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TIGDUDA TAZZAYRIT TAMAGDAYT TAΓERFANT
AΓLIF N ULMUD UNNIG D UNADI USSNAN
TASDAWIT AKLI MUḤEND ULḤAĞ N TUBIRET
AGEZDU N TUTLAYT D YIDLES AMAZIΓ

AKATAY N TAGGARA N MASTER
Asentel:

S ɣur :

S lmendad:
ḤAMUM Raḥima
NEṢṢAḤ Faṭima

Dr: ǦELLAWI Mḥemmed

2012/2013

Asnemmer
Tanemmirt tameqqrant i mass Mḥemmed ǦELLAWI i
d-yellan ɣer tama-nteɣ segmi nebda axeddim-agi armi d
taggara.

Ad as-nini tanemmirt tameqqrant ɣef uweṣṣi, awelleh
akked wafud i aɣ-d-yefka, ayen i aɣ-yessawḍen ad nessali
axeddim-agi.

Tanemmirt i wid akk i aɣ-d-yefkan afus n tallelt akken
ad nexdem axeddim-agi, ad t-id-nessiweḍ ɣer yifassen n
yimeɣri.

Abuddu

Ad buddeɣ axeddim-agi:
I baba akked yemma ad ten-yeḥrez Ṛebbi.
I wayetma d yessetma.
I temddukal-iw ḥemmleɣ, tid ideg d-sɛeddaɣ ussan ur
tettuɣ ara.
I yinelmaden d tnelmadin n ugezdu n tutlayt d yidles
amaziɣ deg tesdawit n Tubiret.
I yiselmaden n ugezdu n tutlayt d yidles amaziɣ akken
llan.

Raḥima

Abuddu
Ad buddeɣ axeddim-agi:
I yimawlan-iw ɛzizen.
I wayetma d yessetma.
I temdukkal-iw akk, yal yiwet s yisem-is.
I yinelmaden d tnelmadin n ugezdu n tutlayt d yidles
amaziɣ deg tesdawit n Tubiret.
I yiselmaden n ugezdu n tutlayt d yidles amaziɣ akken
llan.

Faṭima

Tazwart tamatut

Tazwart

Tazwart
Tasekla n tmaziɣt d tanesbaɣurt deg tmeslayt akked yidles. Deg teɣzi
n yiseggasen yezrin, tebna ɣef timawit i yellan d lsas i d-tettak tsuta i tayeḍ.
M. IMAREZENE yenna-d deg wawal-is ɣef tsekla-agi timawit :
“Tasekla-agi akken ma tella tettruḥu seg yimi ɣer tmeẓẓuɣt, d ayagi i ttyeǧǧan tezger idurar d yisaffen, ussan d yiseggasen, akken ad taweḍ si lǧil
ɣer wayeḍ”. (1)
Ihi d timawit i aɣ-d-yessawḍen ayen d-nnan d wayen gan yimezwuranneɣ, d waṭas n tewsatin n tsekla ama d tamedyazt, neɣ d tasrit s tewsatinis, am: Tumgist, taqsiṭ, tamacahut…
Ad naf anagmay-agi kan daɣen yenna-d : “Ma yella si zik i tettidir
tsekla-agi s timawit, ass am wass-a ur ilaq ara ad nettkel ɣef ubrid-agi, ilaq
ad tt-naru, ad tt-nesdukkel i wakken ur tettezzer ara di tesraft n tatut”. (2)
Tasekla n tmaziɣt timawit d yiwet gar tsekliwin n ddunit
timerkantiyin, s wayen tekseb d tiwsatin n tsekla. Ad d-nkemmel awal s
wayen i d-tenna C. L. Dujardin : “Lezzayer tezmer ad tzux s tgemmi akked
tsekla-ines tamerkantit, tin i yes-s tezmer ad d-tas deg umkan amezwaru gar
tsekliwin timawiyin n ddunit akken llant”. (3)
Maca abrid-agi n timawit ur idum ara, acku aṭas n tewsatin n tsekla i
iruḥen zrent deg tesraft n tatut, ɣef waya i d-tusa tirawit akken ad tesfeḍ
leɛyub n timawit, ad teḥrez tasekla-agi i lebda.
Tirawit deg tsekla taqbaylit tban-d deg tallit n unekcun arumi ɣer
tmurt n Lezzayer, anda ad naf adabu-agi ibeddel taɣara n useddu n tmurt,
maca seg tama nniḍen aɣerbaz n Yirumyen yeslal-d imusnawen imezwura i
(1)

Moussa IMARAZENE, Timɛayin n Leqbayel, HCA, Alger, 2006 -2007, p. 06.
Ibid. p. 06.
(3)
Lacoste Dujardin C., Le conte Kabyle, Etude ethnologique, Edition Bouchène, Paris, 1991, P. 37.
(2)

6

Tazwart

yuran tasekla taqbaylit, skelsen-tt-id seg timawit rran-tt-id ɣer tirawit, am
“Bulifa”akked “Belɛid At Ɛli”.
Ɣef waya ad d-naf Salem Chaker yenna-d : “Ilaq ad nerǧu tallit n
urumi akked tezrirt n uɣerbaz akked tsekla tafransist akken ad d-ilal usnulfu
n tsekla tirawit s tutlayt tamaziɣt”. (1)
Yedda zzman tuɣal tsekla taqbaylit tettwaru, tettwaḥrez deg yidlisen,
am wakken daɣen i d-banen waṭas n yinagmayen akked yimura i iqeddcen
ɣef tsekla-agi, kkaten amek ad tt-snernin, ayen i yeǧǧan tiwsatin nniḍen n
tsekla ad d-banent, ad d-kecment ɣer tsekla-nneɣ, am: Amezgun, ungal,
tullist.
Ihi tazrawt-agi-nteɣ nexdem-itt ɣef tullist, imi nwala tawsit-agi d
tamaynut i d-tekcem ɣer tsekla taqbaylit, yerna ulac fell-as aṭas n yidlisen
akked tezrawin, armi d iseggasen-agi kan ineggura i d-tejbed lwelha n
yimura akked yinagmayen. Iswi-nteɣ mi nextar asentel-agi, d asnerni n
tektiwin akked tmussniwin ɣef tewsit-agi n tsekla ɣas ulamma cwiṭ.
Amahil-agi d win nebḍa ɣef tlata n yixfawen igejdanen :
Deg yixef amenzu, nenna-d d acu i d tullist, nefka-d tibadutin i as-fkan
kra n yimura akked yinagmayen i iqeddcen ɣef tewsit-agi. Am wakken
daɣen i d-newwi awal ɣef tullist tagraɣlant: Amek, melmi d wanda i d-tban,
akked kra n yimedyaten n wamuden n tullisin tigraɣlanin yettwarun.
Ixef wis sin, newwit-id ɣef tullist taqbaylit, anda i d-nemmeslay ɣef
tlalit akked unerni-ines, am wakken daɣen i d-nefka tulmisin timuta iɣef
tebna tullist taqbaylit akked kra n wamuden yettwarun.

(1)

Chaker. S., « La naissance d’une littérature écrite : Le cas du bérbère (Kabyle) », in Bulletin d’étude
Africaine N° 17/18, Paris, 1992, P. 8.

7

Tazwart

Ixef wis kraḍt, d tasleḍt i wamud n tullisin “Allen n tayri” i yura
“Ayt Iɣil Muḥend”. Deg tazwara newwi-d awal ɣef tmeddurt n umaru-agi
akked leqdic-is deg unnar n tsekla taqbaylit, syin ɣur-s newwi-d awal s
umata ɣef udlis-agi d wayen akk d-yeddan deg-s, syin d asawen nekcem ɣer
tesleḍt n wamud seg tama n ugbur.
Ɣef waya, yessefk fell-anteɣ ad d-nefk yiwen usteqsi i nwala d
agejdan, win iɣef ad nebnu tazrawt-agi-nteɣ : D acu-tent tulmisin timuta
iɣef tebna tullist taqbaylit?

8

Ixef amenzu
Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Deg yixef-agi amenzu, ad neɛreḍ ad d-nawi awal ɣef tlata temsal
tigejdanin, tid i d-icudden ɣer tullist. Deg tazwara ad d-nefk tabadut n tullist
akken ad tt-id-nessegzi, ad tt-id-nessefhem d acu-tt, melmi d wanda i d-tlul,
am wakken daɣen ad d-nefk tibadutin i as-fkan yimyura akked yimawalen n
tsekla.
Deg temsalt tis snat, ad d-nemmeslay ɣef laṣel n tullist, d wamek i dtelḥa seg leqrun iɛeddan armi i d-tewweḍ ɣer tallit-agi-nneɣ akked ubeddel i
d-yellan deg-s.
Ma yella deg tamsalt tis kraḍt, ad d-nefk kra n yimedyaten n tullisin
tigraɣlanin yettwarun.

1_ Tabadut n tullist:
Laṣel n wawal « nouvelle » iban-d deg lqern wis 15, seg wawal
«Novella» i d-yekkan seg tutlayt taṭelyanit, inumek awal “tullist” deg
tmaziɣt. Tettawi-d ɣef yineḍruyen yettidir umdan deg tillawt. Akken i dyenna Pierre-Louis Rey : “Tullist d taḥkayt wezzilen, temmal-d s umata
agraw n yineḍruyen”. (1)
Ad naf daɣen amawal n “Le Littré” yefka-d tabadut i tullist, anda i dyenna : “Tullist d ṣṣenf n wungal meẓẓiyen, d taḥkayt i d-yettawin ɣef
yineḍruyen yesɛan azal, neɣ yesseḍsayen”. (2)
Deg tsekla, tullist d tawsit n wullis, ad tt-naf deg tsekliwin merra, tella
deg yal tallit, deg yal tamnaḍt deg umaḍal.

