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PREFACE CIPAM 2014
Le 5ème Congrès International sur les Plantes Aromatiques et
Médicinales (CIPAM2014) est organisé conjointement par
l’Université de Gabès (U.G), l’Institut National de Recherche en
Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts (INRGREF), l’Ecole Nationale
d’Ingénieurs de Gabès (ENIG), l'IRESA et le Réseau Euromaghrébin
des Plantes Aromatiques et Médicinales (REMAPAM) en
collaboration avec le Pole Industriel et Technologique de Gabès,
l'AMAPMED (Association of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of
Mediterranean, la Société Chimique de Tunisie-section de Gabès et
la Banque Nationale des Gènes (BNG). On voudra juste vous
rappeler que les trois dernières éditions ont été organisées avec
beaucoup de succès à :
• Marrakech (Maroc) en 2009 là où il y a eu la naissance du
‘REMAPAM’ (Réseau Euromaghrébin des Plantes Aromatiques et
Médicinales),
• Cagliari (Italie) en 2011,
• Sidi Belabbès (Algérie) en 2012.
CIPAM 2014 comme les congrès antérieurs est une réunion
scientifique qui vise toutes les actions de la recherche et à la
valorisation des plantes aromatiques et médicinales. Le Congrès de
nature pluridisciplinaire est adressé aux chercheurs, médecins,
pharmaciens, industriels, producteurs et herboristes. Les objectifs du
CIPAM sont :
• Offrir une plate-forme internationale pour l'échange et la
diffusion des travaux scientifiques récents sur les PAM.
• Fournir beaucoup d'occasions pour les participants pour
partager leur expérience et développer des contacts et des
partenariats pour fonder des stratégies communes en rapport avec
les PAM.
• Encourager la culture, la production, la transformation et la
conservation des PAM.

I

• Mettre
en
évidence
l'importance
médicinale,
environnementale et socio-économique des PAM à une échelle
régionale, nationale et internationale.
Nous saisissons cette occasion pour exprimer nos vifs
remerciements aux membres du Comité Scientifique qui ont bien
voulu examiner le nombre très important des communications
proposées (700 abstracts) et qui sont entrain d'expertiser le full texte
de quelques communications afin de sélectionner quelques unes et
proposer leurs publications dans les journaux «Journal of Natural
Product Research (Taylor & Francis Group) » et «Journal of
Materials and Environmental Sciences ».
Dans cette publication sont recueillis les résumés des plus de 400
contributions scientifiques présentées pendant le CIPAM2014. Tout
d’abord sont présentées les conférences plénières donc les
communications orales ordonnées selon le sujet (T1, chimie et
contrôle de qualité ; T2, activités biologiques et toxicologiques ; T3,
techniques d’extraction et valorisation des PAM ; T4,
Ethnobotanique, culture et conservation des PAM ; T5, Secteur
PAM : importance socio économique et opportunités) et la séquence
d’exposition au congrès. Suivant les posters ordonnés selon les
critères susdits.
Nous remercions également les autorités Nationales (Ministère
d’Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche Scientifique, des
Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication et Ministère
de l’Agriculture) et Régionales ainsi qu'aux responsables de
différentes entreprises pour leurs soutiens moral et financier.
Quand on parle de CIPAM on pense automatiquement au
REMAPAM. Ils sont comme un corps et son âme, inséparable et
indissociable. Nous profitons pour remercier le président du
REMAPAM, notre ami le Professeur Abderahmane ROMANE
pour tous ses efforts, encouragements et conseils qui nous a
prodigués. Ceci a contribué de très près à la préparation et à la
réussite de cette manifestation.

II

La réussite de cette manifestation est liée également au
dévouement des membres du comité d'organisation, mais surtout aux
participants et invités qui nous ont fait l'honneur et le plaisir de venir
partager avec nous leurs expériences. En espère de la réussite aux
différents membres de la Fédération Arabe des Plantes Médicinales
et Aromatiques (FAPMA) dans leurs travaux. En effet, ils nous ont
fait l’honneur d’être parmi nous et choisir le les journées du
CIPAM2014 pour organiser leur réunion.
A vous tous, nous vous souhaitons la bienvenue au CIPAM2014,
bienvenue à Zarzis et bienvenue en TUNISIE.

‫ ; ﻣﺮﺣﺒﺎ ﺑﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬Welcome in Tunisia ; Benvenuti in
Tunisia
Tunus Hoş Geldiniz ; Bem-vindo da Tunísia ;
Bienvenida en Túnez ;
के ९◌ा
◌ात ९रता हूं ।
‫ ; ﺧﻮاھﺶ ﻣﯿﮑﻨﻢ در ﺗﻮﻧﺲ‬Добродошли у Тунису ;
Selamat Datang di Tunisia

Coordonnateurs

Prof. Dr. Mehrez ROMDHANE

Dr. Lamia HAMROUNI

Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Gabès

Institut national de Recherches
en Génie Rural eaux et Forêt
Email : hamrounilam@yahoo.fr

Email : mehrez.romdhane@laposte.net

III

PREFACE REMAPAM
Le CIPAM 2014 est une nouvelle édition de la série des
manifestations scientifiques organisées par le REMAPAM ‘Réseau
Euromaghrébin des Plantes aromatiques et Médicinales’ en étroite
collaboration avec ses partenaires.
D’une édition à l’autre, le nombre de participants est
remarquablement croissant, justifiant la réussite totale et
incontestable ainsi que l’atteinte d’un des objectifs du REMAPAM.
Le deuxième objectif atteint est le nombre important coopérations et
collaborations concrétisées entre les membres et les équipes
constituants ce réseau.
Ce résultat ne serait atteint sans les efforts déployés par les membres
fondateurs de ce réseau. Je citerai de façon exhaustive le Pr. Joseph
Casanova, Pr. Jean Costa, Pr. Bruno Marongui, Pr. Mehrez
ROMDHANE, Pr. Ligia Salgueiro, Pr. Hachemi Benhassaini, Pr.
Mohamed Hmamouchi et le Pr. Asakawa Yoshinori Président de la
société phytochimique
de l’Asie qui a toujours soutenu le
REMAPAM et le CIPAM.
Le comité de gestion du REMAPAM réunit en 2013 à Sidi Bel
Abbès en Algérie, avait décidé l’organisation du CIPAM 2014 à
Zarzis en Tunisie et le CIPAM 2016 à Coimbra au Portugal.
La réussite et le succès de cette édition n’aurait pas eu lieu sans
l’appui des autorités Tunisienne (IRESA, Université de Gabès,
INRGREF et l’ENIG) que je remercie beaucoup au nom de tous les
membres du REMAPAM et sans les efforts colossaux des
organisateurs de cette manifestation, que mes collègues et amis
Lamia HAMROUNI et Mehrez ROMDHANE trouvent ici mes
remerciements les plus sincères pour leur excellente organisation.
Prof. Abderrahmane Romane
Président Du REMAPAM

IV

RECOMMANDATIONS
Pour garantir un avenir florissant des plantes aromatiques et
médicinales, je pense qu'il faut agir conjointement à trois niveaux.
* le premier, c'est au niveau de l'Etat par la mise en œuvre d'un
programme d'action, de restructuration, d'intervention et de mise à
niveau. Ce programme doit être préparé en collaboration avec tous
les intéressés ce qui permettra de dégager et d'identifier par une
étude sectorielle approfondie, les handicaps et les souffrances de
l'activité. Il faut également que l'Etat spécifie les plantes, les extraits
et les huiles essentielles importés afin d'instaurer une stratégie
adéquate permettant de les produire localement.
* le deuxième, c'est au niveau des producteurs et industriels. Ils
doivent développer leurs productions aussi bien quantitativement que
qualitativement dans les articles déjà en fabrication et se diversifier
pour d'autres. Ils doivent également profiter le plus efficacement
possible des végétaux disponibles et de l’expérience des
compétences scientifiques dans ce domaine.
* le troisième niveau, indispensable et en parfaite harmonie avec les
deux premiers, il s'agit des compétences scientifiques. Elles doivent,
d'une part, valoriser les résultats de leurs recherches, et d'autre part,
compte tenue de la pluridisciplinarité du sujet (agronome, chimiste,
biologiste, génie des procédés, pharmaciens, médecins...), il faut que
les chercheurs de différents horizons échangent d'informations et
collaborent entre eux.
Enfin, unissons-nous pour garantir, non seulement, un avenir
florissant aux plantes aromatiques et médicinales, mais pour que
notre avenir soit FLORISSANT aussi...
Prof. Dr. Mehrez ROMDHANE
Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Gabès
Email : mehrez.romdhane@laposte.net

V

Comité d’Honneur
MARS Mohamed
DARGOUTH Mohamed Aziz
BEN ABDELLAH Mohamed
Ali
Ben JAMAA Néjib

Président de l’Université de Gabès
Président de l’IRESA
Directeur Général de l’INRGREF Tunis
Directeur de l’ENIG

Coordinateurs
Pr. Romdhane Mehrez

Dr. Lamia Hamrouni

ENIG-Gabès-Tunisie

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

Comité d’organisation
AMRI Ismail

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

BEN DAOUD Houcine

(ISET-Sfax)

DBIRA Béchir

ISET - Zaghouane

FARHAT Asma

(ISSTE-Gabes)

FEZZANI Tarek

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

HAMROUNI Lamia

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

HANANA Mohsen

(CBBC – Tunisie)

KADERI Mariem

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

MEZNI Faten

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

OUERGHI Zeineb

(FST – Tunisie)

RHOUMA Ali

(IO – Tunisie)

ROMANE Abderrahmane

(REMAPAM-Maroc)

ROMDHANE Mehrez

(ENI –Gabès – Tunisie)

ZAEIR Hanene

(INRGREF-Tunisie)

VI

Comité Scientifique
ABDERRABBOU Manef

(IPEST– Tunisia)

ALBOUCHI Ali

(INRGREF – Tunisia)

ALLAF Karim

(La Rochelle – France)

ASAKAWA Yoshinori

(President PSA-Japon)

BENHASSAINI Hachemi

(Sidi Bel Abbès –Algeria)

BAHRI Fouad

(Mostaganem- Algeria)

BEN SALEM Ridha

(FSS – Tunisia)

BEN NASRI Mouhiba

(FST-Tunisia)

BOUAJILA Jalloul

(Toulouse- France)

BOUSSAID Med

(INSAT-Tunisia)

