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HANDBOOK OF MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUE FOR VACUUM .pdf



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AMERICAN VACUUM SOCIETY
CLASSICS

HANDBOOK
OF MATERIALS
AND TECHNIQUES
FOR VACUUM
DEVICES
Walter H. Kohl

AIP
American Institute of Physics

New York

CONTENTS

Preface

v

1.

1

Glass
The nature of glass—The composition of glass—Gas permeation through glass—The mechanical strength of glass—Chemical strengthening of glass—The annealing of glass—Stress analysis— Volume conductivity—Electrolysis in glass—Surface conductivity—Dielectric properties
—Glass in radiation fields—Special Processes and Applications: Manipulation—Cutting and
polishing of small holes—Thin glass windows—Glass sheet and films—Glass shrinking—
Cleaning of glass—Particulate contamination—Outgassing—Powdered glass—Solder glass

2.

Ceramics

61

Raw materials and body compositions (conventional electrical porcelain, low-loss steatite,
forsterite, mullite, wollastonite, cordierite, zircon porcelain, alumina, sapphire-ruby, beryllia,
magnesia, thoria, titania, urania, zirconia)—Space-age refractories (boron, nitride, glass ceramics)— Compatibility of ceramics with liquids, solids and gases—Permeation of gases—General techniques (fabrication, die construction and design considerations, glazing)—Precision
ceramics

3.

Mica

118

Mineralogy—Mining and preparation—Chemical and physical properties (thermal conductivity,
thermal expansion, electrical resistivity, dielectric properties, the release of gas)—General techniques (fabrication, splitting, sorting, casting, mounting, electrophoretic deposition)—Synthetic mica— Glass-bonded mica and ceramoplastics—Reconstituted mica—Mica paper or mica
mat, vs. built-up flake mica

4.

Carbon and Graphite

137

Manufacturing processes (carbon black, industrial carbon, electrographite, pyrolytic graphite,
recrystallized, high-density graphite, glassy carbon, cellulose carbon, fibrous carbon)—Physical
and chemical properties—Compatibility with other materials—Special Processes and Applications: Graphite anodes—Outgassing of anodes—Microwave attenuators—Nuclear applications

5.

Iron and Steel

160

The strength of materials—Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties (the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram heat treatment)—Commercial iron and steel (wrought stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, semiaustenitic and precipitation hardening steels)—Applications of stainless steels—Special Processes and Applications:
Outgassing of iron and steel—Vacuum melting of iron and steel—Gas permeation in iron and
steel—Roll-clad iron and laminates—Copper-base Aliron

6.

Copper and Copper Alloys
Physical characteristics and chemical properties (OFHC Brand copper, other high-purity coppers)— Outgassing of copper—Copper-base alloys (cupronickels, precipitation-hardenable alloys, chrome copper, beryllium copper, zirconium copper)—Dispersion strengthening—Special
Processes and Applications: Machining—Spinning—Shot-peening—Water-cooled
anodes—
Air-cooled anodes—Pinch-off tubulations—Effect of cold-working on r.f. conductivity

181

xii CONTENTS

7.

Nickel and Nickel Alloys

204

Physical characteristics and chemical properties (Nickel 200, Nickel 201, Nickel 204, Nickel 205,
Nickel 211, Nickel 212, Nickel 233, Nickel 270, Permanickel alloy, Duranickel alloy 301, Monel
alloys)—Outgassing of nickel—Special Processes and Applications: Rolled-powder nickel—
Dispersion-strengthened nickel—Carbonized nickel—ASTM specifications

8.

Precious Metals and Their Alloys
(silver, gold, platinum metals and rhenium)

222

Physical characteristics and chemical properties (age-hardenable silver alloys, dispersionstrengthened silver alloys, dispersion-strengthened platinum alloys, precious metals and gases)
—Special Processes and Applications: High-temperature thermocouples—Precious-metal contacts— Precious-metal resistors—Platinum-cobalt magnets—Protective and conductive coatings
— Rhenium

INTRODUCTION TO REFRACTORY METALS (RM)
9.

Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys

249

Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties—Oxidation of tungsten-Tungsten alloys (tungsten-tantalun and tungsten-molybdenum alloys, tungsten-rhenium alloys, other tungsten alloys)
— Special Processes and Applications: Non-sag filaments—The forming of filaments—Slip casting, centrifugal casting, hydrostatic densification, fluid-to-fluid extrusion, shape forming—
Vapor plating—Oxidation-resistant coatings

10.

Molybdenum and Molybdenum Alloys

274

Methods of production (powder metallurgy, consumable-electrode or vacuum-arc melting, electron-beam melting)—Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties—Oxidation of molybdenum— Protective coatings—Molybdenum Alloys—Special Processes and Applications: Outgassing of molybdenum—Fabrication of molybdenum

11.