(1)

Pierre-Louis Rey, le roman et la nouvelle, HATIER, 2001, p. 84.
Selon Le Littré : « Une nouvelle est une sorte de roman très court, un récit d’aventures intéressantes ou
amusantes.
(2)

10

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Muḥend Akli Salḥi d yiwen seg yinagmayen n tsekla taqbaylit. Deg umawalines asegzawal n tsekla, ad t-naf yefka-d tabadut i tullist, yenna-d : “D tawsit
n tsekla, talɣa-ines d tawezzlant. Tullist temxallaf ɣef tmacahut, acku ayen
iɣef d-tettawi yeqqen ɣer tudert n yal ass; mačči am tmacahut, ittuqqet
umakun d wayen ur nezmir ad yili deg tillawt. Rnu ɣer wannect-a, tullist d
tawsit yettilin s tira; ma yella d tamacahut d tawsit n timawit. Temxallaf
diɣen tullist ɣef wungal: tullist d aḍris wezzilen mačči am uḍris n wungal. Di
tullist ur yettili ara waṭas n uglam d yiwenniten d yiwudam”. (1) Seg tbadutagi i d-yefka akka mass Salḥi iban-aɣ-d mliḥ unamek n tullist, d umgired
yellan gar-as d tewsatin nniḍen n tsekla i tt-yettcabin am tmacahut akked
wungal.
Ihi tullist tettbeddil seg uḍris ɣer wayeḍ, acukan tettili-d wezzilet ɣef
ungal, tesɛa tagnit n tazwara i yellan d tazwert, tagnit talemmast anda i
ḍerrunt tigawin-ines, ttnernint, ttbeddilent seg tegnit ɣer tayeḍ, akked
tegnit n taggara swayes tkeffu tullist. Sumata tullist ur tettili ara iman-is deg
udlis, maca tettas-d deg wamud.
Am wakken i d-yusa deg “Le Vocabulaire des études littéraire” :
“Tullist s umata tettawi-d ɣef yiwen usentel neɣ yiwen uneḍruy, tlemmed
anerni n tnefsit, ur ṭṭaqaten ara deg-s yiwudam am tmacahut, am wakken d
aɣen ur ttilin ara d izamulen neɣ d isugnanen, maca ttawin-d ɣef tillawt
tanefsanit”. (2)
Seg tbadut-agi ad nefhem belli tullist tettawi-d ɣef wayen icuban ayen
yettilin deg tmetti neɣ deg tudert n yal amdan, s umata d ayen yettilin deg
tillawt.
Pierre-Louis Rey d yiwen seg yinagmayen i ixedmen tazrawt ɣef
tullist, anda i as-d-yefka aṭas n tbadutin i d-icudden ɣur-s, amedya :
(1)
(2)

Muḥend Akli Salḥi, Asegzawal ameẓẓyan n tsekla, Ed L’ODYSSEE, 2012, p. 71.
Disponible sur : http:// home. ican. net/galandor/ litter/ nouv.htm

11

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

1.1 Tullist d aḍris n tesrit:
Yekcem lqern wis 17, mazal tullist tettas-d s wudem n tmedyazt,
amedya : Tid yura Jean De la Fontaine. Syin d asawen ɛerḍen yimyura akked
yinagmayen ad d-skecmen tasrit deg tullist, ad t-id-rren deg umkan n
tmedyazt.
Syin d asawen, mi walan tullist twulem ad tili s wudem n tesrit, uɣalen
rran-tt d yiwet seg yilugan iɣef ilaq ad tebnu. (1)
1.2 Tullist d aḍris wezzilen:
Asefren n teɣzi d win yuzzlen neɣ mucaɛen s waṭas ɣer yimyura n lqern
wis 18 d wis 19. Amedya : “Eugénie Grandet” i yellan d ammud n tullisin i
yura Balzac, yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1833, yesɛa ugar n 200 n yisebtar.
Am wakken daɣen i tezmer tullist ad tili wezzilet, amedya : Tullisin i
yura Guy De Maupassant, sɛant seg 4 ɣer 5 n yisebtar i yiwet n tullist.
Ɣef waya, nezmer ad d-nini asefren-agi n teɣzi neɣ n tewzel zik-nni ur
yelli ara d ccerṭ deg tira n tullist, acku yal amyaru amek itt-yettaru; llan wid
itt-yettarun ɣezzifet, tikkwal tettaweḍ alma d 500 n yisebtar, llan wiyiḍ
ttarun-tt wezzilet. (2)
1.3 Tullist d aḍris asugnan:
Ɣef wakken i d-yenna Segrais : “Tullist d tin iqerben ɣer teqsiṭ akter n
wungal”. Imi taqsiṭ tcudd ɣer usugen, s waya nezmer ad d-nini tullist deg
lqern wis 18 d wis 19 tcud ɣer usugen.

(1)
(2)

Pierre-Louis Rey, Op. cit. p. 87.
Ibid. p. 87. 88.

12

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Seg umenzay-agi i tuɣal “La Princesse de Clèves” tettuneḥsab d tullist.
Syin d asawen yuɣal unatal ɣef usala d taɣawsa tagejdant iɣef ilaq ad tebnu
tullist n lqern wis 19 d wis 20 d asawen. (1)
1.4 Tullist d aḍris i d-iḥekkun taḥkayt:
Ineḍruyen n tullist tezzin ɣef yiwet n teḥkayt. Tewzel-nni-ines tettaǧǧa
amaru ad yekkes isemsiyen isnaniyen ad ten-ileqqem s tmukrist tagejdant,
neɣ tikkwal timukrisin tisnaniyin ttawint ɣer tmukrist tagejdant.
Amedya ɣef waya, d ineḍruyen i itezzin deg tullist “Colomba” i yura
Mérimée deg useggas 1840, anda ineḍruyen n tullist s lekkmal-is d wid i
yettawin ɣer uneḍruy agejdan i yellan d “la vendetta” neɣ d ttar i tebɣa ad
d-terr yiwet n teqcict isem-is Colomba, anda i tettweddiɛ gma-s Orso ad ineɣ
iqettalen n baba-s “le Colonel Della Rebbia”.
Colomba tezga teṭṭafar, tettweddiɛ gma-s ɣer temsalt-agi n ttar, armi d
taggara n tullist Orso yenɣa irgazen-nni deg tlata yid-sen, ɣas akken ayagi
mačči d lebɣi-s. (2)
Am wakken daɣen i llant waṭas n tullisin nniḍen i d-yettawin ɣef
teḥkayin yelhan, lemtel n : “Le Saut du berger” akked “La Ficelle”, tid i yura
Guy De Maupassant.
1.5 Tullist d aḍris s yiwudam:
Tullist am nettat am tewsatin nniḍen n tsekla, tesɛa iwudam i
yesselḥawen ineḍruyen akked tigawin-ines, yal yiwen seg yiwudam-agi
yesɛa tamlilt weḥd-s.
Pierre-Louis Rey yenna-d : “Am wakken nuɣ tanummi, tamlilt n wasaḍ
tettili d tagejdant”. (3) Acku d netta i d-yettafen tifrat i tmukrist.

(1)

Pierre-Louis Rey, Op. cit. p. 88.
Ibid. p. 88. 89.
(3)
Ibid. p. 90.
(2)

13

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Yenna-d d aɣen : “Ɣur Guy De Maupassant, awadem deg tullist mačči kan
d ameggi aḥerfi, maca yesɛa azal acku ula d netta yesselḥay tigawin d
yineḍruyen n tullist”. (1)
Am wakken nuɣ tanummi, iwudam n tullist d wid yeqqnen ɣer tillawt,
maca deg kra n tullisin n tussna n yineglan, iwudam ttilin d isugnanen
lemtel : les martiens, les extraterrestres, am wakken daɣen izemren ad ilin d
iwudam igejdanen deg tullist.
2_ Laṣel n tullist:
Deg uḥric-agi, ad d-nawi awal ɣef laṣel n tullist, amek i tella d wamek i
d-tedda deg leqrun i iɛeddan armi d-tewweḍ ɣer tallit-agi. Am wakken
daɣen ad d-nawi awal ɣef tulmisin n tullist deg yal tallit akked yisental iɣef
d-tettawi.
2.1 Tullist deg teglest:
Am wakken i neẓra, tullist d yiwet seg tewsatin n tsekla i yellan seg
zik. Deg lawan-nni ad tt-naf s sin wudmawen : Tamedyazt akked tesrit.
Gar tullisin n tsekla tayunanit akked tlatinit i yettwarun s wudem n
tesrit, ad naf : “Daphins et Chloé” i yura Longus yeddren deg lqern wis “2”
neɣ wis “3” seld talalit n Sidna Ɛisa. Adlis-a yebḍa ɣef “4” n yiḥricen i dyeffɣen wa deffir wa. Ineḍruyen-is tawin-d ɣef sin warrac : Aqcic isem-is
Daphins, ma yella d taqcict isem-is Chloé. Arrac-agi kkren-d deg sin yid-sen
melba imawlan, kessen lmal, asmi imɣuren myeḥmalen. Ɣer taggara n teqsiṭ
ad afen imawlan-nsen.
Idlisen-agi i yura Longus d wid iwumi semman “une Pastorale”, d wid i
ixulfen akk idlisen nniḍen i itezzin ɣef kra n yisental kif kif-iten, maca netta

(1)

Pierre-Louis Rey, Op. Cit. p. 90.