CASANOVA Joseph

(Corse – France)

CHOUDHAR Muhammad Iqbal

(Karachi – Pakistan)

CONSONNI Roberto

(Milano – Italy)

COSTA Jean

(Corse – France)

FADY Bruno

(INRA-Avignon – France)

FERRAZZI Paola

(Torino – Italy)

HAMROUNI Lamia

(INRGREF-Tunisia)

HANANA Mohsen

(CBBC-Tunisia)

HAMMOUTI Belkheir

(Oujda- Maroc)

HMAMOUCHI Mohamed

(FAPAM – Maroc)

VII

JAMOUSSI Bassem

(ISEFCT-Tunisia)

JIROVETZ Leopold

(Vienna – Autriche)

KARAY BOURAOUI Najoua

(FST-Tunisia)

KHOUJA Mohamed Larbi

(INRGREF – Tunisia)

KSONTINI Mustapha

(INRGREF-Tunisia)

LACHAÂL Mokthar

(FST-Tunisia)

MARONGIU Bruno

(Cagliari – Italy)

MORE Eva

(CTFC-Spanich)

NOUR Mohamed

(Nouméa- Nouvelle-Calédonie)

OUERGHI Zeineb

(FST-Tunisia)

RHOUMA Ali

(IO-Tunisia)

ROMANE Abderrahmane

(UCA -Marrakech – Maroc)

ROMDHANE Mehrez

(ENIG-Tunisia)

SALGUEIRO Ligia

(Coimbra – Portugal)

Les auteurs sont les seuls, et totalement, responsables du contenu de
leurs communications.
The authors are the only, and totally, responsible of the content of
their communications.

VIII

Le 5ème Congrès International sur les Plantes Aromatiques et
Médicinales (CIPAM2014) est organisé conjointement par
l’Université de Gabès (U.G), l’Institut National de Recherche en
Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts (INRGREF), l’Ecole Nationale
d’Ingénieurs de Gabès (ENIG), l'IRESA et le Réseau Euromaghrébin
des Plantes Aromatiques et Médicinales (REMAPAM) en
collaboration avec le Pole Industriel et Technologique de Gabès,
l'AMAPMED (Association of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of
Mediterranean, la Société Chimique de Tunisie-section de Gabès et
la Banque Nationale des Gènes (BNG).

Le Comité d’organisation est reconnaissant de l'appui financier
et autres offert par:

Materiel Medical & Scientifique

IX

PLERNARY LECTURES

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

1Conf-1

LA VÉGÉTATION FORESTIÈRE EN TUNISIE:
RÉSERVOIR PHYTOGÉNÉTIQUE, DIVERSITÉ
D’USAGES ET NÉCESSITÉ DE CONSERVATION
Abdelhamid Khaldi
Institut National de Recherches en Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts

La flore vasculaire tunisienne compte plus de 2100 taxons
répartis sur différents bioclimats et régions naturelles. Les
formations forestières abritent l’essentiel de ces taxons. La
pression que subit cette flore génère des menaces et des défis
de conservation. Il est évident que la création d’aires
protégées, synonyme de mise en défens, ne peut pas concerner
de grandes étendues et que les services forestiers sont de plus
en plus incapables de recourir aux formes de répression
exigées par le code forestier en vigueur pour faire respecter les
décisions de conservation. La recherche de solutions
alternatives ne peut que contribuer à la durabilité du couvert
forestier dans son sens large. A travers des exemples concrets,
nous montrons que la valorisation des ressources végétales
forestières, notamment les produits forestiers non ligneux
(PFNL) peut induire un plus grandintérêt de la conserver chez
la population locale dont l’attitude détermine le devenir de ces
ressources. Une attention particulière est accordée au
patrimoine végétal à usage aromatique et médicinal et
particulièrement les espèces qui ont fait l’objet
d’investigations récentes. Nous présentons les problématiques
posées et les activités de recherche correspondantes et leur
impact socioéconomique sur la population forestière.

1

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

2Conf-2

PLANTES À PARFUM AROMATIQUES ET
MÉDICINALES ENDÉMIQUES UNE RICHESSE À
PRÉSERVER
Abderrahmane ROMANE
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquée Faculté des Sciences Semlalia
Université Cadi Ayyad Bd Prince Moulay Abdallah BP 2490 Marrakech
40000 Maroc

Dans toutes les civilisations, les plantes à parfum aromatique
et médicinales (PPAM) occupent une place importante en
médecine traditionnelle et dans les préparations culinaires.
Actuellement, environ 10 000 plantes du monde sont destinées
à l'usage médicinal :
- 90% des espèces végétales n'ont jamais fait l’objet d'aucune
évaluation scientifique.
- 90% des classes thérapeutiques actuelles dérivent d’un
produit naturel.
- 80% de la population mondiale ont accès uniquement à des
remèdes traditionnels préparés à partir de plantes locales.
- 35% des prescriptions médicales dans les pays développés,
sont d’origine naturelle.
Chaque espèce végétale est capable de biosynthèse
d’une grande diversité de produits chimiques qui
accomplissent des fonctions complexes physiologiques,
biologiques et écologiques. La composition chimique de
certaines plantes peut varier à l’intérieur d’une même espèce.
Cette variation peut avoir lieu d’un peuplement à l’autre ou
même d’un individu à l’autre, elle peut être le résultat de
l’influence des facteurs exogènes et/ou endogènes. La
préservation d’un patrimoine naturel doit obligatoirement
passer par l’identification de ses composants chimiques et par
l’évaluation de leurs activités, avant toute conception de
molécules analogues qui doivent être des substances
inoffensives après usage et qui ne s’accumulent pas dans
l’environnement.
2

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

3Conf-3

NEW INSIGHTS ABOUT COSMETIC AND
MEDICINAL USES OF PROPERTIES OF CACTUS
PRODUCTS
Lazhar ZOURGUI
Higher Institute of Applied Biology Medenine Tunisia
Lazhar.zourgui@gmail.com

The cactus is a xerophytes plant. The cactus which originates
in Central America from where it was transferred to many
countries with tropical and sub-tropical climates. The latest
finding from scientific studies about the biological properties
of cactus products is presented as well as their traditional and
popular uses This review will discuss the functional
constituents of cactus plants (cladodes, fruits and flowers) and
the most recent discoveries of active compounds. Some of the
functional foods and cosmetic currently available in the
market will be presented and the new perspective for the
future cactus products. This plant was used by ancient
civilization to cure many diseases and heal wounds for
thousands of years. Recent scientific investigations confirmed
that cactus products may be efficiently used as a source of
phytochemicals, such fibres, pigments, mucilage and
antioxidants. Scientific studies in experimental models
confirmed that cladodes have significant anti-ulcer, as well as
anti-inflammatory activity, some any others activities were
confirmed like anti diabetic, anti cancer, anti obesities. The
protective effects of cladodes against many toxic compounds (
mycotoxins, heavy metal, pesticides…). Due to their content
of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C, phenolic
compounds and betalains, cactus pear fruits serve as potential
products for preventing humain health against degenerative
disease such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases.
The functional properties of cactus products can be exploited
more efficiently in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical
industries.
3

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

4Conf-4

ETAT DES LIEUX DE LA FILIÈRE P.A.M EN
ALGÉRIE ET ESSAI DE VALORISATION DE
CERTAINS TAXONS
Benhassaini Hachemi
Laboratoire de biodiversité végétale: Conservation & valorisation

L’estimation du marché mondial des PAM s’élève à 15
milliards de dollars. Chiffre promis à une hausse rapide selon
les experts. Malgré l’engouement pour les PAM à l’échelle
mondiale, les pays du nord de l’Afrique accusent un grand
retard dans ce domaine sauf exception pour le Maroc et la
Tunisie. Le Maroc est classé parmi les dix premiers
exportateurs de PAM au monde et en Tunisie les Pam
contribuent à hauteur de 1% à l’effort d’exploitation. En
Algérie, aucun gain n’est engrangé par l’économie du pays de
la filière PAM à l’origine inexistante. Du point de vue
législatif, un flou opaque règne sur ce domaine. Notre pays ne
tire presque pas de bénéfice hormis celui pour
certainschercheurs de voir leurs noms figurer dans une étude
publiée dans une revue. Aucun cadre juridique n’est adopté
pour préserver le patrimoine génétique national. Certains
nationaux transfèrent ce patrimoine à l’étranger en l’absence
de tout cadre légal, ce qui est assimiléà la « bio-piraterie ».
Dans l’attente d’une loi, le pillage du patrimoine génétique
continue. A côté du Maroc (4200espèces) et de la Tunisie
(2160 espèces), la flore dont des PAM algériennes est estimée
à 3139 espèces vasculaires, ce qui fait de l’Algérie un véritable
réservoir phylogénétique. Nous aborderons dans ce contexte
la valorisation de quelques taxons sur le plan screening phytochimique et leurs valorisation en l’occurrence : Pistacia
atlantica, Rosmarinus tournefortii et Tetraclinis articulata.

4

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

5Conf-5

FLORE MÉDICINALE EN TUNISIE: RÉALITÉS ET
PERSPECTIVES
Boussaid Mohamed, Ben Fadhel N., Messaoud Ch. et Zaouali Y.
mohamed.boussaid@insat.rnu.tn

La flore médicinale en Tunisie, est très diversifiée tant sur le
plan spécifique qu’infra spécifique. Les travaux (parfois
redondants et sporadiques) explorant la composition chimique
(terpènes, phénols, alcaloïdes,..) et les propriétés biologiques
(anti oxydante, antimicrobienne, antiparasitaire, anti
prolifératrice, inhibitrice d’enzymes,..) d’extraits des taxa sont
nombreux. L’exploitation rationnelle et la valorisation efficace
de ces taxa demeurent timide.
De nombreuses contraintes entravent l’atteinte de ces
objectifs. Les plus importantes sont :
-la carence des connaissances sur le statut réel des taxa
(taxonomie, biologie de la reproduction et potentialités de
régénération, diversité génétique et dynamique des
populations,
conservation,…)
et
leurs
potentialités
agronomiques (incluant les stratégies d’amélioration et
l’instauration de véritables cultures) et les spécificités et les
mécanismes régissant les activités biologiques et
pharmacologiques de leurs extraits. Ces investigations menées
dans le cadre d’une recherche intégrée constituent la pierre
angulaire de toute stratégie visant l’exploitation rationnelle des
taxa.
-l’inefficacité des plans d’action élaborés. Ils
n’intègrent pas souvent d’une manière conjointe les acteurs à
tous les niveaux de la filière : cueillette, culture, conservation,
transformation et commercialisation.
Le secteur des PAM , exploitant fondamentalement
des ressources végétales sauvages, s’il est amené à se
développer devra s’inscrire dans des actions de recherche
scientifique et agronomique cohérentes incluant une gestion
durable
des
ressources
phytogénétiques.
5

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

6Conf-6

INNOVATIVE PROCESS-INTENSIFICATION STRATEGY
IN EXTRACTION OF NATURAL ACTIVE MOLECULES:
FROM FUNDAMENTALS TOWARDS INDUSTRIAL
APPLICATIONS.
Karim ALLAF
University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France kallaf@univ-lr.fr.

