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Sports Med 2011; 41 (3): 199-220
0112-1642/11/0003-0199/$49.95/0

REVIEW ARTICLE

ª 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Physiology of Small-Sided Games
Training in Football
A Systematic Review
Stephen V. Hill-Haas,1 Brian Dawson,1 Franco M. Impellizzeri2,3 and Aaron J. Coutts4
1 School of Sports Science, Exercise & Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia,
Australia
2 Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Schulthess Clinic, FIFA Centre of Excellence, Zurich, Switzerland
3 Research Centre for Sport, Mountain and Health (CSMS) of Rovereto, University of Verona, Verona Italy
4 School of Leisure, Sport & Tourism, University of Technology, Lindfield, New South Wales, Australia

Contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Small-Sided Games (SSGs) in Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Quantifying Exercise Intensity During SSGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Time-Motion Measurement in SSGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Variables Affecting SSG Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Pitch Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Player Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Concurrent Manipulation of Pitch Area and Player Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 Rule Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.5 Goalkeepers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.6 Training Regimen (Including Game Duration and Work : Rest Ratios) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.7 Coach Encouragement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.8 Logistics and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.9 Comparisons of SSG Training Intensity with Competitive Match Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Studies Comparing SSGs Training with Interval Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Acute Physiological Comparisons of SSGs Training with Interval Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Training Studies Comparing SSGs Training with Interval Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Limitations of SSGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Abstract

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Small-sided games (SSGs) are played on reduced pitch areas, often using
modified rules and involving a smaller number of players than traditional
football. These games are less structured than traditional fitness training
methods but are very popular training drills for players of all ages and levels.
At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSGs can best
be used to improve physical capacities and technical or tactical skills in
footballers. However, many prescriptive variables controlled by the coach
can influence the exercise intensity during SSGs. Coaches usually attempt to
change the training stimulus in SSGs through altering the pitch area, player