14

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

yeslal-d asentel d amaynut, i yellan d asentel n tayri yezdin gar sin
yilmeẓyen seg temẓi-nsen, d wamek i d-sɛeddan tudert-nsen d iwḥiden. (1)
2.2 Tullist deg leqrun ilemmasen:
Gar wammuden n tullisin i d-yeddan deg tallit-agi : “Les Fabliaux” i
yettwarun deg lqern wis 13.
Les Fabliaux, d tullisin timecṭaḥ yettwarun s wudem n tmedyazt,
isental-nsent xfif-it, seḍsayen, tawin-d ɣef tudert n umdan n yal ass akked
wamek ttidiren “les bourgeoisie”. (2)
Yella daɣen « le roman du renart », d agraw n tullisin yemxallafen ɣef
« les Fabliaux », imi wagi tullisin-is meqqerit cwiṭ. Le roman du renart, d
adlis i ijemɛen aṭas n tullisin ɣef yiɣersiwen, kra seg-sent ttwassnen
yimyura-nsent kra ur ttwassnen ara. Gar yimyura n « le roman du renart » :
Richard De Lison, Pierre De Saint Cloud, Prêtre De La Croix en Brie.
2.3 Tullist deg tillelt:
Gar

wammuden

n

tullisin

i

d-yufraren

deg

tallit-agi

:

« L’Héptaméron », i tura Marguerite De Navarre, yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n
1558 d asawen (lqern wis 16).
Qqaren-d azwel-agi « l’Héptaméron » yettwakkes-d seg teqsiṭ-is i
iḍran deg 07 wussan kemmlen, ass wis 08 ur yekkmil ara.
Ineḍruyen-is ttawin-d ɣef « Les personages noble » : Xemsa yirgazen
akked xemsa tlawin i yettmeslayen ɣef waṭas n temsal, abeɛda ɣef tayri.

(1)
(2)

Pierre-Louis Rey, Op. cit. p. 84.
Ibid. p. 85.

15

Ixef amenzu

Awal ɣef tullist s umata

Tullist-agi tettwassen s tdiwennit i yellan gar yiwudam-ines, tin i
yellan d tafukt tamaynut i d-ibanen imir-nni ɣer Margueritte De Navarre,
abeɛda deg wamud-agi.
« Les douze nouvelle exemplaires », d amud nniḍen n tullisin idyufraren deg tallit-agi, yura-tent umyaru aspenyuli « Miguel De Cervantès »
yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1613. (1)
2.4 Tullist deg lqern wis 17 akked lqern wis 18:
Tullist deg tallit-agi tettawi-d ɣef yineḍruyen yellan deg tillawt,
amedya : Tullist « Don Carlos » i yura « Cesar Vichard De Saint-Réal »,
yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1672.
Tullist-agi tḥekku-d ɣef tiɛdawit yellan gar “Philippe 2” n L’espagne
akked mmi-s Don Carlos ɣef Elisabeth de France, imi deg sin yid-sen
ḥemmlen-tt, ttnaɣen anwa ad yawin tayri-s. (2)
3_ Kra deg wamuden n tullisin tigraɣlanin:
Deg uḥric-agi neɛreḍ ad d-nebder kra n tullisin, neɣ kra n wamuden
yettwarun deg tlata n talliyin yemxallafen. Tullisin-agi mmeẓllant tmura
ideg d-ffɣent akked yimyura itent-yuran, acku yal yiwen yesɛa isental akked
tarrayt swayes yettaru, tid yemxallafen seg umaru ɣer wayeḍ.
Iswi-nteɣ deg waya, d asiwseɛ n tmussni n yimeɣri deg unnar-agi n
tullisin, imi neẓra aṭas n wid ur nessin ara neɣ ur nesli ara s wamuden-agi d
akken llan. S waya, yal yiwen deg-neɣ yezmer ad yefk i yiman-is afud, akken
ad inadi ɣef tullisin-agi, ad tent-iɣer wa ad iẓer acḥal tewseɛ tsekla.

(1)
(2)

Pierre-Louis Rey, Op. cit. p. 85.
Ibid. p. 86.

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Awal ɣef tullist s umata

3.1 Tullisin yettwarun deg leqrun ilemmasen:
*L’Héptamèron : D amud n tullisin i tura Margueritte De Navarre. D
tamarut n tutlayt tafransist, tlul deg 11 yebrir 1492, deg Angoulême deg
tmurt n Fransa. Temmut deg 21 duǧember 1549 deg Odos-en-Bigorre. Amudagi n tullisin yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1880.
*Le Décaméron : D amud n tullisin i yura Jean Boccace. D amaru
aṭelyani, ilul ass n 16 yunyu 1313 deg Certaldo, yemmut deg 21 duǧember
1375.
*Les nouvelles exemplaires : D amud n tullisin i yura Miguel De
Cervantès. D amaru aspenyuli, ilul ass n 29 ctember 1547 deg Alcala de
Henares, yemmut ass n 22 yebrir 1616 deg Madrid. Amud-agi yeffeɣ-d deg
useggas n 1613.
3.2 Tullisin yettwarun deg tallit tatrart:
*Ligeia : D tullist i yura Edgar Allan Poe. D amaru amarikani, ilul ass n
19 yennayer 1809 deg Boston, yemmut ass n 07 tuber 1849 deg Baltimore.
Tullist-agi teffeɣ-d aseggas n 1838.
*La Parure : D tullist i yura Guy De Maupassant. D amaru n tmurt n
Fransa, ilul ass n 05 ɣuct 1850 deg Dieppe, yemmut ass n 06 yulyu 1839 deg
Passy. Tullist-agi teffeɣ-d aseggas n 1884.
*Le Caméléon : D tullist i yura Anton Pavlovitch Tchekhov. D amru
arusi, ilul ass n 29 yennayer 1860 deg Taganrog, yemmut ass n 15 yulyu 1904
deg Adenweiler. Tullist-agi teffeɣ-d aseggas n 1884.

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3.3 Tullisin yettwarun deg tallit tamirant:
*Le dernier mot : D tullist i yura Graham Mansfield. D amaru n
tmurt n Britanya, ilul ass n 02 tuber 1904 deg Berkhamsted, yemmut ass n 03
yebrir 1991 deg Corseaux. Tullist-agi teffeɣ-d Aseggas n 1990.
*Bliss (Félicité) : D tullist i tura Katherine Mansfield. D tamarut n
tmurt Néo-Zélanda, tlul ass n 14 tuber 1888 deg Wellington, temmut ass n 09
yennayer 1923 deg La Fontaine bleu.
*Tahta al Midalla : D tullist i yura Najib Mahfoud. D amaru n tmurt n
Maṣer (Le Caire), ilul ass n 11 duǧember 1911 deg le Caire, yemmut ass n 30
ɣuct 2006. Tullist-agi teffeɣ-d aseggas n 1969. Suqqlen-tt-id ɣer tutlayt
tafransist, semman-as : Sous l’abri.
Ɣer taggara n yixef-agi, nezmer ad d-nini tullist tban-d aṭas aya. D tin
yuɣen amkan wessiɛen deg tsekla tagraɣlant akked tmetti-ines, s luluf n
wamuden i d-yeffɣen. Tullist tagraɣlant tettawi-d ɣef wacḥal d asentel,
abeɛda win n tmetti. S umata tettas-d s wudem n tesrit, tebna ɣef tdiwennit
akked yiwudam i yesseddayen ineḍruyen-is, ma yella d asefren n teɣzi neɣ n
tewzel ur yelli ara d ccerṭ.

18

Ixef wis sin
Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

Deg yixef-agi wis sin, ad d-nawi awal ɣef tlata n yisental i d-icudden
ɣer tullist taqbaylit. Deg tazwara ad d-nemmeslay ɣef tullist taqbaylit,
melmi i d-tban akked wamek i tennerna. Syin ɣur-s ad d-nefk tulmisin
timuta iɣef tebna tullist taqbaylit. Ɣer taggara ad d-nefk imedyaten ɣef
wamuden n tullisin yettwarun.
1_ Talalit d unerni n tullist taqbaylit:
Tullist d yiwet seg tewsatin n tsekla yellan seg zik, maca d yiwet seg
tewsatin timaynutin n tsekla taqbaylit.
Iwakken ad d-nemmeslay ɣef tlalit-ines, yessefk fell-anteɣ ad dnemmeslay qbel ɣef yimusnawen imezwura i yuran tasekla taqbaylit itt-idiskelsen seg timawit, rran-tt-id ɣer tirawit, timital n Belɛid At Ɛli, imi yes-s i
d-yebda usnulfu deg tsekla taqbaylit.
Belɛid At Ɛli d azamul n tẓuri akked yidles amaziɣ. Aṭas i yeqdec ɣef
tsekla-ines, ayen it-yeǧǧan yugem-d aṭas seg yidles n yirumyen, maca diɣen
d win yeṭṭfen deg yidles-is akked wansayen-is iqburen.
Tira-s tuzzel deg terga n wayen iceɣben amdan anda ma yella, d tin
yeccucufen deg tidmi n tallit ideg-nettidir. Awal yezga deg yimi-s am targa
ur nettɣar, imi d win kan i yesɛa d amwanes deg wayen akk yedder.
Ayen yura ama d isefra neɣ d timucuha yegla-d s umaynut i tsekla
taqbaylit ama deg uɣanib, tugna, tikta neɣ d isental.
Deg tallit-nni, ur asen-yettunefk ara yisem n ungal neɣ tullist i
yeḍrisen n Belɛid At Ɛli, armi d iseggasen n 2000 d asawen i d-llant tezrawin
i yettwaxedmen ɣef yeḍrisen n Belɛid At Ɛli, tid i d-ibeggnen belli yura
ungal, yura tullist. Amedya, d ayen yexdem Rachid Titouche, Ɛmer Ameẓyan
akked Saɛida Muḥend Sɛaydi, d acu kan agemmuḍ iɣer ssawḍen yemgarad.
Ma nemmuqel tazrawt n Magister i texdem Muḥend Sɛaydi Saɛida ɣef “Le
20