Natural active molecules are more and more used in a wide variety of food,
pharmaceutical and cosmetic goods such as antioxidants, specific proteins, etc.
with the objective to replace synthetic ingredients. The world manufacturing and
consumption of such molecules are increasing very fast continuously based on
solvent extraction. However, researchers and engineers systematically note the
different and well-known operation drawbacks, which are the weak overall yields,
the time- and energy- consumption, the ineffective preservation of quality
revealed through the thermal degradation, the presence of solvent traces, …
Process-Intensification Strategy P-IS is an essential way to improve the
performances of the process and the quality of final ingredients. While steam
distillation is reserved to volatile compounds for deodorization and essential oil
extraction, conventional solvent-based technologies are pertaining to extract and
separate non-volatile molecules. Various conditions of exchanging way,
temperature, pressure are adopted and usually the most adequate solvent depends
on the required molecules. However, numerous weaknesses depict these
traditional extraction ways. Steam distillation frailties are deeply due to the
paradoxical coupled heat and vapor transfers whereas the low effective diffusivity
within the natural material is the main source of solvent extraction drawbacks,
more specifically when they are applied on plants. Process-Intensification
Strategy P-IS has been of great significance and is still being increasingly
important in extraction in many parts of the globe and large industrial sectors.
CO2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Ultrasound assisted process, Microwaveassisted extraction, instant controlled pressure-drop DIC-assisted extraction have
systematically been used, usually with a pretreatment stage of grinding. They aim
at improving the exchange surface with higher starting accessibility. Swelling of
the plant structure increases the porosity thus leading to higher solvent diffusivity
within the solid matrix. Recently, Instant Controlled Pressure Drop DIC
technology has allowed defining the new concept of expanded granule powder
much more appropriate for solvent extraction, whatever the type of solvent is,
including CO2-SFE. Open pore swelled structure facilitates the grinding as
specific mechanical operation, at the same time as it dramatically intensifies the
kinetics through a higher specific exchange surface. Another way to increase the
effective diffusivity of the solvent-solute within the porous material has been to
couple DIC to ultrasound US. US assisted DIC solvent extraction resides in
replacing molecular diffusion within the pores by an effective convection transfer.
This
implies
a
great
intensification
of
the
kinetics.

6

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

7Conf-7

HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS AND
PHYTOTERAPY
L. Salgueiro
Faculty of Pharmacy/CEF and CNC, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal
e-mail: ligia@ff.uc.pt

The use of herbal medicinal products must be based on their
efficacy and safety profile as an essential part of Phytotherapy
knowledge. The content of active constituents in herbal drugs
determines not only its therapeutic activity, but also their
adverse effects, toxicity and drug interactions. Contrary to
chemical drugs, the active substance of an herbal drug is a
preparation from a plant or a part of a plant, like an extract,
and thus a complex mixture of different compounds.
Therefore, there are several particularities which have to be
considered, specially the quality.
The quality of herbal medicinal products is a challenge,
mainly due to the difficulties linked to the variability and
complexity of herbal drugs and herbal preparations, the limited
knowledge of their active constituents, the possible
adulterations and contaminations, as well as the influence of
the production processes. In this context, several examples
concerning quality, efficacy and safety of herbal medicinal
products will be discussed.

7

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

8Conf-8

LES HUILES ESSENTIELLES EN THERAPEUTIQUE
M. Damak.
Pharmacien phytothérapeute, Sfax,Tunisie.
damakphyto@yahoo.fr

Les plantes aromatiques attirent actuellement une attention
considérable des phytothérapeutes et des scientifiques grâce à
la découverte des propriétés médicinales de leurs huiles
essentielles. D’autre part, les huiles essentielles sont très
utilisées en cosmétologie et dans l’aromatisation des aliments.
La sélection d’une huile essentielle de bonne qualité est une
étape très importante afin de préserver la santé de l’Homme et
d’assurer la sécurité de l’aliment. En effet, les conditions et
l’origine géographique, ainsi que la composition chimique
sont des facteurs importants pour déterminer la qualité et la
particularité d’une huile, d’où l’importance des analyses
biochimique. Les huiles essentielles sont utilisées dans de
nombreux domaines relatifs au bien-être et à la santé humaine.
En effets les huiles essentielles sont utilisées pour leurs
propriétés antimicrobienne, cicatrisante, relaxante et
circulatoire, … . Suivant la propriété recherchée et la voie
d’application, l’huile essentielle est utilisée sous plusieurs
formes médicamenteuses comme les crèmes, les gélules et les
solutions huileuses, … .
L’exposé intitulé « les huiles essentielles en thérapeutique »
donne un aperçu sur la composition, les propriétés physicochimiques, les formes médicamenteuses et les propriétés
biologiques de l’huile essentielle.

8

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

9Conf-9

DISCOVERY OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE (MDR)
REVERSAL AND ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS FROM
NATURAL SOURCES – SCIENCE AT THE INTERFACE
OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY
M. Iqbal Choudhary and Atta-ur-Rahman
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (H.E.J. Research
Institute of Chemistry and Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and
Drug Research) University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan E-mail:
iqbal.choudhary@iccs.edu

Drug discovery and development is primarily an
interdisciplinary process, right at the interface of chemistry
and biology. Most of the exciting discoveries about the
molecular basis of decrease and treatment are made at the
interface of these two disciplines. Boundaries of two
disciplines are blurring as new fields such as genetic
engineering, functional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics,
computational medicinal chemistry, structure biology and
system biology are emerging. Following two examples of our
work at the interface of chemistry and biology for the
discovery of therapeutically important. A rapid decline in
research and development on new antibiotics coincides with
increasing frequency of infections caused by multi-drugresistant pathogens. The outbreak of methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred over fifty years ago,
is now widespread throughout the world. S. aureus is the most
common bacterial pathogen, which cause skin, soft-tissue and
endovascular infections as well as pneumonia, septic arthritis,
endocarditis, osteomyelitis and sepsis. As the efficacy of
currently available antibiotics is declining due to MDR, there
is an urgent need to develop new approaches to meet this
challenge. In the present study, we discovered several novel
and potent inhibitors of MDR S. aureus (EMRSA-17,
EMRSA-16, MRSA-252 and Pak clinical isolates) from
natural and synthetic sources. Resistance-reversal studies at
9

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

10Conf-9

molecular level were carried out by employing flow
cytometric and microscopic techniques. Synergistic and partial
synergistic effects of these compounds in combination with
antibiotics were investigated. This work has so far resulted in
the identification of novel “helper molecules”, which can
increase the efficacy of existing antibiotics to over 1000-fold
in some cases. Obesity is an emerging challenge and a serious
health problem worldwide. It is associated with many chronic
diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and certain
cancers. Molecular cascade involves in obesity and associated
disorders is still not fully understood. Proliferation of
adipocytes plays an important role in the on-set and
progression of obesity. Understanding the phenomenon of
adipogenesis is of major importance as adipocyte dysfunction
makes an important contribution to metabolic diseases.
Differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes not only results
in increasing number of adipocytes but also provide a large
pool of fat depots in adipose tissues. Thus one strategy to treat
obesity is to reduce the adipocyte numbers and fat content
through targeting the mature adipocytes by diverse molecular
entities. Among different therapeutic interventions, the
discovery of effective antiadipogenic compounds from various
sources is considered to be a promising approach. Our recent
research is focused on the study of the inhibitory effects of
natural and synthetic compounds, such as steroids, flavonoids,
terpenes alkaloids and sulfonamides, on the proliferation of
adipocytyes, as well as to evaluate their effects on to the
mature adipocytes and their capacity to initiate lipolysis
process. This study has resulted in the identification of several
new inhibitors of adipogenesis process. During this
presentation, underlying philosophy and approach of our
research on cost-effective discovery of lead molecules will be
discussed.

10

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

11Conf-10

THE ROLE OF MAP’ RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT
FOR CONTRIBUTE TO MEDICINAL, LOCAL ECONOMIES,
SUBSISTENCE HEALTH NEEDS
Prof. Dr. M. Hmamouchi
President of the Arab Federation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Pr. Faculty of medicine and Pharmacy of Rabat, Morocco, email:
hmamouchim@gmail.com.
hmamouchim@gmail.com, fapam@um5s.net.ma;

There are approximately 60,000 plant species in Arab /Africa
countries, which represent roughly a quarter of the world plants.
Unfortunately, despite the wealth and endemicity of the Arab plants
biodiversity and associated cultures and these regions has only
contributed 83 of the world’s 1100 leading commercial medicinal
plants. The world market for herbal medicines based on traditional
knowledge is estimated at over US$ 60 billion, which is about 30
percent of total world pharmaceutical sales. Arabic and Africa
accounts for only 2.8 billion dollars (1.2%) of the world’s total
pharmaceutical sales. The developed world, which constitutes only
20 percent of the world’s population, consumes 80 percent of the
total pharmaceutical output. So how do Arab/ Africa’s almost one
billion people take care of themselves if they consume only 1.2% of
the total output of pharmaceutical products? In Arab countries, as in
many developing countries, 75% - 80% of population relies on
medicinal plants to meet their health care requirements. Morocco has
4200 plants which 800 are used. The ours on-going research
activities, concerns the phyto-pharmacological investigation
extraction, activity-guided fractionation isolation, cultivation and
structure characterization of active principle from 136 indigenous
plant species, 148 Moroccan extracts, 96 Essential oils and 30
identified products. In this presentation, we spoke about one example
from ours research activities (Argania spinosa). This research
concerns the phytochemical, pharmacological, extraction,
fractionation isolation, and structure characterization of active
principle. The effects can be demonstrated as the potential to
contribute to medicinal, cosmetic, local economies, subsistence
health needs, and improved natural resources management, leading
to the conservation of biodiversity and economic development
opportunity.

