngh ugiik
ail upon our legs again, save the
!

— and here we were,

had been more sad than that of
I

I


nothing new— but
— hie —oh, hie At the poor fellow fainted, but

Cataline
here

hie

hie

hie



bull,

whose

fule

either.

eyes in the direction where the herd had gone, and our com-

panion.. \u pursuit,

and nothing could be seen of them, nor indication, except
At a little distance on the
left behind them.

the cloud of dust which they

right, however, I beheld my huge victim endeavouring to make as much
head-way as he possibly could, from this dangerous ground, upon three legs.
I galloped off to him, and at my approach he wheeled around
and bristled
up for battle; he oeemed to know perfectly well that he could not escape from
me, and resolved to meet his enemy and death as bravely as possible.
I found that my shot had entered him a little too far forward, break'ng one
of his shoulders, and lodging in his breast, and from his very great weiulit
it was impossible for him to make
much advance upon me. As I rodej
up within a few paces of him, he would bristle up with fury enough in
his looks alone, almost to annihilate me
(plate 10) and making one lunge
at me, would fall upon his neck and nose, so that I found the sagacity of
my horse alone enough to keep me out of reach of danger and I drew
from my pocket my sketch-book, laid my gun across my lap, and commenced



i

i
I

;

;

taking

his

likeness.

He

stood

stiffened

up,

and swelling with

awful

-v^

';!

irough the crowd
tropliy

;

wanted

1

to

his

mass, as they swept

;

n a buffalo's back or
iigth I found mysoll'
I saw
passed him.

em

not.

>ly

bull,

of the muzzle of

upon

lorse

md

md

my

Lis horns,

some

frog's leap of

I

.

the
this

another shot;

for

1

Amidsi
and at

almost under my
rode back, where

within a few paces

^«|jj.^^^

of

the horse lying across
himself on his hands,

gun, which lay about
?"

you hurt, Chardon

no,
is

is not much, Mons.
ard piece of ground

but in a few moments
hich then opened

its

3n his feet— shook

off

re

the bull, whose

fate

d gone, and our comTior indication, except
ittle

distance on

tliu

make as much
und, upon three legs.

ng

to

around

— and

bristled

could not escape from
as possible,
forward, break "ng one
jly

his very great weight

upon me.

As

I rode

with fury enough

in

and making one lunge
found the sagacity

of

and I drew
and commenced

danger

:

y lap,
swelling with awful

10
Myi~:iC'.;c..

n


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