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

récit Tafunast igujilen de Balaid At Ali : du conte a la nouvelle”, anda i
texdem tasleḍt i uḍris-agi-ines, ɣer taggara n tezrawt-is tessaweḍ tenna-d
tafunast igujilen d tullist. Ayen i d-yettbegginen aya d ayen i d-tenna : « Ma
nemmuqel ɣer yixeddim-agi n usnulfu i yexdem Belɛid At Ɛli, nezmer ad dnini aɛraḍ-agi i yeɛreḍ ad iɛiwed tira i wayen yellan deg timawit yeslal-d
tawsit-nniḍen n tsekla i yellan d tullist, tafunast igujilen i yura Belɛid At Ɛli
d tullist ». (1) Imi deg tsekla, aḍris-agi d tamacahut, Belɛid At Ɛli yules-as tira
maca mačči d tturrin kan itt-yerra ɣer lkaɣeḍ, maɛna yella deg-s ubeddel.
Ɣas ulamma yella umgirred-agi n leryuy gar yinagmayen-agi i
ixedmen tizrawin-nsen ɣef tira n Belɛid At Ɛli, maca neẓra yura tullisin.
Aṭas n yiseggasen i yezrin ɣef tira n Belɛid At Ɛli, ulac win it-id-iḍefren
armi d iseggasen n 1990 d asawen i d-tban tullist i tikkelt-nniḍen ɣef wufus n
Kamel Buɛmara, s wamud i yura aseggas n 1998, win iwumi isemma « Nekkni
d wiyiḍ », syin d asawen aṭas n yimyura i d-iḍefren abrid n Belɛid At Ɛli
akked Kamel Buɛmara.
Nezmer ad d-nini tullist taqbaylit ggten yisental iɣef d-tettawi. Llan-t
tullisin i d-yettawin ɣef zzman aqdim, llan-t tid i d-yettawin ɣef tallit
tamirant d wayen akk i iḍerrun deg-s, abeɛda tid n tmetti am : tayri, lɣerba,
tasertit.

(1)

Saida Muhand Ssaydi, le récit Tafunast igujilen de Belaid At Ali, du conte a la nouvelle, Mémoire de
Magister, 2011, p 145.

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2_ Tulmisin n tullist taqbaylit:
Tullist taqbaylit am nettat am yal tawsit deg tsekla taqbaylit, tesɛa
tulmisin tilsasiyin iɣef tebna, tid yeṭṭafar yal amaru akken ad yaru tullist-is.
Deg uzwel-agi, ad neɛreḍ ad d-nebder akk tulmisin iɣef tebna tullist
taqbaylit, akken ad tent-issinen akk yinelmaden, anda ad tent-naf ur
mxallafent ara s waṭas ɣef tulmisin iɣef tebna tmacahut akked wungal, imi d
snat n tewsatin-agi n tsekla i yettcabin ɣer tullist deg waṭas n tɣawsiwin.
Ihi gar tulmisin n tullist taqbaylit ad naf:
2.1 Tutlayt:
Ma nuɣal ɣer tutlayt n tullist, ad tt-naf d tushilt, d tusridt, teshel akk
ɣef yimdanen. Amawal n yinnan-is d ushil, yefruri-d seg tutlayt tamaziɣt
tanaṣlit, tin i ttmeslayen yibabaten akked lejdud-nneɣ seg zzman aqdim,
acku amaru d win yettextirin awalen-is, anda ad ten-naf fessus-it maca
ččuren d lemɛani.
Seg tɣuri-nteɣ i kra n wamuden n tullisin, nufa tutlayt i ssemrasen
yimyura Iqbayliyen deg tira n tullisin-nsen ur teṣfi ara, anda ad ten-naf
ssemrasen kra n wawalen ijenṭaḍen, wid yuɣen amḍiq deg tutlayt-nneɣ
taqbaylit.
Amaru mi ara yessexdam awalen n tutlayin nniḍen, abeɛda wid i dyekkan seg tutlayt taɛrabt akked tefransist ur ten-id-yettawi ara akken llan s
talɣa-nsen, maca yettbeddil-asen yettarra-ten s talɣa n tmaziɣt, am wakken
i ten-yettmeslay yal amdan deg tutlayt-is n yal ass.
Asemres n wawalen-agi deg tutlayt taqbaylit, ssebba-s d adabu i
iɛeddan ɣef tmurt-nneɣ anda yeqqim acḥal d aseggas, armi imdanen lemden
tutlayt-is mebɣir lebɣi-nsen, ayen iten-yeǧǧan ttmeslayen yes-s, neɣ
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Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

ssexdamen-tt tikkwal deg tmeslayt taqbaylit, rnu ɣur-s amxaleḍ yellan gar
leǧnas, ayagi yebda yesruḥuy ṣṣfawa n tutlayt taqbaylit taqburt.
Ad d-naf daɣen amaru n tullist yessemras tigemmi-nneɣ deg tira-ines,
abeɛda inzan d lemɛun. Iswi-ines deg waya, d asicbeḥ n tutlayt d usiweḍ n
yizen i yimeɣri akken iwata, anda yal tadyant ara yeḍrun deg tullist ad as-dyaf ayen itt-iwatan deg yinzan d lemɛun n teqbaylit.
2.2 Adeg:
Adeg d amkan i d-yemmalen anda i ḍerrunt tigawin akked tɣawsiwin
n tullist. Yezmer ad yili d tidett neɣ d win i d-yessugun wallaɣ n umdan.
Jean-Yves TADIE yenna-d deg wawal-is : “Deg uḍris, adeg yettebdad s
yimerna it-id-yeskanen”. (1)
Imerna n wadeg i itezzin deg tullist, d imataren i yettɛawanen imeɣri
ad d-yessugen ineḍruyen akken ad tt-yefhem. Ma yella ur yessin ara adegnni, ad as-yefk tugna s wayen yesɛa deg wallaɣ-is akked yimedyaten i as-dyefka umyaru deg uḍris-nni, imi yal amaru yettak-d aglam n yimukan i dyeddan deg tullist.
Adeg-agi, yezmer ad yili d tidett yessen-it yimeɣri, imi mucaɛ deg
tudert-is n yal ass, am wakken daɣen i yezmer ad yili d asugnan, d win i dyeddem umaru deg wallaɣ-is akken ad as-yefk rruḥ deg tullist, s yineḍruyen
akked yiwudam i itezzin deg-s, ad as-yefk i yimeɣri tagnit ad d-yessugen
imukan-agi ur nelli ara deg tidett, ad t-yeǧǧ ula d netta ad yinig s wafrayenis ɣer yimukan-agi.
Ihi adeg deg tullist d uwsiɛ, ur yesɛi ara tilas, imi yal tullist ad naf
ttwabedren-d deg-s waṭas n yimukan, yerna yal tadyant ur tḍerru ara kan

(1)

Ch. ACHOUR, A. Bekkat, D’après J. Y. TADIE, Le récit poétique, PUF, Ecriture 1979, p. 51.

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deg yiwen wadeg, imi iwudam zgan tembiwilen seg umkan ɣer wayeḍ, ayen i
d-yeslalayen imukan imaynuten.
2.3 Akud:
Yal amyaru yessexdam akud deg tullist-is, akken ad d-ibeggen melmi i
ḍrant tigawin akked yineḍruyen-is.
Tugett n wakud-agi, yemmal-d belli ineḍruyen akked tigawin d ayen
yezrin neɣ d ayen yellan deg zzman aqdim.
“Yella wakud nniḍen i d-yettbegginen acḥal yeṭṭef wakud n tigawt, ma
yella ɣezzifet tigawt lmeɛna-s teṭṭef aṭas n wakud, ma yella wezzilet ur
tettawi ara aṭas n wakud”. (1)
Akud deg tullist ur yesɛi ara tilas, yettnerni s tigawin yettemseḍfaren.
Ayagi yettɛawan imeɣri ad iẓer amek i ileḥḥu wakud, imi yal tigawt acḥal n
lweqt i tettawi.
Yal tullist tbeddu s umernu n wakud i d-yettbegginen melmi i bdan
yineḍruyen-is, amedya : “Zik-nni”. Ayagi d ayen yettaǧǧan imeɣri ula d
netta ad yuɣal ɣer tallit n zik, ad yekcem deg yineḍruyen-is.
Yal tigawt izeggir-itt umernu n wakud, imi d netta i yettcuddun
ineḍruyen n tullist wa zdat wa, amedya : “Deg tallit-nni, taswiɛt kan, yiwen
wass, yiwen yiḍ, zrin tlatin n yiseggasen …” .
2.4 Iwudam:
Iwudam d iferdisen ilsasiyen deg tullist, ur nezmir ara ad tt-idnessugen mebla yes-sen, imi fell-asen i tebna, d nutni i yesselḥawen tigawin
d yineḍruyen. Nezmer ad ten-naf d imdanen neɣ d iɣersiwen.

(1)

Ch. ACHOUR, A. BEKKAT, Clefs pour la lecture des récits, Convergences Critiques 2, Ed, Tell, Blida,
Algérie, 2002, p60.

