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PhytoChem & BioSub Journal
Peer-reviewed research journal on Phytochemistry & Bioactives Substances
ISSN 2170 - 1768

PCBS Journal
Volume 8 N° 1, 2 & 3

2014

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal
ISSN 2170-1768

ISSN 2170 – 1768

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal (PCBS Journal) is a peer-reviewed research journal
published by Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory. The PCBS Journal publishes
innovative research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, short communications and technical notes
that contribute significantly to further the scientific knowledge related to the field of
Phytochemistry & Bioactives Substances (Medicinal Plants, Ethnopharmacology,
Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Natural products, Analytical Chemistry, Organic Synthesis,
Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Computational Chemistry,
Molecular Drug Design, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Quality Assurance,
Microbiology, Bioactivity and Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Interest )
It is essential that manuscripts submitted to PCBS Journal are subject to rapid peer review and
are not previously published or under consideration for publication in another journal.
Contributions in all areas at the interface of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Medicine and Biology are
welcomed.
Editor in Chief
Pr Abdelkrim CHERITI
Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory

Co-Editor
Pr Nasser BELBOUKHARI
Bioactive Molecules & Chiral Separation Laboratory
University of Bechar, 08000, Bechar, Algeria
Editorial Board
Afaxantidis J. (France), Akkal S. (Algeria), Al Hamel M. (Morocco), Allouch A. (Lebanon), Aouf N. (Algeria),
Asakawa Y. (Japan), Atmani A. (Morocco) , Awad Allah A.( Palestine), Azarkovitch M. ( Russia), Baalioumer A.
(Algeria), Badjah A.Y. ( KSA), Balansard G. (France), Barkani M. (Algeria), Belkhiri A. (Algeria), Benachour D.
(Algeria), Ben Ali Cherif N. (Algeria), Benayache F. (Algeria), Benayache S. (Algeria), Benharathe N. (Algeria),
Benharref A. (Morocco), Bennaceur M. ( Algeria), Bensaid O. (Algeria), Berada M. ( Algeria), Bhalla A. ( India),
Bnouham M. (Morocco), Bombarda E. (France), Bouchekara M. (Algeria), Boukebouz A. (Morocco), Boukir A.
(Morocco), Bressy C. (France), Chehma A. (Algeria), Chemat F. (France), Chul Kang S. (Korea), Dadamoussa B.
(Algeria), Daiche A. (France), Daoud K. ( Algeria), De la Guardia M. ( Brazilia), Dendoughi H. (Algeria), Derdour
A. (Algeria), Djafri A. (Algeria), Djebar S. (Algeria), Djebli N.(Algeria), Dupuy N. (France), El Abed D. (Algeria),
EL Achouri M. (Morocco), El Hatab M. (Algeria), El Omar F. (Lebanon), Ermel G. ( France), Esnault M. A. (
France), Govender P. (South Africa), Jouba M. (Turkey), Hacini S. (Algeria), Hadj Mahamed M. (Algeria), Halilat
M. T. (Algeria), Hamed El Yahia A. ( KSA), Hamrouni A. ( Tunisia), Hania M. ( Palestine), Iqbal A. (Pakistan),
Gaydou E. (France), Ghanmi M. (Morocco), Gharabli S. (Jordan), Gherraf N. ( Algeria), Ghezali S. (Algeria),
Gouasmia A. (Algeria), Greche H. (Morocco), Kabouche Z. (Algeria), Kacimi S. (Algeria), Kajima J.M. (Algeria),
Kaid-Harche M. (Algeria), Kessat A. (Morocco), Khelil-Oueld Hadj A. (Algeria), Lahreche M.B. (Algeria), Lanez
T. (Algeria), Leghseir B. (Algeria), Mahiuo V. (France), Marongu B. ( Italia), Marouf A. (Algeria), Meddah B.(
Morocco), Melhaoui A. ( Morocco), Merati N. (Algeria), Mesli A. ( Algeria), Mushfik M. ( India), Nefati M.
(Tunisia), Ouahrani M. R. (Algeria), Oueld Hadj M.D. (Algeria), Pons J.M. ( France), Radi A. (Morocco),
Rahmouni A. (Algeria), Reddy K.H. ( South Africa), Reza Moein M. (Iran), Rhouati S. (Algeria), Roussel C.
(France), Saidi M. (Algeria), Salgueiro L.D (Portugal), Salvador J. A. (Spain), Seghni L. (Algeria), Sharma S. (
India), Sidiqi S. K. ( India), Souri E. ( Turkey), Tabcheh M. (Lebanon), Tabti B. (Algeria), Taleb S. (Algeria),
Tazerouti F. (Algeria), Vantyune N. (France), Villemin D. (France), Yayli N. (Turkey), Youcefi M. (Algeria),
Ziyyat A. (Morocco), Zouieche L. (Algeria), Zyoud A.H. (Palestine).

