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grammar .pdf



Nom original: grammar.pdf
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Grammar
 DEFINITION
The grammar of a language is a complex of systems that may be analyzed and studied on these three levels:
(Noam Chomsky’s UG)
1. Phonology (set of sounds/ symbols)
2. Morphology (combinations of sounds that carry single units of meaning)
3. Syntax (how single units of meaning are combined to form words, phrases and sentences.

Proper And Common Nouns

 Definition
 Nouns – words used to name a person, place, thing,
object, quality, idea, concept, or an action.
 Proper Nouns- special or particular name given to
common nouns to distinguish them from others of the same kind.
Example: common- woman
proper
Meryem

Nouns (singular and plural)
 Rule No. 1 (Add –s to the end of noun)
cup
cups
student students
 Rule No.2 consonants before “y”
change –y to i and add –es
city -cities party- parties lady-ladies
 Rule No.3 vowels before “y”
add –s
boy –boys key –keys day -days

 Rule No. 4 (–f and –fe endings)
change the –f or –fe to v and –es
life –lives wife –wives thief –thieves
 Rule No. 5 (sh, ch, x, ss endings) add –es
match –matches
box
-boxes
Class -Classes
 Rule No. 6 (consonant + o) add –es
(vowel +o) –s
tomato –tomatoes
radio radios

Irregular plural forms (exceptions)





Child
Foot
Man
Woman

 Mouse
mice
 Tooth
teeth
 Fish
fish
 _____
people
(is always plural) (no s)

children
feet
men
women

Countable and Uncountable nouns
 Countable nouns
a book
books ,one book
some books,
many books,

two books
a lot of books
a few books

 Uncountable nouns
money
some money,
much money,

a lot of money
a little money

Types /Categories f uncountable nouns
Types

Examples

Liquids

milk, water, juice

Abstracts

advice, love, peace, luck, music

Particles

sand, coffee, rice ,beans, soya

Raw materials

gold, wood ,iron,

Entities

soap, bread, cheese, meat, money

Verb Tenses
 Simple present tense

 Simple past

I

Work

I

Worked

You

Work

You

Worked

He, she, it

Works

He, she, it

Worked

We

Work

We

Worked

You

Work

You

Worked

they

work

they

worked

 Simple future
Another way to express the simple future

I

will work

You

will work

He, she, it

will work

We

will work

You

will work

they

will work

I am going to work tomorrow.
She is going to work next week.
They are going to work on Sunday.

Present progressive

Past progressive (continuous)

I

am working right now.

I

was working last night.

You

are working.

You

were working yesterday.

He, she, it

is working.

He, she, it

was working last summer.

We

are working.

We

were working a few hours ago.

You

are working.

You

were working last week.

They

are working.

They

were working last Monday.


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