11

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

12Conf-11

CHEMISTRY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF
MEDICINAL PLANTS AND PRODUCTS
Mohammad Kamil
Head TCAM Research, Zayed Complex For Herbal Research
Medicine;
Division of Public Health & Research,HAAD
P.O Box: 29300- Abu Dhabi

&

Traditional

Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of medicinal
plants and products, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the
best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of
intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic
ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of
herbal medicines. In the recent years with ever growing commercialization in
the field of herbal medicines, there has been an instant demand for quality
control of the herbal medicinal products used in this system. The studies on the
identity, purity and quality of the genuine drug will enhance information in
checking the adulteration. A set of standards would not doubt be detterent on
substitution and adulteration and also an aid for ‘Drug law Enforcement’. In the
present paper an attempt has been made for a sequential study of the Quality
Control of Medicinal Plants and Products ,starting from Selection of Medicinal
Plants ;Good Agricultural Practices (GAP ) ; Cultivation ;Good Field Collection
Practices(GFCP) ; Organized and Unorganized Drugs ;Source and Period of
Collection; Identification; Storage ; Chemical Standardisation ; Assay ;Good
Manufacturing Practices (GMP) ; Pharmacological study to Clinical Approach ,
with special reference to maintain Standardisation at each and every stage.
Besides above protocols , this study deals with preliminary examination of a
medicinal plant, its morpho-anatomical, pharmacognostic, physicochemical and
analytical parameters, foreign organic matter, pesticide residue, radioactive and
microbial contamination, chemical assay, finger printing of the successive
extractives using Accelerated Solvent Extractor ( ASE ),spectroscopic and
spectrometric techniques e.g. IR ,UV, TLC & HPLC, GC/MS, LC/MS,
phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of inorganic constituents through
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and over an above discussed in detail the
challenges of standardisation with special reference to marker compounds in
plant species and their fingerprinting. Different stages, i.e Quality control
studies of Raw Medicinal Plants, Controled Studies of Method of Processing,
Quality Control Studies of Finished Product, Standardisation Proceedures at
each stage from birth of the plants up to clinical application of herbal medicine
will be dealt with reference to some medicinal herbs. An emphasis have been
given on the protocols which are required for Registration of Medicinal Plant.

12

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

13Conf-12

THE POTENTIAL OF PHYTOGENETIC RESOURCES
IN MOROCCO, THE NEED FOR SAFEGUARDING
THE NATURAL HERITAGE
ELACHOURI Mostafa
Laboratory of Physiology and Ethnopharmacology. Biology Department,
Sciences Faculty. Mohammed first University. Oujda, Morocco.
elachourimostafa@yahoo.fr ; elachourimostafa@gmail.com

The apparent reversal of trend from western to herbal medicine is
partly due to the fact that synthetic drugs have always shown adverse
reactions and other undesirable side effect.
This has lead to the belief that natural products are safe because they
are more harmonious with biological systems.
Also, the medicinal plants were the original source of most
medicines. Many of the miracle drugs of today are molecules or
variations on compounds that were originally available from plant
medicines.
Various chemicals and biotechnological products are being screened
by major multinational pharmaceutical industries in the hope of
discovering new cures for diseases.
Indeed, Morocco has a rich tradition of plant use, an immense range
of climates, cultures, human and natural resources to become an even
greater producer of natural products. The pharmaceutical potentials
of Moroccan medicinal plants are immense but underused.
In this work, we give an overview on medicinal plants researches in
Morocco, while insisting on ethnopharmcological studies as a crucial
step in development and valorization of natural products related to
the human health care.
Also, we clarify the state of ethnopharmacological studies in
Morocco; equally, we enumerate some important pharmaceutical
drugs originated from Moroccan medicinal plants.
In order to improve the situation of national research on medicinal
plants, we suggest some necessary options. By this way, we could,
probably, contribute in the valorization of Morocco’s phytogenetic
resources as well as the improvement of researches on medicinal
plants in this country.

13

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

14Conf-13

LE CAPITAL RISQUE MECANISME DE
DEVELOPPEMENT ET DE FINANCEMENT DE
L’ENTREPRISE
Mr. Mustapha ABDELKEBIR
SODIS SICAR-Complexe administratif,
rue Mansour El Houch –Médenine-4100 Tunisie
Sodis.sicar@planet.tn

Etant l’un des principaux moyens pour acquérir un avantage compétitif, l’innovation
est devenue une condition primordiale pour une économie réussie. Lorsqu’une
économie est novatrice elle est plus ouverte aux nouvelles idées et à la nouvelle
technologie, ce qui nécessite tout un système bien défini. Ceci étant, dans les dernières
années, la Tunisie, consciente du contexte géoéconomique exceptionnel, qui voit le
pays de plus en plus confrontés à la concurrence avec des pays asiatiques et autres, a
multiplié les efforts pour l’amélioration du système nationale de recherche et
d’innovation, aussi bien du point de vue de l’attribution de responsabilités, que de la
mise en œuvre de mécanismes et d’instruments pour son développement et promotion.
Dans ce contexte, le pays tunisien a mis une panoplie de mécanismes de financement
de l’innovation en amont au niveau des laboratoires de recherche, ainsi que pour les
entreprises ayant des programmes de R&D et en aval au niveau de dispositifs de
financement pour la création d’entreprises et leur développement dont le capital risque
qui constitue une source naturelle de financement de l’innovation.
Toutefois, le thème de l’innovation en Tunisie connaît plusieurs défaillances se
manifestant par la quasi absence de fenêtres de financement pour le processus de
validation technique
et économique des innovations, l’absence de structure de
coordination entre les différents acteurs (Laboratoires de recherche, Incubateurs,
Technopôles, Structures de financement publiques et privées)ainsi que l’absence de
réseaux entre les différents intervenants quifaciliteraient la circulation d’information
notamment sur lesrésultats de recherche et la complexité des procédures de
valorisation des brevets d’invention à travers la création des entreprises. En outre,
L’articulation entre recherche scientifique et activité économique n’est pas naturelle,
Le passage d’un résultat de laboratoire à un produit marchand nécessite un processus
de validation technique et économique qui n’est pas totalement pris en charge par les
dispositifs financiers actuels et Le transfert d’une technologie du laboratoire vers
l’entreprise peut s’avérer couteux: acquisition du brevet. En conséquence, peu de
brevets enregistrés malgré le nombre important de laboratoires de recherche et de
chercheurs, peu de création d’entreprises issues des résultats des laboratoires de
recherche et peu d’utilisation des résultats des laboratoires de recherche par des
entreprises existantes. De ce fait la mise en place de réseaux associatifs groupant les
différentsintervenants dans la chaine de valeur de l’innovation afin de permettre une
plus grande interaction entre eux etun plus grand soutien juridique et financier pour le
brevetage des résultats issus des laboratoires de recherche devient nécessaire pour une
meilleure activation des différents mécanismes de promotion de l’innovation.

14

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

15Conf-14

LE CACTUS NOPAL : UNE PLANTE
PROVIDENTIELLE ; SOUS LES ÉPINES, L’OR !
Pr. Sadok BOUZID
Faculté des Sciences de Tunis ; Président de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de
Tunisie ; sadok.bouzid@fst.rnu.tn

Le Cactus Nopal ou figuier de barbarie, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller, est une
crassulacée appartenant à la famille des Cactaceae, originaire du Mexique et du
Sud-ouest des Etats-Unis. Sa culture remonte à plus de 5000 ans.Des civilisations
Précolombiennes aux Conquistadors furent conquis par ses vertus curatives et
nutritives hors du commun .Plante grasse et succulente, le cactus s’est naturalisé
un peu partout et prolifère aujourd’hui sur les terrains arides, secs et pierreux des
cinq continents. Le Nopal se plait dans les climats semi-arides sur des sols
calcaires bien drainés de pH neutre.C’est une plante de type C.A.M. L’absorption
du CO2 la nuit, permet à la plante de garder ses stomates fermés pendant le jour
pour s’ouvrir à la respiration nocturne et à la sortie d’O2. En Tunisie,le Nopal
occupe environ 600 000 ha, cultivés essentiellement dans la région de Kasserine,
en particulier à Thala. Les espèces les plus connues sont : Opuntia ficus-indica
(spinescente), Opuntia inermis, variété hybride dépourvue d’épines, et Opuntia
coccinellifera, cultivée pour l’élevage descochenilles femelles qui s’en
nourrissent et produisent une coûteuse teinture colorée rouge, le Cramoisi ou
carmin de cochenille, utilisé comme colorant alimentaire ( E 120 ) ou pour des
cosmétiques. Dans le Nopal,tout est bon et rien n’est à jeter ! Il est utilisé en
alimentation humaine (en été, la figue de barbarie est la reine des fruits) et
animale. Source de biocarburant (bioéthanol et biogaz), usage industriel
(production de mucilage).Il est également utilisé dans la lutte contre la
désertification et l’érosion .Le cactus constitue « La Pharmacie dudésert ». Il
est hémostatique, brûleur de graisse et possède des propriétés anti-oxydantes
(notamment son huile extraite de graines dont les qualités dépassent de loin celles
de l’huile d’argan), soigne le diabète de type 2, l’adénome prostatique,les ulcères
gastro-duodénaux et certains types de cancers. La valeur nutritive et curative de la
plante, sa richesse en vitamines, en enzymes et en oligo-éléments indispensables à
l’organisme est aujourd’hui largement reconnue. Aussi, et compte tenu de son
importance socio-économique, le Cactus Nopal mérite-t-il une attention plus
particulière et une place plus importante dans les programmes de valorisation des
phyto-ressources. Sa biologie est loin d’être maitrisée : les mécanismes
physiologiques d’adaptations aux différents types de stress (hydrique, salin,
mécanique et métallique), les potentialités morphogénétiques de ses méristèmes
aréolaires invivo et in vitro, ainsi que l’élargissement de sa variabilité génétique et
son exploitation, nécessitent
l’approfondissement des recherches et la
coordination des efforts pour la valorisation de cette plante providentielle.