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal
Peer-reviewed research journal on Phytochemistry & Bioactives Substances

ISSN 2170 - 1768

PCBS Journal

Volume 8 N° 1
POSL

2014

Edition LPSO
Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory
http://www.pcbsj.webs.com , Email: phytochem07@yahoo.fr

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal Vol. 8(1) 2014
ISSN 2170-1768
CAS-CODEN:PBJHB3

 

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal

2014
Vol. 8 No. 1

ISSN 2170-1768

Contents
PhytoChem & BioSub Journal Vol. 8 N° 1
CHENNI M., AOUF C., FULCRAND H., MAZAURIC J.P., VERAN F. & EL ABED D.

Development of extraction and analysis of polyphenols of Mesembryanthemum edule L.

2

SMARA O., VIGOR C., JULIA A. , MORAL-SALMI C. , VERCAUTEREN J. & LEGSEIR B.

The Coumarin from Euphorbia guyoniana Boissier and Reuter

8

SOBIA N., SARA F. & AYESHA F.

An overview on age related macular degeneration and recent advances in its management

12

MOULAY Y., GHIABA Z. & SAΪDI M.

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Acacia arabica Barks

20

BOUZIDI N., SERIDI H., DAGHBOUCHE Y. & EL HATTAB M.

Determination of free sterols in red and brown algae by FTIR spectroscopy

26

BOULENOUAR N., MAROUF A. & CHERITI A.

Direct Bioautography for Antifungal Activity Measurement “Case of Bayoud Disease”

33

HAMID OUDJANA A., BOUDRAISSA I., MOKADEM S., ROUIBAH M., KEMASSI A., BOUAL
Z., DADDI BOUHOUN M. & OULD EL HADJ M. D.

Etude de l’effet des huiles essentielles brutes foliaires de Colocynthis vulgaris (L.) Schrad
(Cucurbitaceae) sur l’activité cholinestérasique chez les imagos de Schistocerca gregaria
(Forskål, 1775)

38

FANDOUGOUMA O., CHEIKH N., BELBOUKHARI N. & CHERITI A.

Antioxidant activity of Imino-Hesperidin derivatives

45

SEKKOUM K., BELBOUKHARI N., CHERITI A., LAHMER N. & NAAS A.

In vitro effect of Hesperidin & Hesperitin on calcium oxalate
Crystallization: The Chiral Impact

1

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Development of extraction and analysis of polyphenols of
Mesembryanthemum edule L.
M. Chenni 1, C. Aouf 2, H. Fulcrand 2, J.P. Mazauric 2, F. Veran 2 & D. El Abed 1,*
1

Laboratoire de Chimie Fine, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et Appliqués,
Université d’Oran, Es-Sénia, 31000 Oran, Algérie
2
Unité Mixte de Recherche Sciences pour l’Œnologie, INRA, 2, Place Viala,34060 Montpellier
Cedex, France

 
Received: December 26, 2013; Accepted: February 18, 2014
Corresponding author Email chenni.mohamed@hotmail.fr

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.2 
 
 

Abstract. Mesembryanthemum edule (Aizoaceae family) is an edible halophyte widely used as a food ingredient
and in traditional medicine. This study was intended to characterize the phenolic compounds of M. edule fresh
and stone stems. The approach consisted to establish the phenolic composition through LC-DAD-ESI/MS
consisted of an Acquity UPLC (Waters, Milford, MA) coupled with DAD and a Brucker Daltonics Ion trap
mass spectrophotometer. The UPLC analysis revealed that the main phenolic compounds were catechin,
epicatechin and procyanidin (4.9% yields) in the fresh stems, while catechin,epicatechin, procyanidin and
propelargonidins (5.06% yields) were the most abundant phenolics in the stone stems.
Key Words: Aizoaceae, Mesembryanthemum edule, Phenolic compounds, LC-DAD-ESI/MS
 