Tantalum and Columbium (Niobium) and their Alloys

295

Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of tantalum—Oxidation—Reactions—Protective coatings—Tantalum alloys—Special Processes and Applications: Outgassing—Clad metals
—The fabrication of columbium and its alloys—Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties—
Special Processes and Applications: Cryogenic

12.

Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium and their alloys

321

Titanium: Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties—Physical metallurgy—Titanium alloys— Reactions with gases—Zirconium and Hafnium:
Mechanical, physical, and chemical
properties—Special Processes and Applications

INTRODUCTION TO JOINING PROCESSES
13.

Soldering and Brazing

335

Physical principles (surface energy, contact angle, wetting and spreading, alloy formation and
constitutional diagrams, diffusion, oxide reduction in reducing atmospheres)—Soldering: solder
compositions, aluminum solders, indium solders, gallium alloys, fusible alloys, solder fluxes,
physical characteristics of solders, test procedures, soldering techniques—Brazing: Brazing
metallurgy, the strength of brazed joints, filler metal compositions, brazing techniques, joint
design, methods of heating, typical metal combinations (copper-to-copper, copper-to-nickel,
copper-to-steel, copper-to-Kovar-type alloys, nickel-to-nickel)—High-alloy-steel joints—Solidstate welding—Refractory metal joints (titanium and zirconium joints, beryllium joints)—
Graphite joints—Other welding processes

14.

Glass-To-Metal Sealing
Classification of glass-to-metal seals—Bond mechanisms—Stresses in seals—Houskeeper seals
— Induction seals—Compression seals—Sealing to pure metals (platinum seals, gold and silver

288

CONTENTS

xiii

seals, copper seals, tungsten seals, molybdenum seals, titanium and zirconium seals, tantalum
seals)—Sealing to alloys (iron and steel seals, nickel-iron alloy seals, chrome-iron seals, nickelchrome-iron alloy seals, nickel-cobalt-iron alloy seals)—Seal Fabrication—Fused Quartz-tometal seals—Microwave window seals—Silver chloride seals

15.

Ceramic-To-Metal Sealing

441

Advantages of ceramic seals—Disadvantages of ceramic seals—Design considerations—Sealing techniques (dye check, cleaning procedures, sintered-metal-powder seals, low-temperature,
sintered-metal-powder seals, active metal seals, pressed diffusion seals, soldered seals, vaporized
and sputtered substrate seals, molten-salt titanium metallized seals, electroformed seals, graded
powder seals, nonmetallic fusion seals)—Bond formation—Test procedures (mechanical tests,
leak tests, electrical tests, environmental tests)—Special Processes and Applications: Solution
metallizing—Pin seals and headers—High-temperature seals—Ceramic seals for corrosive environments— Fusion bonding of ceramics—Compression band seals—Brazing considerations

16.

Cathodes and Heaters

475

Thermal electron emission—Cathode design parameters—Pure metal cathodes (pure tungsten
cathodes)—Thin film cathodes (thoriated tungsten, carburized thoriated tungsten filaments)—
Dispenser cathodes (nickel base, pressed and sintered cathodes, boride cathodes, thoria cathodes)— Barium, strontium, calcium-oxide cathodes—Physical characteristics—Preparation of
the coating—Exhaust procedure—Cathode Activation—Performance and life—Nickel-base
alloys for oxide cathodes—Filamentary emitters—Heaters (the coating of heaters, electrophoretic coating of heaters and cathodes)—The cataphoretic deposition of emissive coatings (the
cataphoretic deposition of thoria)—Physico-chemical effects in heater-cathode systems

17.

Grid Structures and Coatings

529

Grid structures (receiving tube grids, frame grids, frame grids for disk-seal tubes)—Suppression
of primary electron emission from grids (graphite suspensions, gold plating, platinum-coated
grids, titanium grids, other types of coatings) aluminum-clad molybdenum—Special Processes
and Applications: Ribbon grids—Klystron grids—Embedded grids—Non-intercepting grids
by partial suppression of cathode emission—Ceramic-coated grids—Ceramic grids—Aligned
grids—Mesh screens—Plating procedures for grid laterals

18.

Getter Materials

545

Getter requirements—Types of getter (flash getters, bulk getters and coating getters, tantalum,
titanium, zirconium, zirconium alloys, thorium-thorium alloys)—Special Processes and Applications: Gas-doped flash getters—Large-area metal films—Evapor-ion and sputter-ion pumps

19.

Secondary Emission

563

Physical characteristics (silver-magnesium alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel-beryllium alloys,
nickel-magnesium alloys, copper-beryllium alloys, aluminum alloys)—Suppression of secondary
emission—Secondary-emission devices—Special Processes and Applications

20.

Voltage Breakdown

579

Voltage breakdown in air (corona loss)—Voltage breakdown over insulating surfaces—Voltage
breakdown through bulk dielectrics—Voltage breakdown in vacuum (voltage breakdown
mechanisms, design considerations)

Appendix

599

Index

613


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