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“Amaru yessexdam iwudam akken ad d-yejbed lwelha n yimeɣri, tin
ara yeččaren d leḥmala akked lferḥ i kra n yiwudam, akked tin ara yeččaren
d lkerh akked ustehzi i kra nniḍen”. (1) Imi iwudam yelhan yettnadin ɣef lxir
d lehna deg tullist, yettḥemmil-iten yimeɣri, yettmenni-asen taggara
yelhan, ma yella d iwudam yeččuren d ccer akked lefɛayel n diri, yettɣaccaten, yettmenni-asen taggara n diri.
Llan kra n yiwudam deg tullist yettsemmi-asen umaru, amedya :
Werdya, Cacnaq, Jeǧǧiga, Ɛmer, Tiziri… llan wiyaḍ ur asen-yettak ara
ismawen, acku ur seɛɛun ara azal ameqqran deg tigawin n uḍris, amedya :
Yiwen urgaz, taqcict, tameṭṭut tamezwarut, tameṭṭut tis snat, aɛessas.
Iwudam deg tullist ur ttilin ara s waṭas. Ma nuɣal ɣur-sen ad naf :
A- Iwudam igejdanen:
D iwudam iɣef bnan yineḍruyen n tullist, ttilin seg tazwara alma d
taggara. D nutni i d asaḍen, d ul n tullist, tigawin akk cuddent ɣur-sen.
Asaḍ deg tullist yemgarad ɣef wasaḍ deg tmacahut, anda i t-nettaf yal ass
d bu tebɣest, iḥemmel lxir yettnadi ɣef lḥeq, ḥemmlent akk medden,
ssaramen ad ilin am netta neɣ deg umkan-is. Ma yella deg tullist asaḍ
yemxallaf seg tullist ɣer tayeḍ, imi tawsit-agi n tsekla d tin i d-yettawin ɣef
wayen yellan deg tillawt, am wakken yezmer ad yili d taqsiṭ yeḍran, ihi asaḍ
nezmer ad t-naf d amdan yelhan, am wakken i yezmer ad yili d win n diri,
imi ayagi yuɣal ɣer usentel iɣef d-tettawi tullist.
B- Iwudam isnaniyen:
D iwudam i yettilin deg yal tullist, ɣas ulamma ur ten-nettaf ara deg-s s
waṭas, maca d nutni i yellan d ssebba imi ḍran kra n yineḍruyen.
(1)

Ch. ACHOUR, A. BEKKAT, d’après TOMACHEVSKI, Théorie de la littérature, Ed, Seuil, 1866, textes des
formalistes russes traduits par T.TODOROV, p, 45.

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Wigi d iwudam ur d-nettuɣal ara s waṭas deg tullist, neggar-iten-id kan
mi ara ten-neḥwiǧ. Yal awadem yesɛa tamlilt-is deg tullist, iwakken ad
yebnu ineḍruyen-is. Ineḍruyen-agi ttemxallafen akken i ttemxallafen
yiwudam, am wakken i d-yenna J. P. GOLDSTEIN : “Ayen nettwali deg
tigawin i xeddmen yiwudam-agi, ad nesteqsay acu, acuɣer, i xeddmen
yiwudam akka …”. (1)
2.5 Tigawin:
D ineḍruyen iɣef yettwabna yal aḍris ullis, am tullist. D nutni i dyefkan tudert i tullist, imi ttuneḥsaben d lsas. Ineḍruyen-agi beddun mi ara
tekres taluft neɣ mi ara yili kra n wugur, win i d-igellun s yineḍruyen
wezzilen neɣ wid ɣezzifen.
Tullist tesɛa kraḍ n tegnatin am yal aḍris ullis.
A.Tagnit n tazwara:
D aḥric amenzu i yes-s tbeddu tullist, nettaf deg-s isallen ad aɣ-dyesfehmen ayen i d-iteddun deg tullist. Deg tegnit-agi tamezwarut ur ttilin
ara wuguren, maca nẓer iwudam amek d wanda ttidiren.
_ Nettaf deg-s isallen ɣef wadeg : “Deg yiwet n tgelda, yiwet n taddart, deg
temdint, deg yiwet n tmurt…” .
_ Nettaf isallen ɣef wakud : “Zik-nni, yiwen wass, tafsut, deg tallit n ṭrad…” .
_ Nettaf d aɣen isallen ɣef yiwudam : “Yiwen ugellid, yiwen urgaz, Jeǧǧiga,
Muḥend…” .

(1)

Ch. ACHOUR, A. BEKKAT, d’après J. P. GOLDSTEIN, pour lire le roman, Duculot, Bruxelle, 1983, p. 48.

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B.Tagn it tis snat (Tigawin):
Deg tegnit-agi yettili-d wugur “tikerrist”, ara yerren iwudam ttidiren
deg ccwal, ayen i d-yettawin “tigawin” xeddmen yiwudam ladɣa “awadem
agejdan”, tigad yessawaḍen ɣer ferru n wugur iwumi neqqar tifrat.
Deg tegnit-agi kan ttbinen-d yiwudam imaynuten, wid ur dnettwabder ara deg tegnit n tazwara.
C.Tagnit n taggara:
Tagnit-agi tettas-d mi ara yefru wugur yellan deg tegnit tis snat, anda
ad d-naf lexṣaṣ yettwakkes. Temmal-d amek i d-teggra tudert n yiwudam mi
ifukk wugur, ama telha ama diri-tt. Taggara n tullist tettas-d s lemɣawla
melba ma nḥulfa yes-s belli tewweḍ-d. Tettili d tamecṭuḥt mliḥ, xas ma yella
ɣezzifet cwiṭ, ad tt-naf kan deg kra n yijeṛṛiḍen.
2.6 Tadiwennit:
D yiwet seg tulmisin tilsasiyin iɣef tebna tullist. D ambiddel n
yimeslayen akked yisteqsiyen gar yiwudam-ines.
Tadiwennit tesselḥay ineḍruyen n tullist, tettcuddu-ten wa ɣer wa, am
wakken d aɣen i as-d-tettak ccbaḥa i uḍris s usteqsi akked tririt i yettilin gar
yiwudam, ayen itt-yettaǧǧan teqreb neɣ tcuba ɣer tilawt.
2.7 Aglam:
Aglam d yiwen seg tulmisin d yiferdisen ilsasiyen i yettilin deg tullist,
yeslalay-d deg-s ṛṛuḥ, yettak-as-d ccbaḥa d wudem n tilawt.
Deg tullist ttilin tlata n tewsatin n uglam :
 Aglam n yineḍruyen akked tigawin.
 Aglam n tɣawsiwin.
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 Aglam n yiwudam.
Yal amyaru mi ara d-yaru aḍris-is, igellem-d adeg ideg ḍrant tigawin,
akked yiwudam i yekkin, ladɣa iwudam igejdanen. Ad d-nkemmel awal s
wayen i d-yenna J. M. Adam : “Aglam mačči kan d tiwin n wawal ɣef tidett
akken i tella, maca aglam d aweṣṣef d usewseɛ n tidett”. (1)
Tikkal aglam yettak-d i tullist udem n tilawt, mi ara s-isel yimeɣri ad
yiɣil d ṣṣeḥ d ayen yeḍran.

(1)

Ch. ACH OUR, A.BEKKAT, d’après J.M.ADAM, linguistique et description littéraires, Paris, Larousse, 1976,
p. 55.

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3_ Amuden n tullisin n teqbaylit yettwarun:
Deg uḥric-agi neɛreḍ ad d-nejmeɛ-d amuden n tullisin n teqbaylit i
yettwarun. Ɣas akken mačči aṭas i yellan, imi tawsit-agi n tsekla mačči aṭas
aya seg-mi i d-tennulfa ɣur-neɣ, maca s immal tettzad tettneri seg useggas
ɣer wayeḍ.
Amuden-agi nsettef-iten ɛlaḥsab n useggas n tuffɣa-nsen:
1.Nekkni d wiyiḍ: D ammud n tullisin i yura Kamel Buɛmara. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin HCA “Asqammu Unnig n Timmuzɣa”, deg yunyu, Aseggas n 1998.
Ddant-d deg-s xemsa n tullisin:
 Iḍ amcum
 Ul d tasa
 Kra yella kra yerna
 Taqsiṭ n ɛziz d ɛzuzu
 Tirgara
2. Allen n tayri: D ammud n tullisin i yura Ayt Iɣil Muḥend. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin TALANTIKIT deg Bgayet, Aseggas n 1999.
Ddant-d deg-s sebɛa n tullisin:
 Amsebrid
 Ababa-t d mmi-s
 Allen n tayri
 Timlilit deg ssilul
 Tayri tawessart
 Taddart-iw
 Agellid n yimelḥanen
29

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

3. Atlanta: D ammud n tullisin i yura Ayt Iɣil Muḥend. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin “Tiddukla Tadlsant Tamaziɣt” deg Bgayet, deg yebrir Aseggas n
2001.
Ddant-d deg-s setta n tullisin:
 Crif d Crifa
 Tayri n tasa
 Atlanta
 Seg sin ɣer wulac
 Bu tqacuct
 Aqettal ur yettwacukkten
4. Lǧerrat: D ammud n tullisin i yura Brahim Tazarart. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin TALANTIKIT, deg yebrir Aseggas n 2003.
Ddant-d deg-s 12 n tullisin:
 Iɛeṭṭlen
 Tikli deg yiḍ
 Akka kan
 Targit
 Ferruǧa
 Lexmis
 Dda Ɛmer
 Yemma Lkahina
 Tuber
 Tuffɣa
 Lǧerrat
 Ssuq
30

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

5. Tuɣalin: D ammud n tullisin i yura Ɛmer Mezdad. Yeffeɣ-d deg tezrigin
Ayamun, deg yunyu aseggas n 2003.
Ddant-d deg-s sebɛa n tullisin:
 Tuɣalin
 Timlilit
 Inebgi n yiḍ-nni
 Am iẓiwec deg waddad
 Yerra-tt i yiman-is
 D tagarfa i aɣ-tt-igan
 Eux, le corbeau et nous
6. Tchekhov s teqbaylit: D tasuqqilt i tullisin i yura umyaru arusi Anton
Pavlovitch Tchekhov, yerra-tent-id ɣer teqbaylit Ayt Iɣil Muḥend. Yeffeɣ-d
deg tezrigin TALANTIKIT, deg tuber aseggas n 2003.
Ddant-d deg-s sebɛa n tullisin:
 Ajawwaq ( le pipeau )
 Tafermasyant ( la pharmacienne )
 Leḥzen ( tristesse )
 Tamacahutt-nni n wučč ( la sirène )
 Tata ( le Caméleon )
 Taɣdemt ( la malveillance )
 Anna ( la damme au petit chien )
7. Tikli: D ammud n tullisin i yura Murad Zimu. Yeffeɣ-d deg tezrigin HCA
(Asqammu Unnig n Timmuzɣa), deg useggas n 2004.