15

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

16Conf-15

RENOVATING DRUG DISCOVERY FROM INDIAN
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE: LET HISTORY TELL THE
FUTURE
Subhash C Mandal
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Research Laboratory , Division of Pharmacognosy ,Department of
Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India ; subhashmandal@yahoo.com

History has always provided vital information leads in shaping the future and in the
filed of drug discovery this makes no exception. History of traditional medicines
shows that historical experiences of these medicines have more implications for drug
discovery than just providing new chemical entities. Historically, ethnobotanical leads
have resulted in three different types of drug discovery: (1) unmodified natural plant
products where ethnomedical use suggested clinical efficacy (like digitaline); (2)
unmodified natural products of which the therapeutic efficacy was only remotely
suggested by indigenous plant use (like vincristine); and (3) modified natural or
synthetic substances based on a natural product used in folk medicine (like aspirin).
History has also made us to learn the concept of polyherbal formulation and
synergism, which now is one of the major thrust areas. This has resulted in an
effective modern approach of finding new chemical entities by effective combination
of existing agents than looking for totally new entities. The fact that traditional
medicine has being in use for ages with positive effects makes the drug discovery
process from the selected plant a sure success affair. The sciences of ethnobotany and
ethnomedicine are developing rapidly due to the recent improvements in screening
techniques, including in vitro bioassays. With the development of more selective in
vitro assays, the quantities of plant material that need to be collected and stored has
dropped from 5-10 kg to 50-500 g. This obviously has important ecological
implications. In addition, conservation trends have been extended to the collection of
different plant parts, with greater emphasis placed on sustainable harvest, like bark is
not collected if this would endanger the survival of the tree, and limited amounts of
root systems are harvested. The evaluation and authentication of traditional remedies
can contribute towards the formulation of an integrated health care system combining
both local and Western practices. This involves the documentation and testing of the
efficacy and toxicity of medicinal plant extracts, and the identification of the active
principles. This would enable local knowledge of medicinal plants to be compiled and
conserved, and recommendations for usage to be based on an empirical understanding
of the activity and toxicity. For many years, assay results from numerous publications
describing novel natural products and biologically active principles have formed the
basis for pharmacognostical research. With application of emerging techniques and
integration of informatics, entirely novel possibilities for rational selection, prediction,
and interpretation are within grasp. Therefore, history of traditional medicine with
proper scientific exploitation can effectively renovate the drying drug discovery
pipeline, so we should go back to history to recharge the future.

16

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March
2014

17Conf-16

REPONSES DES PLANTES AROMATIQUES ET
MEDICINALES AUX CONTRAINTES DE
L’ENVIRONNEMENT
Imen TARCHOUN, Najoua MSILINI, Thouraya AMDOUNI, Maha
ZAGHDOUDI, Hela MAHMOUDI et Zeineb OUERGHI
Physiologie et Biochimie de la Tolérance au Sel des Plantes, Faculté des
Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.
Zeineb.Ouerghiabidi@fst.rnu.tn

Dans la nature, les végétaux sont confrontés aux conditions de
l’environnement qui sont souvent contraignantes (salinité, sécheresse,
carence nutritive..). Ces contraintes engendrent un état de stress oxydatif
qui se traduit par l’induction d’espèces oxygénées réactives (EOR) ou
radicaux libres. Les plantes disposent des systèmes de défense
enzymatiques et non enzymatiques qui interviennent de façon
prépondérante dans le processus d’adaptation à ces différentes
contraintes. De ce fait, nous présentons dans ce travail les réponses de
quelques espèces à intérêt aromatiques et médicinales (laitue, basilic,
fenugrec et rue) vis-à-vis de quelques contraintes (NaCl, Na2SO4,
déficience ferrique), afin de rechercher l’expression de leurs systèmes
de défense antioxydants, dans le but d'améliorer leur production.
L’approche consiste à déterminer certains paramètres d’évaluation du
stress oxydatif et de mesurer l’activité de certaines enzymes
antioxydantes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX et GR). Un intérêt particulier a
été également accordé aux molécules antioxydantes (ascorbate,
glutathion, acides phénoliques, tocophérols et acide lipoïque). Les
résultats révèlent que plusieurs stratégies de défenses, notamment
enzymatiques et non enzymatiques sont impliquées dans la défense
antioxydante. Le processus de coopération entre ces stratégies est
probablement à l’origine d’un meilleur comportement chez certaines
espèces. Cependant, la variabilité des mécanismes de protection
mobilisés par ces plantes n’a pas permis de trouver des interactions
claires entre la tolérance à ces contraintes et l’expression des systèmes
de défense antioxydants.

17

ORAL COMMUNICATIONS
Topic 1 :
- Chemistry and Quality Control of MAP and Derived
Products
- Chimie et contrôle de la qualité des PAM et les produits
dérivés

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

18T1CO1

EFFECT OF ABIOTIC ELICITORS ON PRODUCTION
OF THYMOL IN CALLUS CULTURES OF ORIGANUM
RULGARE L.
Abedaljasim M. Aljibouri1, Ashwaq S. Abd1, Duha. M. Majeed1 and
Eman N. Ismail1
1 . Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad 10072, Iraq,
dr_aljibouri@yahoo.com

Callus cultures of Origanum vulgare L. were established
from leaf discus on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium
containing different levels of growth regulators, i.e., 2,4Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid
(NAA), Benzyl Adenine (BA) and Kinetin (Kn) and
incubated under dark condition. Callus tissues were employed
to study the influence of abiotic elicitors on the production of
thymol. Constant weights of callus (300 mg) were cultured on
accumulation medium treated separately with each one of
elicitors used (50 g/l sucrose, 200 mg/l NaCl and 50 or 100
mg/l proline). The fresh and dry weights of callus were
recorded after six weeks. The result indicated that maximum
production of fresh and dry callus weight were 1014 and
46.20 mg respectively achieved at 0.5 mg / l 2,4-D and 3 mg /
l BA adding to the medium. Dry callus tissues were extracted
with 70% methanol and analyzed by HPLC to determine the
concentrations of thymol. The addition of abiotic elicitors to
MS medium caused significant reduction in fresh weight of
callus compared with control treatment. The concentration of
thymol in the callus cultured on control treatment was 146.6
ppm. The data showed that 50 or 100 mg/l proline produced
the highest yield of thymol (181.48 and 174.58 ppm)
respectively, followed by sucrose 162.9 ppm, whereas the
treatment with
NaCl caused reduction in thymol
concentration to percentage of 50.56 % compared with the
control.

18

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

19T1CO2

THE GENUS MYRTUS L. IN ALGERIA:
COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF
ESSENTIAL OILS. A SHORT REVIEW.
Amel Bouzabataa-b, Ophélie Bazzalia, Célia Cabralc, Maria José
Gonçalvesc, Maria Teresa Cruzc, Ange Bighellia, Carlos Cavaleiroc,
Joseph Casanovaa, Ligia Salgueiroc, Félix Tomia
aUniversité de Corse-CNRS, Equipe Chimie et Biomasse, Route des Sanguinaires,
20000 Ajaccio, France.
bLaboratoire de Synthèse Organique, Modélisation et Optimisation des procédés
chimiques, Annaba, Algérie.
cFaculdade de Farmácia/Centro de Estudos Farmacêuticos e Centro de Neurociências
e Biologia Celular, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000-295 Coimbra, Portugal.,
amelbouz2009@gmail.com

In Algeria, the genus Myrtus (Myrtaceae) includes two species,
Myrtus communis L. (Common myrtle) widespread all around the
Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei (Sahara myrtle), an
endemic species to the central Saharan mountains. Based on a large
sampling from Eastern to Western North Algeria, we demonstrated
that myrtle oil is characterized by the occurrence of α-pinene and
1,8-cineole as major components and by the lack of myrtenyl
acetate. We evidenced also the occurrence of a chemical variability,
two groups being differentiated on the basis of the contents of αpinene, linalool, and linalyl acetate. In contrast, Myrtus nivellei
essential oil exhibited 1,8-cineole and limonene as major
components. It contained also two new di-nor-sesquiterpenoids,
whose structure elucidation has been carried out using 2D NMR).
These compounds may be considered as markers of M. nivellei.
Taking into account the traditional uses of Myrtus species, the
antifungal, anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. Both oils
revealed significant antifungal activity against Cryptococcus
neoformans and dermatophytes (MICs = 0.16 and 1.25 μL/mL). M.
communis essential oil showed higher inhibition of the NO
production, indicating a more relevant anti-inflammatory activity
than M. nivellei. These results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of
myrtle oils and support the potential of M. communis essential oil as
anti-inflammatory, and the use of M. nivellei by the Touaregs in
Saharan traditional medicine for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

19

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

20T1CO3

INTRASPECIFIC CHEMICAL VARIABILITY OF THE
ESSENTIAL OILS of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp.
atlantica FROM THE NORTH-OCCIDENTAL REGION
OF ALGERIA
A. El Zerey-Belaskri1*, C. Cavaleiro2, C. Cabral2, A. Romane3, L.
Salgueiro2 and H. Benhassaini1
1
Laboratoire de recherche ‘Biodiversité Végétale : Conservation et Valorisation’
Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la vie, Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie.
2
Faculdade de Farmácia/CEF and CNC, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal.
3
Laboratoire de chimie organique appliquée, Département de Chimie, Faculté des
Sciences (Semlalia), Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc.
*(asma.belaskri@gmail.com)

Leaf samples of plants from sixteen spontaneous populations of
Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica were harvested in the Northoccidental region of Algeria aiming to investigate the intraspecific
chemical variability of the essential oil. The oils were isolated by
hydrodistillation, in yields ranging from 0.10% to 0.42% and
compositions were further investigated by GC and GC/MS.
Terpinene-4-ol, α-pinene, germacrene D and E-caryophyllene were
found as major components. Multivariate cluster analysis of
compositional data evidenced significant differences concerning the
compositions of oils from leaves of male and female trees and
different types of essential oil considering the predominant
constituents: 1) terpinene-4-ol ; 2) α-pinene / α-thujene ; 3) α-pinene
/ germacrene D. This chemical diversity should be considered as
promising source on components and could open up more
opportunities for the valorization of this species.
Keywords:
Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica ; Algeria ; chemical
variability; essential oil ; Terpinene-4-ol, α-pinene, germacrene D
and E-caryophyllene.