31

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

Ddant-d deg-s xemsa n tullisin:
 Taẓebbujt n tafat
 Abrid n tatut
 Tabratt
 Agni n Mḥend
 Tikli
8. Akli ungif: D tullist i yura Remḍan U Slimani, teffeɣ-d deg useggas n
2004.
9. Am tmeqqunt n tzeǧǧigin: D ammud n tullisin i yura Yazid Bulma
akked Smaɛil Ɛebdenbi. Yeffeɣ-d deg tezrigin n HCA (Asqammu Unnig n
Timmuzɣa), deg useggas n 2006.
Ddant-d deg-s xemxa n tullisin:
 War isem
 Ammer
 Tiɣimit d lbaṭel
 Lunǧa
 Kker a mmi
10. Asqif n ṭmana: D tullist i yura Ɛli Mɛemri, teffeɣ-d deg tezrigin
COLORSET, deg useggas n 2006.
11. Gar zik d tura: D ammud n tullisin i yura Saɛid Cemmax. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin HCA (Asqammu Unnig n Timmuzɣa), deg useggas n 2008.
Ddant-d deg-s tesɛa n tullisin:
 Taninna neɣ tudert n tlemẓit taqbaylit
 Laman d leɣder
32

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

 Tadyant n mmi-s uciban
 Ad gen tameɣra
 Tuɣalin
 Ɛecrin duru
 Iminig
 Tizqaqin n taddert
 Ih! Lukan ad tezreḍ
12. Akli n tayri: D tullist i tura Tnaṣlit. Teffeɣ-d deg tezrigin HCA
(Asqammu Unnig n Timmuzɣa), deg useggas 2009.
13. Akal d wawal: D ammud n tullisin i yura Arezqi Ǧamel. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin Tira deg Magu, Aseggas n 2009.
Ddant-d deg-s 11 n tullisin:
 D acu i ixeddem Rebbi!
 D ddker neɣ d llenta
 Irgazen kkaten uzzal
 Taqsiṭ n ugellid d wakli
 Tadyant n ccix
 Aqelmun ɣer yiḍarren
 Teẓram neɣ ur teẓrim ara
 Winna imecḥen aḍad-is
 Bu snat n tlawin
 D acu i txeddem temẓi
 Yaya tamedyazt

33

Ixef wis sin

Awal ɣef tullist taqbaylit

14. Amneṭri: D tasuqqilt i tullisin i yura Guy De Maupassant, yerra-tent-id
ɣer teqbaylit Ḥmed Ḥamum. Yeffeɣ-d deg tezrigin TALANTIKIT, Aseggas n
2009.
Ddant-d deg-s sebɛa n tullisin:
 Amecṭuḥ ( le petit )
 Cciṭan ( le diable )
 Ttar ( une vendetta )
 Agujil ( l’orphelin )
 Aderɣal ( l’aveugle )
 Deg tferkiwin ( aux champs )
 Amneṭri ( le vagabond )
15. Ameddakel: D ammud n tullisin i yura Murad Zimu. Yeffeɣ-d deg
tezrigin Tira, Aseggas n 2010.
Ddant-d deg-s ɛecra n tullisin:
 Amerdax
 Akarni azeggaɣ
 Zina
 Ameddakel
 Litidyu
 Yeɣra meskin
 Ad nerreẓ wala ad neknu
 Anwa i d abrid ay abrid
 Yella yiwen yella ulac-it, ittmeslay kan i waḍu
 Ne nous somme pas des Arabes
16. I kečč kan: D tullist i tura Tnaṣlit
17. Limmer ad d-yuɣal zzman: D tullist i tura Tnaṣlit
34

Ixef wis tlata
Tasleḍt n wamud
“Allen n tayri”

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

Ixef-agi d taṣleḍt i wamud n tullisin “Allen n tayri” i yura Ayt Iɣil
Muḥend. Ɣef waya yessefk fell-anteɣ deg tazwara ad d-nawi awal ɣef tlata n
tɣawsiwin. Tamezwarut, d tameddurt n umaru-agi d wayen akk yeqdec deg
unnar n tsekla taqbaylit. Tis snat, d awal ɣef udlis d wayen d-yeddan deg-s s
umata. Tis tlata, d tasleḍt i wamud-agi n tullisin seg tama n ugbur.
1_ Awal ɣef umyaru:
Ayt Iɣil Muḥend d amaru aqbayli, ilul ass n 11 unbir 1960 deg Bgayet.
Tudert-is akked lweqt-is akk yesɛeddaten d leqdic ɣef tsekla akked yidles
amaziɣ.
Deg useggas n 1983, yessuqel-d “Mere courage” i yura B. Brecht.
1985 : Yessuqel-d « Voix de femme » n Kateb Yasin.
1986 : Yessuqel-d « Pour Jean Lmouhoub Amrouche » n Racid Sufi.
1987 : Yella d aselway n ugraw n umezgun « Tadukkli », anda yekki deg
usalay akked tira n yiwet n tceqquft isem-is « Agerruj n yigujilen ».
Yulyu 1987 : Ikefeḍ-d asarag-ines amenzu, win yeddmen azwel « Amour et
desir ».
1988 : Ikefeḍ-d asarag nniḍen, deg yiwen uɣerbaz deg Bujlil « Allaɣen »,
win yeddmen azwel « Evolution du théatre bérbère ».
1989 : Yesnulfa-d « Tiddukkla tadelsant n Bgayet », anda yexdem aṭas n
leqdicat idelsanen, amedya :
_ Ihegga-d sin n yimsizwaren n tezlit tamaziɣt.
_ D aselmad, d amsuddes deg teswirin timezwura n tutlayt tamaziɣt
deg yiseggasen (1990, 1991, 1992).

36

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

_ Yekki deg usnulfu n tesɣunt tamenzut n wawalen inmigdanen s
tutlayt tamaziɣt.
_ Yesnulfa-d agraw yetturaren amezgun, isem-is « Tiɣri » i dyetturaren ticeqqufin-is.
Yura taceqquft umezgun “Tazemlaṭ texser, tayeffust ur terbiḥ ara”.
1990 : Yura taceqquft “Amezruy n Numidya” i warrac imecṭaḥ.
1991 : Tuddsa d utekki deg teswirt n tutlayt tamaziɣt.
Yura taceqquft nniḍen “Anwa yextaren”, tin i d-yettawin ɣef wanda
tessawaḍ yir ttrebga.
1992 : Tuddsa d utekki deg teswirt tis snat n tutlayt tamaziɣt.
1993 : Yura taceqquft “Teddez tebrez”, i d-yettawin ɣef yineḍruyen i
ibeddlen tamurt n Lezzayer deg tallit n 90.
Ikefeḍ-d yiwen usarag deg Imezzayen, ɣef “Yennayer Imaziɣen”, anda
yella d inebgi n Tiddukkla At Ɛmer Wali.
1994 : Yura taceqquft “Axeddaɛ”.
Yewwi araz amenzu “Mulud Mɛemri” deg tira n tceqqufin.
1995 : Yura taceqquft “Tamenkart”, i d-yettawin ɣef wadeg n tmeṭṭut deg
tmetti.
Yekki deg tuddsa, aheggi akked useɣti n yikayaḍen n teglellit tamenzut n
yiselmaden n tmaziɣt.
1996 : Yessuqel-d « Huis-clos » i yura J. P. Sartre.
1997 : Yessuqel-d « Le Fhoen » i yura M. Mɛemri.

37

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

1997 ɣer 2001 : D ufrin ɣer ugraw amagday n tɣiwant n Bgayet.
1998 ɣer 2003: Deg tallit-agi yura tlata yedlisen :
 Allen n tayri: D tullisin.
 Atlanta: D tullisin.
 Tchekhov s teqbaylit: D tullisin.
Yiwen seg yigmamen n L’UNICEF n tmurt n Ṭṭalyan, yessuter-it-id
akken ad as-yeǧǧ ad d-yessuqel taceqquft-is “Tazelmaṭ texser, tayeffust ur
terbiḥ ara”, seg tutlayt taqbaylit ɣer tṭelyanit.
Yebrir 2000: Ikefeḍ-d yiwen usarag deg Bgayet ɣef tefsut Imaziɣen, anda i dyettwaɛreḍ sɣur Tiddukkla “Faṭima Remṭani”.
Yebrir 2001: Agraw “Numidya n Wehran” uraren-d taceqquft-is “Anwa
yextaren”.
2002: Agraw n umezgun n uxxam n yidles “Mulud Mɛemri”, yurar-d
taceqqugt-is “Timlilit”.
2003: Agraw n umezgun n uxxam n yidles “Mulud Mɛemri”, yurar-d
taceqquft-is “Ilef”.
Yebrir 2003: D yiwen gar yigmamen n umsekrid deg umsizwer n tmedyazt, i
d-thegga Rradyu Sumam.
Am waken daɣen i d-yessuqel i waṭas n yimyura Irumyen, lemtel: (A. Dandet,
G. de Maupassant) akked tmedyazt yura (J. Brel, G. Brassens, Leo Ferré).
Yekki deg waṭas “Les sites”, lemtel: “Ayamun, Bgayet.net, Tamazɣa.fr”
D yiwen seg wid i d-yesbedden isebtar n tmaiɣt deg uɣmis « La Dépèche de
Kabylie ».