20

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

21T1CO4

ATRIPLEXM, TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM AND
URTICA DIOICA ENHANCE GLUCOSE DISPOSAL
BY SKELETAL MUSCLE
Bashar Saada,b, Sleman Kadana,Abdalsalam Kmailb and Hilal Zaida,b
a

. Qasemi Research Center- Al-Qasemi Academic College, Baqa-ElGharbia.
b.
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Arab American University Jenin, P.O.Box
240, Jenin, Palestine

Despite the enormous achievements in conventional medicine,
diabetes reached epidemic proportions globally. Its highest
prevalence is in the Arab world especially in the Golf region.
Several medicinal plants can treat diabetes type II. Based on
knowledge obtained from the Greco-Arab and Islamic herbal
medicine as well as from our previous studies, this in vitro
study aims to evaluate the action mechanism of three plant
extracts, namely, Atriplexm (Saltbush), Trigonella foenumgraecum (Fenugreek) and Urtica dioica (Nettle). Therefore,
the effect of the plant extracts (50% ethanol in water) on
glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma
membrane (PM) was tested on L6 muscle cell line stably
expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 ;L6-GLUT4myc; (Fig.1)
using cell-ELISA test. GLUT4 translocation to the PM is main
pathway to increase glucose disposal in the muscle, liver and
hepatocytes. Results obtained indicate that cytototoxic effects
of Saltbush, Fenugreek and Nettle extracts exhibited at
concentrations higher than 500 g/ml (MTT and LDH assays).
Exposing L6 muscle cell to these extracts led to a significant
gain in GLUT4 on their plasma membranes at none cytotoxic
concentrations as measured with MTT assay and the LDH
leakage assay. These findings indicate that the observed antidiabetic properties of Saltbush, Fenugreek and Nettle are
mediated, at least partially, through GLUT4 translocation.
21

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

22T1CO5

DÉTERMINATION DES TENEURS EN ÉLÉMENTS
MINÉRAUX ET MÉTAUX LOURDS DANS LES
FEUILLES DU CYPRÈS DE L’ATLAS DES
MONTAGNES DU HAUT ATLAS MAROCAIN
M. A. Bennounaa, Y. Arjounia,b, A. Romanea, M. A. ElAlaoui Elfelsb
a.Laboratoire de chimie organique appliquée, Département de chimie, Faculté des
science Semlalia – Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech, Maroc.
b.Musée d’histoire naturelle de Marrakech – Université Cadi Ayyad , avenue Allal
EL-fassi 40000 Marrakech, Maroc. E-mail : mbennouna@uca.ma

Au Maroc, les cupressacées constituent la majorité de formation
forestière et pré-forestière en zones montagneuses sèches. Ces
formations sont d’une très grande importance sur les plans
écologique et économique, mais aussi à travers leur rôle de
protection contre la désertification et l’érosion, très dynamique dans
ces régions.
Cupressus Atlantica Gaussen dont les feuilles sont utilisées en
médecine traditionnelle par la population de la région de la vallée du
N’Fis (montagnes du haut Atlas marocain) a été étudié pour évaluer
les teneurs en minéraux et métaux lourds. Pour ce faire la technique
plasma couplé par induction, ICP-MS (la torche ICP-MS, JobinYvon 70 ICP ULTIMA AND JY70) a été utilisé pour déterminer les
teneurs de vingt éléments minéraux et métaux lourds dans les feuilles
de cette endémique. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que dans ses
feuilles, les teneurs en Ca, K, P, Mg, Na et Fe sont très abondants par
rapport aux autres éléments minéraux dans des échantillons pris dans
les cinq différentes régions étudiées. Les concentrations des métaux
traces dans les feuilles de cet arbre sont en variables selon les
stations étudiées pour le Ca 215.13 – 481.74 mg/Kg matières sèches
(MS); K 66.67 – 70.67mg/Kg MS; P 39.33 – 44.67 mg/Kg MS; Mg
26.84 – 33.86 mg/Kg MS; Na 11.36 – 17.67 mg/Kg MS et pour le
Fer de 2.80 à 5.06 mg/Kg MS. Le dendrogramme obtenu par une
analyse par la composante principale nous a révélé trois clusters
statistiquement significatifs. Le premier cluster se compose des
stations avec une forte concentration de Mg et K. le second groupe
est caractérisé par un niveau élevé de Ca. Le dernier groupe
comprend un seul site.

22

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

23T1CO6

BIOANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF CINNAMOMUM
ZEYLANICUM ESSENTIAL OIL
Haq Nawaz Bhatti*, Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Asif Hanif
and Muhammad Idrees Jilani
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad38040, Pakistan * hhnhatti2005@yahoo.com; haq_nawaz@uaf.edu.pk

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) inner bark is used in
ethno-medicine and flavoring for foods and also possesses
antimicrobial insecticidal antioxidant and antimutagenic
activities. Antioxidant activity of essential oil extracted by
supercritical fluid extraction, hydro distillation and steam
distillation of cinnamon bark was investigated by performing
different assays. The Cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a
wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents,
reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and
DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Significant (P <
0.05) differences were observed in the antioxidant efficacy of
Cinnamon essential oil extracted by different extraction
techniques. Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed
against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis,
Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus
aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and
Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using
supercritical fluid extraction in comparison to other methods.
The oil extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) was
dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene,
naphthalene, Heptane, Bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the
essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and
antimicrobial agent.
Keywords
:
Cinnamomum
zeylanicum
;
Antibacterial;Antifungal; Cinnamaldehyde; Antioxidants

23

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

24T1CO7

THE CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF THE
ESSENTIAL OIL FROM PIMPINELLA ANISUM L.
M. Acimovica, V. Tesevicb, S. Oljacaa, M. Todosijevicb, D.
Kovacevica
a Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Zemun, Serbia,
acimovicbabicmilica@gmail.com
b Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Beograd,
Serbia

The field experiment was carried out during the years of 2011 and
2012, in three localities in Serbia, with application of six different
fertilizers regimes. It was found that the average content of essential
oil obtained by hydrodistillation in aniseed was 3.72%. It is more
than 3.1% obtained in Iran [1] by same method. Weather conditions
during year and locality have statistically significant effect on
essential oil content, while different source of fertilizer wasn’t
statistically significant on essential oil content and its composition.
Essential oil compositions were determined using GC–MS
technique, and total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found
that the major component was trans-anethole, in average 94.78%,
and coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant
component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%). All other
components were presented less than 1%. The chemical composition
of essential oil was similar with analysis of aniseeds from different
geographical areas of Europe [2].
[1] Yamini Y., Bahramifar N. & Sefidkon F. (2008): Extraction of
essential oil from Pimpinella anisum using supercritical carbon
dioxide and comparison with hydrodistillation. Natural Product
Research, 22(3):212-218
[2] Orav A., Raal A. & Arak E. (2008): Essential oil composition of
Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries.
Natural Product Research, 22(3):227-232.

24

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

25T1CO8

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME EDIBLE WILD
PLANTS GROWN IN EASTERN ANATOLIA
M. Tuncturka, N. Sekeroglub, T. Eryiğitc, F. Özgökçed
a Yuzuncu Yıl University, Agricultural Faculty, Field Crops Department, Van-Turkey
(murattuncturk@hotmail.com)
b Kilis 7 Aralık University, Vocational School, MAPs Programme, 79000, KilisTurkey (nsekeroglu@gmail.com)
c Yuzuncu Yıl University, Gevaş Vocational School, Plant and Animal Production
Programme, Van-Turkey (tamyigit@hotmail.com)
d Yuzuncu Yıl University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, 65080,
Van-Turkey (f_ozgokce65@yahoo.com)

Eastern Anatolia region, especially Van city with
distinguished microclimate, has rich plant diversity in Turkey.
Arum elongatum Steven subsp. detruncatum (C.A.Mey. ex
Schott.) H. Reidl, Capsella bursa – pastoris (L.) MEDİK and
Gundelia tournefortii L. var. tournefortii are of well-known
and abundantly used species in local cousin. It is common
phenomenon throughout the world that wild edible plants are
good source for minerals and they have useful effects on
human health. In this point of view, commonly used wild
edible plants mentioned above were analyzed their nutritive
value and mineral compositions. After biologically
identification, collected plants were cleaned from foreign
materials and separated into used parts. Afterwards plants
were dried under shade and prepared for chemical analysis.
Dry matter, total ash, % N, crude protein, crude fiber and pH
were determined in the used plants parts. Additionally, mineral
composition that useful- hazardous for human health (Ca, Cd,
Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S and Zn) of the
samples were analyzed. In conclusion, Gundelia tournefortii
L. was the richest in investigated traits among the taxa
searched. Arum elongatum had also much more minerals.
Lowest values were obtained from Capsella bursa – pastoris
(L.).
25

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

26T1CO9

CHARACTERIZATION OF GALACTOMANNAN
EXTRACTED FROM SEEDS OF RETAMA RAETAM:
COMPARISON WITH GUAR GUM AND LOCUST
BEAN GUM
M. Chouaibia,b*, L. Rezigb, F. Donsìa, G. Ferraria, S. Hamdib
a Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo,
84084 (SA), Italia.
b Food Preservation Laboratory, High Institute of Food Industry, 58 street Alain Savary,
Elkhadra city, Tunis 1003, Tunisia.
Corresponding author. Tel / fax: +21671770399 / +21671771192
E-mail address: moncef.chouaibi@yahoo.com.au

Retamaraetam seeds are an unutilized source of polysaccharides and
nothing has been reported on their physicochemical characteristics
which would indicate the potential uses of these seeds. In the present
study, the physicochemical and functional characteristics of
galactomannans from Retamaraetam seeds were investigated and
compared with the characteristics of a commercial galactomannas
(guar gum and locust bean gum). The Retamaraetam gum was
extracted with water at room temperature, and its physicochemical,
thermal and functional properties were determined. The results
showed that Retamaraetam had contents of 3.58 % water, 2.17%
protein, 0.03% ash and 94.22 % total carbohydrate; an intrinsic
viscosity of 13.22 dL/g; a molecular weight of 1.56 × 106 g/mol and
+63.48 optical rotation. The sugars detected were mannose and
galactose with a Man:Gal ratio of 1.85. The curves obtained by
calorimetry indicated a transition temperature, melting temperature
and heat capacity very similar to those of the guar galactomannan.
The functional properties of the Retamaraetam revealed a solubility
of 96.54%, an emulsion capacity of 95% and an emulsion stability of
90.89%. The Retamaraetam gum is a galactomannan with
physicochemical and functional properties similar to those reported
for other legume seed gums. Retamaraetam seeds are rich in sugars
which are of potential industrial significance. In addition,
Retamaraetam seeds contained many bioactive compounds. This fact
is of great economic interest owing to several applications of
Retamaraetam seeds in the food, cosmetics and medicinal industries.
Keywords:
Retamaraetam;
extraction;
physicochemical
characteristics; rheological and thermal properties.
26