38

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

21 ɣer 27 ctember 2005 : D amsuddes, d agmam amsekrid n tfaska tis 07 n
tezlit tamaziɣt, i d-thegga tɣiwant n Bgayet.
Tuber 2006 : Yessuqel-d taceqquft « Faṭima », i yura Mḥemmed Bengeṭṭaf,
seg tutlayt taɛrabt ɣer tutlayt taqbaylit.
Ctember 2007 : Taceqquft « Taṭima » n Mḥemmed Bengeṭṭaf, i d-yessuqel
ɣer teqbaylit, turar-itt-id Ḥamida Ayt Ḥaǧ deg umezgun n Lezzayer.
Yennayer 2008 : Ikefeḍ-d yiwen usarag deg Bni Mɛuc asentel-is « Calendrier
et rites Bérbères », i d-thegga Tiddukkla « Imnayen n tɣerma ».
Furar 2008 : Turart n tceqquft « Faṭma » deg Tamenrasset.
Yebrir 2008 : Yessufeɣ-d ungal « Tiɣersi » deg tezrigin « Afromed ».
19 Ɣuct 2008: Ikefeḍ-d yiwen usarag deg Tifra, azwel-is « Mouvement
associatif en Algérie », i d-thegga tiddukkla « Tifra ».
01 ɣer 06 unbir 2008 : Yella d agmam amsekrid deg tfaska tadigant n uẓawan
akked tezlit taqbaylit.
18 ɣer 22 dujember 2008: D amsuddes, d agmam amsekrid deg tfaska n tezlit
tamaziɣt.
12 yennayer 2010: Anemhal n T.R. n Bgayet, yessuter-it-id ad yili d yiwen gar
tlata yiwudam i d-yufraren deg tsekla, deg tɣiwant.
Magu 2011: D yiwen seg yigmamen i d-yesnulfan tirkeft n tmeɣriwin n
temdint n Sedduq.
Yunyu 2011: Yura adewwan “Tabalizt”.
Yura daɣen “Tagelda uyaziḍ”, d taceqquft umezgun i warrac imecṭaḥ.

39

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

24 ɣer 29 yulyu 2011: D agmam amsekrid n tfaska tis 09 n tezlit tamaziɣt, i dthegga tesqamutt n tmeɣriwin n temdint n Bgayet.
Deg waggur n ctember, taceqquft-is “Ccix Aḥeddad” iḍleb-itt-id uɣlif n
yidles akken ad d-tɛeddi deg umuli wis 50 n timunnent n Lezzayer.
20 ctember 2011: Yura taceqquft “Melɛez U Lmuhub”.
14 yennayer 2012: Iqeddem-d asarag ɣef “Le calendrier Bérbère et ces rites”,
i d-thegga tiddukkla taseklant “Tadukkli n Sedduq”.
20 yebrir 2012: Iqeddem-d netta d tlata yimaswaḍen n tutlayt tamaziɣt,
yiwen usarag ɣef “L’evolution de Tamazight a l’école”, tin i d-thegga
tiddukkla taseklant “Tagmatt Ugemmun” n Bni Mɛuc.
06 dujember 2012: Tiddukkla n yinaẓuren n Bgayet, terra-as tajmilt i
Muḥend Ayt Iɣil.
10 ɣer 18 dujember 2012: D inebgi n lḥerma deg tfaska tadelsant taɣelnawt n
umezgun amaziɣ n Batna.
D inebgi ɣer yiwet n tedwilt deg rradyu “Awras”.
30 yennayer 2013: D inebgi ɣer T.V Tamaziɣt 4.
D inebgi ɣer Canal Algérie, deg tedwilt “Bonjour Algérie”.
09 furar 2013: D inebgi n lḥerma ɣer yeɣmisen n ṭnac deg rradyu Sumam.
09 ɣer 16 yebrir 2013: D agmam amsekrid deg wass “Yawm lɛilm”, i d-thegga
tirkeft n tmeɣriwin n tɣiwant n Bgayet i yiɣerbazen imenza.
13 yebrir 2013: Amsawa u ungal “Akal d yidim” i yura Mulud Ferɛun, ɣer
umezgun.

40

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

14 ɣer 17 yebrir 2013: D aselway amsekrid n umsizwer gar yiɣerbazen n
tɣiwant n Bgayet.
2_ Awal ɣef udlis “Allen n tayri”:
“Allen n tayri” d amud n tullisin i yura Ayt Iɣil Muḥend. Yeddem-it-id
seg tefransist. Yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1999 deg tezrigin TALANTIKIT n
Bgayet. Tazwart n udlis-a d tin i as-yexden Ɛmer Mezdad, anda i d-yewwi
deg-s awal ɣef tsekla s umata. Syin ɣur-s ad naf deg-s sebɛa n tullisin, yal
yiwet d acu-t usentel iɣef d-tettawi.
Tullist tamezwarut, d tin i d-yettawin ɣef usentel n lɣerba i imucaɛen
deg tmetti n Leqbayel. Ineḍruyen n tullist d wid i d-yewwin ɣef umsebrid i
ijaḥen, yeǧǧa tamɣart-is i lḥif akked lixṣaṣ, asmi i d-yuɣal ur t-teɛqil ara
maca mi teẓra yesɛa idrimen yewwi-tt ṭṭmeɛ, tenɣa-t.
Tis snat, d tullist n tmetti tewwi-d ɣef yiwen ubabat asmi i icukk belli
d mmi-s i yettnuɣun tilawin, imi lɣerba akked tmetti taberranit tbeddel
mmi-s tessexser-it, terra-t d amdan nniḍen. Ɣer taggara asmi d-iban belli
mačči d mmi-s i d aqettal yuɣal ubabat d mmi-s msefraqen, ur ɛawden ad
mwalin.
Tis tlata, d tin i d-yettawin ɣef usentel n tayri, yezdin gar Jeǧǧiga
akked yiwen urgaz i tufa deg ubrid, tejmeɛ-it, tdiwat. Tayri tezdi-d gar sin
n yilmeẓyen-agi ɣas akken Ɛmer werǧin iwala Jeǧǧiga.
Tis rebɛa, d taqsiṭ n sin n yilmeẓyen yennuɣen, kecmen ɣer lḥebs, zdin
deg yiwen n ssilul ur ẓrin ara. Armi s-d-yeḥka Belɛid i Muḥend ssebba iɣef
d-yekcem ɣer lḥebs, yeẓra Muḥend belli d ameddakel-is deg ssillul i d
ssebba iɣef d-yekcem ɣer lḥebs.

41

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

Tis xemxa, d tin i d-yewwin ɣef usentel n tayri yezdin gar sin
yilmeẓyen seg-mi meẓẓiyit, ɣas akken timetti ur teqbil ara tayri-nsen,
maca asmi meqqer-it wḍen lebɣi-nsen, myezwaǧen.
Tis setta, tewwi-d ɣef yiwet n teqcict i ittmennin ad d-tẓur taddart-is.
Asirem-agi yusa-as-d deg targit, anda i tt-yewwi yitri n zzher tẓur-d
taddart-is.
Tis sebɛa, tettawi-d ɣef yiwen n ugellid amesbaṭli i iɣucen ad iwali
agdud-is yecbeḥ, imi ma yella iban-d zdat-s yiwen yecbeḥ ad as-igzem
aqerruy. Imezdaɣ n tmurt-nni yeḥkem ugellid yezga fell-asen lxuf, rrwan
lbaṭel d temḥeqranit, armi d-tlul Texnanast i ibeddel ugellid ssira, yuɣal
ḥnin.

42

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

3_ Taṣleḍt n wmud n tullisin:
Ammud-agi n tullisin “Allen n tayri” d win ideg d-ddant sebɛa n
tullisin. Deg uḥric-agi i d-iteddun, ad neɛreḍ ad as-nexdem tasleḍt seg
tama n ugbur, akken ad d-nbeggen ɣef wacu i tebna yal yiwet deg-sent.
3.1 Amsebrid
3.1.1 Tutlayt:
Tutlayt d allal n tenfalit d usiweḍ n yizen i wiyiḍ, yal awal yesɛa izen i
wid yesmeḥsisen, wid yettwalin neɣ wid yeqqaren.
Muḥend Ayt Iɣil d argaz n tsekla, d win yesɛan tirmit deg tira. Ɣef
waya ad d-naf tutlayt ɣur-s d tin yesɛan azal akked yiswi ameqqran.
Tutlayt yessemres umyaru deg tutlayt-agi d tusridt, d tin n yal ass, d
tin ttmeslayen yimdanen deg tudrin n Leqbayel, fehhmen-tt akken ma
llan, ama d win yeɣran ama d win ur neɣri, ama meẓẓi ama meqqer.
Amyaru yettextiri awalen-is, yessexdam tutlayt fessusen maca teččur
d lemɛani.
Awalen yettwasxedmen deg tullist-agi, d wid n tutlayt taqbaylit n yall
ass, rnu ɣer waya ad t-naf yessemras kra n wawalen ijenṭaḍen akked kra n
lemtul.
A-Asemres n wawalen ijenṭaḍen:
Akken i nwala, aṭas n yimyura i yessemrasen awalen ijenṭaḍen deg
tira-nsen, ayagi ssebba-s d abeddel yeḍran deg tallit-agi tamirant, d umxaleḍ
gar leǧnas d yimdanen akked umbiddel n tmussniwin, ayen i yebdan
yesruḥuy ṣfawa n tytlayt taqbaylit.