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

27T1CO10

EFFECT OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS AND TRIGONELLA
FOENUM-GREACUM SAPONINS ON IN VITRO
RUMEN FERMENTATION OF VETCH-OAT HAY
R. Arhab1*, R. Abla2, M. Aggoun2, H. Zitouni2,
1

Natural Sciences and life department, Exact Sciences and Natural Science
and Life Faculty, Larbi Ben M’Hidi University, Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria. 2
Biochemistry and Microbiology Department, Natural Sciences and Life
Faculty, Mentouri University, Constantine, Algeria
E-mail address: arhabrabah@yahoo.fr

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of two
plants rich in saponins on in vitro ruminal fermentation traits of
vetch-oat hay using gas syringes as incubators. Two plants, Camellia
sinensis and Trigonella foenum-greacum, were added to 200 mg of
vetch-oat hay at levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg and 0, 48, 54, 60 and 66
mg, respectively. Gas production was dose-dependent for both plants
and decreased for all incubation times with the increasing doses..
Methane concentration was decreased at all inclusion levels and for
each incubation time. The highest methane reduction was observed
at 48h of incubation for both plants. This decrease varied between
48.78-52.84% and 45.52-72.35% for Camellia sinensis and
Trigonella
foenum-greacum,
respectively.
Ammonia-N
concentrations also decreased significantly (P < 0.002) when the
plants rich in saponins were included with the vetch-oat hay. In
addition, these plants significantly inhibited the protozoa growth in
ruminal fluid (P < 0.001). At 24h incubation, protozoa counts were
reduced by 81.86% and 83.29% for the high levels of Camellia
sinensis and Trigonella foenum-greacum, respectively. Finally, in
vitro truly dry matter digestibility was significantly affected by the
inclusion of plants rich in saponins (P < 0.05). It is suggested that
addition of these saponin-rich plants to feed could modify the rumen
fermentation and inhibit the release of methane and ammonia, which
may be beneficial for improving nutrient utilization and animal
growth.
Keywords: Ammonia-N, digestibility, fenugreek, gas production,
methane, protozoa, tea.

27

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

28T1CO11

BIOCHEMICAL PROFILING OF BASIL USING
ADVANCED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Muhammad Idrees jilani*, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Muhammad Asif
Hanif, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Muhammad Shahid,
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture
Faisalabad Pakistan.

A new methodology to obtain volatile oil by supercritical fluid
extraction (SCFE) was tested for basil (Ocimumbasilicum).
Essentialoil extracted from basil, with hydro distillation, steam
distillation, and supercritical fluid extraction. SCF extraction
provided more yield of essential oil. Chemical analysis was
performed using gas(GC-MS) liquid(HPLC) and high speed
counter current chromatography(HSCCC) to compare the
quality of the essential oil obtained by means of SCFE to that
of the corresponding essential oil obtained by the traditional
techniques. The major component of basil essential oil wereLLinalool,Linalool oxide cis, trans-Linalool oxide,Eugenol,
Eucalyptol, α-Terpineol, trans-α-Bergamotene, p-Allylanisole,
α-Amorphene, Cubenol. The ratio of solvent to biomass (g:g)
required to achieve a complete oil extraction at different,
pressure and temperature was determined experimentally.
Antioxidant activity (Total phenolic contents (TPC), Total
flavonoid contents (TFC), Total proanthocyanidins, Total
flavonols, DPPH radical scavenging assay, Determination of
reducing power, determination in linoleic acid system,
Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, ABTS radical
scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging Assay,
Super oxide radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial
activity against bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
coli, PastrurellaMultocida and StraphylococcusAureus) and
fungal strains (Aspergillusnigerand Aspergillusflavus)were
investigated for essentials oil. The whole study was performed
by following basic statistical principles and samples were
triplicated.
28

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

29T1CO12

SCREENING THE ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF
RESVERATROL IN A SUB-CHRONIC MODEL OF
DEPRESSION
Rania F. Ahmed1, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman1, Heba M.I. Abdallah1, Dalia O.
Saleh1, Omar A.H.A. Farid2, Alyaa F. Hessin1
2

1
Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
Department of Physiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research,
Giza, Egypt.

Depression is one of the most serious and common mental diseases
with major negative social consequences in terms of reduced
employment and psychosocial impairment. A variety of consumable
plant-derived phyto-chemicals exhibit nutraceutical properties
because they produce physiological benefits and combat disease
processes. Emerging evidence suggests that widely accessible and
safe organic polyphenolic phyto-chemicals, in particular, treat
depression at much lower concentrations than clinical doses of
classical drugs. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) is a
polyphenolic compound that has been detected in fruits and some
flowering plants including grapes, wine, peanuts and the Asian plant
Polygonum cuspidatum. Previous studies proved that resveratrol is a
hepatoprotective and powerful antioxidant agent and suggested it
could have an anti-stress activity. The aim of our study was to detect
the antidepressant like effect of resveratrol in a reserpine sub-chronic
model of depression. Main methods: depression-like behaviors were
induced in rats by reserpine injection (0.25 mg/kg s.c.) every 48 h,
for 20 days. Resveratrol (60 and 120 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10
mg/kg) were administered orally daily during the 20 days of the
study. Behavioral effects namely open field test (OFT) and forced
swimming test (FST) and biochemical parameters namely
neurotransmitters levels, antioxidants contents and liver functions
were assessed. Key findings: Results revealed that resveratrol
showed a hepatoprotective and an antidepressant- like effect
compared to those of fluoxetine.

29

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

30T1CO13

SEASONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION OF
PISTACIA LENTISCUS ESSENTIAL OIL: EVALUATION
OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF LEAVES
EXTRACTS
Samira Slitia, Sameh Ayadia, Stéphane Dumarçayc,Philippe Gerardinc,
Mathieu Pétrissansc, Dominique Perrinc, Mohamed Arbi Khoujab, Manef
Abderrabba a
a : Unité de recherche Physico- Chimie Moléculaire., IPEST, BP51, La Marsa 2070,
Tunisia.
b : Institut National de Recherches en Génie Rural, Eaux et Forêts, 2008, Ariana,
Tunisia.
c: Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherche sur Matériau Bois (LERMaB ),54506
Vandoeuvre -lés -Nancy Cedex , France.

E-mail adress:sliti_samira@yahoo.fr
The seasonal and geographical variation of the essential oils
composition, the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content
of six different extracts from the leaves of pistacia lentiscus L
(Anacardiaceae), grown in three distinct localities studied, was
investigated. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and
subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil composition in
pistacia lentiscus leaves was characterized by a high monoterpens
fraction which α-pinene, limonene, β-Myrcene, 4-terpineol,
Caryophyllene and &-Cadinene were the main components.
Significantly variation between localities and stage of maturity was
documented. The hydro-methanol extract (20:80 V/V) exhibited the
higher radical-scavenging effect against DPPH (IC50= 13,73±0,2 15,66±0,47 µg/ml). The antioxidant capacity of extractives was also
determined by evaluating oxygen uptake inhibition[OUI (%)]. All
extracts under study inhibit the oxidation of LH. It was also found
that their antioxidant capacities increased from hexane to hydromethanol extract (50:50%V/V). However, there was a high and
significant correlation between polyphenolic content and antioxidant
activity of different extractives.
Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus; essential oils; chemical composition;
extracts; DPPH assays Oxygen uptake method, total phenolics
content.

30

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

31T1CO14

EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND
CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
OF MEDICAGO SATIVA GROWING IN THE DESERT
OF OMAN
Muhammad Asif Hanif
Assistant Professor, Dept. Chem & Biochem, UAF
muhammadasifhanif@ymail.com

Natural products from medicinal plants because of the
unmatched availability of chemical diversity, either as pure
compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited
opportunities for new drug leads. Due to an ever increasing
demand for therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest
particularly in medicinal plants has grown throughout the
world. In the present study, Medicago sativa Linn growing in
the desert of Oman was chemical characterize using Flame
Photometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Gas
Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry and High Performance
Liquid
Chromatographic
(HPLC)
analysis.
Gas
Chromatographic - Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis
revealed the presence butanedioic acid and diethylfumarate as
dominant compounds in Medicago sativa leaves. High
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were
performed to determine phenolics and flavonoids present in
Medicago sativa. Major antioxidant compounds found in M.
sativa leaves were protchaechenic acid, hydroxyl benzoic acid,
β- phenyl caffate and kaempferol. Pterostilbene, a cholesterol
lowering compound was detected in M. sativa. Kaempferol
present in M. sativa leaves has been associated with reduced
risk of heart disease in the previous studies. Detection of other
bioactive compounds in M. sativa leaves highlights its
importance in traditional medicine.
.

31

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

32T5CO9

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
OF THE TUNISIAN ASTERISCUS MARITIMUS (L.)
Sined Medimagh-Saidanaa*, Mejda daami-remadib, Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddineb,
Hichem Ben Janneta, M’hamed Ali Hamzaa
a

Laboratoire de Chimie Hétérocyclique, Produits Naturels et Réactivité (LR11SE39), Equipe:
Chimie Médicinale et Produits Naturels, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de
Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir Tunisie
b
UR13AGR09, Production Horticole Intégrée au Centre Est Tunisien, Centre Régional des
Recherches en Horticulture et Agriculture Biologique de Chott-Mariem, Université de Sousse,
4042, Chott-Mariem, Tunisie
*sined_medimagh@yahoo.fr

Wishing to enhance the plant heritage of Tunisia and discover new
biologically and pharmacologically active natural products, we are
interested in the study of the plant Asteriscus maritimus (L.) growing
in Tunisia.
The phytochemical investigations undertaken on its organic extracts
using preparative liquid chromatographic column at atmospheric
pressure, medium pressure and preparative TLC led to the isolation
of several pure natural substances (two new natural diacetylenes,
three thymol derivatives, two cinnamic acid derivatives and an
aldehyde derivative). Their structures were elucidated using
spectroscopic methods: mass spectrometry (ES-HRMS and IE-MS)
and NMR spectroscopy, one and two-dimensional experiments (1H,
13
C, DEPT 135, HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY).
All the prepared extracts and the isolated compounds were screened
for their possible antibacterial and antifungal effects. The three
thymol derivatives were found to be the more active metabolites
against the used bacteria and Botrytis cinerea, one of the used fungi,
where the inhibition zones ranged between 13 and 16.5 mm.