43

Ixef wis tlata

Tasleḍt n wammud

Amyaru deg tullist-agi “Amsebrid” yessexdem kan sin n wawalen
ijenṭaḍen, yiwen yekka-d seg tutlayt taɛrabt “dderǧa”:
Yetthella: ‫ﯾﺗﮭﻼ‬
Wayeḍ seg tutlayt tafransist:
Abulis: Un policier
Awalen-agi ijenṭaḍen senṭaqen-ten-id Leqbayel amzun d awalen n
teqbaylit, wid i ikecmen s amawal-is. Ma yella d iswi n umyaru deg usexdem
n wawalen-agi, d asiweḍ n yizen akken iwata i yimeɣri akken ad t-yefhem,
am wakken daɣen i yebɣa ad d-ibeggen, ɣas akken aṭas n leǧnas i iɛeddan ɣef
tmurt-nneɣ, maca tameslayt-nneɣ ur tengir ara, maca nerna newwi-as-d
awalen imaynuten seg tutlayin nniḍen, nesnerna amawal-is.
B-Asemres n lemtul:
Tutlayt taqbaylit d tutlayt i imucaɛen s waṭas s usemres n tgemmiines (inzan d lemɛun). Ayagi irennu-as lmeɛna d ccbaḥa i umeslay, ijebbed-d
lwelha n yimeɣri i tɣuri n udlis.
Amyaru deg tullist-agi yessemres kra n lemtul, amedya:
_ Yiwen wass n tefsut, yif tlatin n wussan n ḥertadem.
_ Ad yeɛdel Ṛebbi lecɣal-im.
_ Ur sɛiɣ la ḥnin la lwali.
Wigi d lemtul i nessexdam deg tmeslayt n yal ass. Ɣef waya amyaru
yessemras-iten deg tira-ines akken ad d-yessicbeḥ tifyar, wa ad as-yefk i
uḍris udem n tmetti taqbaylit s wawalen-agi i icebḥen, wid i d-newret ɣer
lejdud-nneɣ, am wakken daɣen i sɛan wawlen-agi tamlilt tagejdant deg
useḥbiber ɣef tutlayt taqbaylit tanaṣlit.
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Deg tullist-agi ad naf kra n wawalen i d-yettbegginen d akken timetti
d taqdimt, wid yecban: Lkanun, mirruj, tazerbit, takeddust n yisɣaren,
lmetred, akufi, timeṣleḥt.
3.1.2 Adeg:
Deg tullist-agi ad naf kra n wawalen i d-yemmalen adeg anda ḍerrunt
tigawin akked tɣawsiwin. Imukan i d-yeddan deg tullist-agi:
1_ Amadaɣ: D adeg amenzu i d-yettwabedren deg tullist. D abrid i
yeḍfer Ḥmana abulis akked ufellaḥ akken ad ruḥen ɣer umkan anda yenṭel
umsebrid.
2_ Amdun: D adeg anda nnejmaɛen yifellaḥen ttrajun melmi ad dyaweḍ ubulis. D adeg anda yettwanṭel umsebrid yettwanɣan.
3_ Axxam n temɣart: D adeg anda ḍrant tugget n tigawin n tullist. D
amkan anda tettidir Werdya Selman, am wakken daɣen i yella d axxam n
umsebrid (argaz n temɣart) uqbel ad ijaḥ 30 n yiseggasen ayagi. Deg-s i
yensa umsebrid asmi t-yeṭṭef yiḍ berra, din i yettwanɣa, din i yesqar Ḥmana
tamɣart.
Ihi, s umata d wigi i d-imukan i d-yeddan deg tullist n umsebrid.
3.1.3 Akud:
Yal amyaru mi ara yaru tullist-is ad yessexdem deg-s akud akken ad dibeggen melmi ḍrant tigawin.
Akud deg tullist ur yesɛi ara tillas, la yettnerni s unerni n tigawin
yettemseḍfaren, ayen i yettɛawanen amseflid ad iẓer amek yebna wakud deg
tullist.

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Deg tullist n umsebrid ddan-d aṭas n yimataren i d-yettbegginen akud
ideg ḍran yineḍruyen. Llan wid i d-yusan s wudem usrid, llan wiyiḍ s wudem
arusrid, ur ten-id-yebdir ara umyaru, maca yefka-d nɛut i d-yettbegginen
annect-nni. Ad naf:
1_ Ccetwa: D amatar i d-yemmalen akud ideg teḍra tullist-agi. D win i
d-yusan s wudem arusrid, imi awal “ccetwa” ur d-yeddi ara deg uḍris, maca
yefka-d imataren it-id-yettbegginen, amedya: Adfel, times…
2_ Azal: D amatar i d-yusan s wudem arusrid. Yemmal-d belli iɛedda
lweqt n tṣebḥit yewweḍ-d uzal, yeffeɣ-d yiṭij. Awalen it-id-yettbegginen: Iṭij,
aẓɣal…
3_ Iḍ: D amatar n wakud i d-yusan s wudem usrid, anda ad naf awalagi yedda-d srid di tefyirt, amedya:
_ Werdiya tḥulfa s yiḍ yeɛjel tikli, mačči am wuḍan nniḍen.
4_ lefjer: D amatar n wakud i d-yusan s wudem arusrid, tafyirt it-idittbegginen:
-Tafat n wass tebda-d aflali ɣer Tizi.
3.1.4 Aglam:
Yal tullist yella deg-s uglam. Yettili uglam n tigawin d yineḍruyen,
tiɣawsiwin akked yiwudam, win yettɛawanen deg usugen.
Aglam deg tullist “amsebrid” d win yeggten, amedya:
A-Aglam n yineḍruyen:
Wagi yebda seg tazwara n tullist armi d taggara, amedya:
- Yufa din tafekka tedreḥ.

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- Tṭfen abrid zdaxel umadaɣ.
- Afellaḥ-nni yeḥbes, iwehha ɣer yiwet n tama.
- Ḥmana yekkes-d takerḍa n tnekkit.
- Isakked seg ṭṭaq ɣer zdaxel.
- Yiwet n temɣart tberrez tiɣerɣert.
B-Aglam n tɣawsiwin:
- Axxam yeɛmer s kra n yigerwazen.
- Lkanun iqubel tawwurt.
- Deg-s yessaɣ mirruj, tres fell-as tɣellayt.
- Yiwet n teqdiḥt tebrek s wambuxen.
- Yiwen ukufi d ilem.
C-Aglam n yiwudam:
Aglam n yiwudam ur yelli ara s waṭas deg tullist-agi, ɣas ma nufa kra n
tenfaliyin, maca ttilint seg yiwet n tama, amedya:
1- Ḥmama abulis: Ur yelli ara fell-as waṭas n uglam, maca mi neɣra
aḍris nefhem belli d argaz yeɣran, yefhem yesɛa tigzi akked tḥerci. Ayagi
yettban-d seg usqirri i yesqar tamɣart, amek armi yessaweḍ ad tt-id-yesseɣli
seg umeslay.
Tafekka-s d tin meẓẓiyen: ayagi yettban-d seg lǧerrat i d-yettaǧǧa, tid i dyettbanen d azgen zdat n tid n ufellaḥ.
2- Afellaḥ: Yettban-d akken d argaz yesɛan tafekka meqqren, yerna
yeǧhed, ayagi yettban-d mi d-yenna umyaru: “lǧerrat i d-yettaǧǧa usebbad n
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Ḥmana ttbinent-d d azgen zdat n tid i d-yettaǧǧa uḍar n ufellaḥ-nni
yeṭṭafar”.
Tella tenfalit nniḍen i d-yessebganen belli afellaḥ-agi meqqer di leɛmer, mi
d-yenna: « yeldi imi-s: d afermuc ».
3- Amsebrid: Am wakken i d-yenna fell-as umyaru: d argaz, udem-is
yekmec, tafekka-s mazal-itt tebdd ur tekni ara, yuɣ aṭas n tyitwin armi
yemmut, acku aqerruy-is ɣer deffir yeldi.
3.1.5 Tadiwennit:
Tadiwennit, d yiwet gar yiferdisen ilsasiyen i ɣef tebna tullist, am
nettat am leṣnaf nniḍen n tsekla taqbaylit.
Deg tullist-agi “amsebrid”, tadiwennit tebda segmi bdant tigawin armi d
taggara, amedya:
1-Tadiwennit i yellan gar Ḥmana abulis akked yifellaḥen:
Ḥmana: Drus aya segmi yella da ?
Afellaḥ: Segmi yefsi udfel.
2-Tadiwennit gar Ḥmana akked temɣart:
Ḥmana: Ttxil-m a tamɣart ma ur yi-d-tennid tidett. Ur ilaq ara ad
teskeɛrireḍ yess-i.
Tamɣart: Ur skeɛrireɣ ara yess-k, d kečč i yebɣan ad d-qirreɣ s wayen
ur xdimeɣ.
3-Tadiwennit yellan gar temɣart akked umsebrid:
Tamɣart testeqsa argaz-nni ansi i d-yekka.
Argaz: Yebɛed sansi i d-usiɣ.
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Ihi, sumata d wigi i yimedyaten n tdiwennit i d-yellan gar yiwudam n
tullist “amsebrid”.
3.1.6 Iwudam:
Am wakken neẓra, iwudam llan deg yal tullist, d nutni i d-lsas, fell-asen
i tebna, acku d nutni i syesselḥayen ineḍruyen d tigawin.
Ma nuɣal ɣer yiwudam n tullist-agi ad naf:
A-Iwudam igejdanen:
1_ Ḥmana abulis: D yiwen gar yiwudam ilsasiyen yesselḥan ineḍruyen
tullist. Tamlilt-is ad d-yaf anwa yenɣan amsebrid. S tiḥerci-ines akked tigziines yessaweḍ yufa-t-id, win yellan d tamɣart-is.
2_ Werdiya Selman: Ula d nettat d awadem agejdan deg tullist-agi. D
tameṭṭut n umsebrid. Ṭṭmeɛ akked lḥif n ddunit i tt-yessawḍen ad tt-neɣ
argaz-is, akken ad tawi taḥawact n yidrimen i as d-yeǧǧa d lamana.
B- Iwudam isnaniyen:
1_ Amsebrid: D argaz n Werdiya Selman. 30n yiseggasen aya segmi
iruḥ, yeǧǧa tameṭṭut-is weḥdes. Ass-a yuɣal-d s axxam, maca ur as-yenni ara
belli d argaz-is, yefka-as kan taḥawact n yidrimen ad as-tt-teffer, tin i yellan
d ssebba n lmut-is.
2_ Afellaḥ: D yiwen seg yimezdaɣ n taddart. D netta i issawḍen lexbar
n tmenɣiwt n umsebrid i yibulisen, am wakken daɣen i yessaweḍ Ḥmana s
amkan n temḍelt n umsebrid.
3_ Ifellaḥen: D nutni i yufan tafekka n urgaz-nni yettwaɣan, mi ɣazen
aẓekka-ines asmi yefsi udfel. D nutni i iwehhan axxam n temɣart i Ḥmana.

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