32

ORAL COMMUNICATIONS
Topic 2 :
- Biological and Toxicological Activities of MAP
- Activités biologiques et toxicologiques du PAM

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

33T2CO1

TRITERPENE-QUINONE FRACTION FROM ARDISIA
CRISPA ROOT AFFECTED TUMOR PROMOTION IN
SKIN TUMORIGENESIS IN VIVO
L.T. Yeonga, A.H. Roslidaa, K. Huzwaha, S.Y. Latifaha
a

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, roslida@upm.edu.my

Ardisia crispa (Thunb.) A. DC. (Family: Myrsinaceae) has been
customarily benefited as remedy against various ailments. Previous
chemopreventive study on its triterpene- and quinone-fraction (TQF)
revealed significant suppressive effect against tumor ‘promotion’, at
30 mg/kg. Perpetuating that, this study was aimed at determining
modulatory effects of different dosages of TQF in mouse skin
tumors. Mice (female,ICR) in group I (vehicle control, n=10) were
given topical application of acetone throughout the experiment. In
group II (carcinogen control) and groups III-VI, mice were initiated
with 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA; 390 nmol/100 μL,
1x) followed by, a week later, repeated promotion with 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 1.7 nmol/100 μL, 2x/week,
20 weeks). Along ‘promotion’ period, 10 mg/kg curcumin (group
III), 10 mg/kg TQF (group IV), 30 mg/kg TQF (group V) and 100
mg/kg TQF (group VI) were applied to mice skin respectively, 30
minutes before each TPA application. Groups VII-IX (n=5; treated
control) received only 10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg TQF,
respectively, for 20 weeks.Results showed 60% tumor incidence in
group II which was significantly reduced in group III(25%). Tumor
incidence, tumor burden and tumor volume were highest in group VI
(100%; 7.30±1.07; 13.67±5.29 mm3, respectively), whereas
significant
reductions
were
exhibited
by
group
IV
(33.3%;1.00;1.48±0.37 mm3, respectively).Groups III-IV also
manifested minimal hyperplasia whereas that of groups II and VI
was severe with hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and keratin pearls.
Conclusively, low-dose (10 mg/kg) TQF attenuated tumor promotion
whilst high-dose (100 mg/kg) TQF potentiated tumorigenesis.
Underlying mechanism(s) is/are currently under investigation.

33

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

34T2CO2

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT,
ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIMALARIAL AND
ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES OF OCIMUM
SANCTUM ESSENTIAL OILS, DEPENDS ON
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION
AbdullahI.Hussaina,b*, Shahid Ali ShahidChathaa, Muhammad
UmairArshadc and Poonam S. Nigamb
a

Department of Applied Chemistry & Biochemistry, Government College University,
Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.
b
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern
Ireland, UK.
c
Department of Food Science, Government College University, Faisalabad-38040,
Pakistan ; abdullahijaz@gcuf.edu.pk; ai.hussain@yahoo.com

The volatile oils have attracted a great deal of scientific interest due to their
potential as a source of natural antioxidants. Ocimum sanctum is regularly used as a
food in various East Asian dishes. The objective of the present research work was to
study the variation in the yield, essential oil composition and antioxidant,
antimicrobial, antiproliferative and antimalarial activities of O. sanctum essential
oil, grown in relatively cold and temperate regions of Pakistan.The essential oils
contents of Ocimum sanctum, collected from cold (hilly) and warm (plane) regions
were 13.2 and 9.0 g/kg, respectively. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
(GC-MS) analysis revealed variation in the composition of majority of the O.
sanctum essential oil components. The major compounds of O. sanctum essential oil
from hilly (relatively cold) and plane (relatively hot) regions were eugenol (19.4 and
28.0 g/100g), β-caryophyllene (20.1 and 22.1 g/100g) and β-elemene (17.0 and 13.2
g/100g), respectively. The oils exhibited free radical scavenging potential as
measured by DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, and antioxidant activity as
measured by inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching β-carotene in
linoleic acid system assays. Both essential oils revealed antiproliferative activity
against prostate cancer (LNCaP) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. O. sanctum
essential oils from both regions exhibited moderate anti-haembiocrystallisation
activity. In the resazurinmicrotitre plate and disc diffusion assays, the essential oil
of O. sanctum from plane region showed better antibacterial activity than that from
hilly region. Essential oils from both the regions were active against amphicillinresistant Escherichia coli. Considerable variations in the composition and biological
activities were observed with respect to regions.

34

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

35T2CO3

ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES
OF SOME LIBYAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Ahmed A. Hamid Aljaiyash a , Mariam H. Gonaid b and A. Chaouch c
(a) Laboratory of biotechnology and quality environment, Faculty of
Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco. e-mail:
aaljaiyash@yahoo.com.
(b) Department of Pharmacognosy and natural products, Faculty of
Pharmacy, Omar AL-Mukhtar University, Albayda, Libya. e-mail:
al_gonaid@yahoo.com.
(c) Director of laboratory of biotechnology and quality environment, Faculty
of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco. e-mail:
achaouch61@gmail.com.

The total alcoholic extracts prepared from the aerial parts
of Capparis spinosa L., Juniperus phoenicea, Ruta
graveolanse and Artimisia herba alba growing in Aljabal Al-akhdar in Libya showed a significant cytotoxic
activity against both breast and colon cell lines MCF-7
and HCT-116 as well as a significant antibacterial
activity against some tested Gram positive and Gram
negative bacteria. At the same time, preliminary
photochemical screening of their aerial parts was carried
out. This study was undertaken to justify the beneficial
medicinal uses of these studied plants and their alcoholic
extracts.

35

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

36T2CO4

ACTIVITES BIOLOGIQUES DE L'HUILE
ESSENTIELLE DES FEUILLES ET DES BAIES DE
JUNIPERUS PHŒNICEA DE LA RÉGION DE
FOUNASSA (ALGERIE)
A.
BOUYAHYAOUI1, F. BAHRI1, A. ROMANE2, L. JIROVETZ3,
A. MAKHLOUFI4, M. HAMIDAT1
1

Laboratoire de microbiologie et biologie végétale, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et Sciences de la
Nature et de la Vie, Université Abd El Hamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algérie Email:
biomail04@yahoo.fr
2
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Université Cadi
Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
4
Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Végétales et de la Sécurité Alimentaire dans les
zones Semi-arides, sud ouest algérien, BP 417, Université de Bechar, Algérie

Les huiles essentielles des feuilles et des baies sèches de Juniperus phœnicea
de l'Atlas saharien sont obtenues par hydrodistillation avec des rendements
de 2,5 % et 2,54 % respectivement. Elles renferment plus de 40 composés
chacune, dont l' α-pinène représente le composé majoritaire 62,56 % pour
les feuilles et 80,52 % pour les baies. Le dosage de certains métaux dans les
feuilles et les baies de cette plante, tels que: Fe, Cu, Zn et Pb a donné des
concentrations en dessous des valeurs toxiques pour l'homme et l'animal.
Les huiles essentielles (feuilles et baies) ont manifesté un effet antimicrobien
prometteur envers les souches testées: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
pneumoneae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.
albedinis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus et Candida albicans. La
croissance des souches bactériennes a été inhibée complètement en présence
des huiles essentielles des feuilles et des baies aux concentrations de 26,66
µl/ml et 33,33 µl/ml respectivement. Candida albicans a été totalement
inhibé à la concentration de 5 µl/ml. L'huile essentielle des baies a manifesté
un pouvoir inhibiteur plus élevé que celui des feuilles chez les moisissures
testées. Le taux d'inhibition d’Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus et
Fusarium oxysporum) atteint 100% en présence des huiles essentielles des
feuilles et des baies aux concentrations de 16,66µl/ml et 20 µl/ml
respectivement. L'effet antioxydant de l'huile essentielle des feuilles est plus
important que celui des baies, mais inférieur à celui de l'acide ascorbique. Il
est 4 fois moins efficace que la vitamine C.
Mots clés : Juniperus phœnicea, huiles essentielles, composition chimique,
activité antimicrobienne, activité antioxydante, Atlas saharien, Algérie.

36

CIPAM 2014 Zarzis-Tunisia : 17-20 March 2014

37T2CO5

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVIT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL
SCREENING OF TAMARANDUS INDICA L.
Sami Abdelmagid Mohammed Elrufaia, Mohammed Elfatih Ahmed Omerb
Aisha Zoheir Almagboulc
a

Department of MIcrobiology*Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman,Sudan,
b
Dean of the Faculty of Pharmacy ,Alneelain University , Khartoum,Sudan,
c
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum,Sudan, e-mail
aalmagboul2000@yahoo.co.uk

The fruits petroleum ether, methanol and water extracts
of: Tamarindus indica (Family Caesalpinaceae), were screened for
their antimicrobial activity against six standard organisms. One
Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram negativ
bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa) and two fungi, namely Aspergillus niger and Candida
albicans in comparison to two references antibiotics (Ampicillin
and Gentamicin and two references antifungal drugs (Clotrimazole
and Nystatin) using the cup plate agar diffusion method (1).
The petroleum ether extract of the fruit of Tamarindus
indica showed no activity against all organisms tested. The methanol
extract was more active than the aqueous extract, .so it was further
tested against 112 clinical isolates collected randomly from National
Laboratory, Police Hospital, Omdurman Teaching Hospital and
Khartoum State Central Laboratory and the minimum inhibitory
concentration was also determined using the agar plate dilution
method. (2).The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of
alkaloids, coumarins, deoxy sugars, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes,
saponins and unsaturated sterols. .Anthraquinone glycosides,cardiac
glycosides,cyanogenic glycosides were absent.
(1)Kavanagh, F.(1972) ‘Analytical Microbiology”, Vol.II,
F.Kavanagh (Ed.) Academic Press,New York and London.PP.11
(2)Blair, J.E., Lennette, E.H. and Truant, J.P (1970).Manual of Clinical
Microbiology.PP303.

37


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