1. Introduction
Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins are commonly composed of flavan-3-ol units
of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin and (epi)afzelechin with C4-C8 or C4-C6 interflavan
linkages (B-type) and with an additional C2-O7 linkage (A-type).Proanthocyanidins
exclusively composed of (epi)catechin units are called procyanidins, whereas
propelargonidins and prodelphinidins contain (epi)afzelechin and (epi)gallocatechin,
respectively, and are usually mixed with procyanidins[1,2]. Precise determination of these
compounds remains difficult because of the great complexity of the chromatograms, due to
the multiplicity of condensed tannins structures that are distributed in plant materials.
Previously several methodfor their detection have been reported like reverse-phase HPLC
methods coupled to UV, UV–Visible or electrochemical detection[3].
In this context and in connection with our research program on valorization of the Algerian
floristic biodiversity particularly the aromatic and medicinal plants, we have undertaken a
study on the condensed tannins of Mesembryanthemum edule L. called “Lessan el Hamr”,

 

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The Coumarin from Euphorbia guyoniana Boissier and Reuter
OUANISSA SMARA1,3, CLAIRE VIGOR2, AUDREY JULIA2, CECILE MORAL-SALMI2,
JOSEPH VERCAUTEREN2 & BELGACEM LEGSEIR1
1

Laboratory of Bio-organic and Synthesis LSBO, Faculty of Science, University of Badji Mokhtar
Annaba, 23000, Algeria.
2
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, University of Montpellier 1, Faculty of Pharmacy, 15 Void Charles
Flahault B.P. 14491, 34093 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France.
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Material Sciences, University Kasdi Merbah
Ouargla, 30000, Algeria

 
Received: November 17, 2013; Accepted: March 05, 2014
Corresponding author Email ouanissasm@yahoo.fr

Copyright © 2014‐POSL
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.8 
 
 

Abstract. Esculetin is a phenolic compound that is found in various natural plant products and induces

apoptosis in several types of human cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of its action are not
completely understood. In the present work a phytochemical study of ethyl acetate extracted from the aerial parts
of Euphorbia guyoniana plant endemic of Algeria, led to the isolation of a compound (esculetin). The purification
of this compound was by column chromatography and TLC. The identification of the structure was used by
usual spectroscopic methods such as ESI-MS, NMR (1D and 2D). Coumarins Euphorbia guyoniana were not
isolated earlier.

Key Words: Euphorbiaceae, Euphorbia, guyoniana, coumarin and esculetin

1.

Introduction
Euphorbia guyoniana Boissier and Reuter is an endemic plant of the Saharan plant
growing in sandy and desert habitat, in the south of Algeria. This plant belongs to the
Euphorbiaceae family; Euphorbia species are well-known to be generally toxic, skin irritants
Euphorbia Guyoniana traditionally used to treat snakebites (Quezel, 1962; Bellakhdar,
1997).
This endemic plant of Algeria, is located in sandy regions, pre-desert and in the north of
Sahara. It is a powerful herb in length and creeping underground stem, bright green 30 Cm to
100 Cm in height. Euphorbia guyoniana has a local name “lebina”. It was previously worked
on by (Ahmed, 2006) and he reported the isolation of diterpenoids isolated from the aerial
parts and by (Haba, 2007) who reported the isolation of triterpenoids from the roots. The
purposes of this work were developed and evaluated efficient and simple procedures for
extraction of secondary metabolites.

8
 

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AN OVERVIEW ON AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AND
RECENT ADVANCES IN ITS MANAGEMENT
SOBIA NOOR*, SARA FATIMA & AYESHA FATIMA
1

Pharm.D, Department of Hospital
Pharmacy,Hyderabad,A.P India.

and

Clinical

Pharmacy

Practice,

Deccan

School

Of

 
Received: January 31, 2014; Accepted: April 04, 2014
Corresponding author Email: sobianoor76@yahoo.com

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.12 
 
 

Abstract. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition characterized, in the early stages, by slow
development and progression, absence of symptoms over a number of years, and extensive retinal deposits called
drusen, often associated with pigmentary abnormalities (early AMD).There is strong and consistent evidence that
increasing age, family history, obesity/high body mass index, and cataract surgery are associated with late AMD.
Smoking is the strongest and most consistently found modifiable risk factor for late AMD.Age-related macular
degeneration remains one of the most severe and profound disabilities encountered in medicine, particularly due to
the loss of the central vision and the high economic burden it places on patients and societies.Recent advances in
management of AMD is anti-angiogenic drugs. The identification of the crucial role played by vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of wet AMD hasallowed the development of VEGF-blocking agents such
as bevacizumab, pegaptanib and ranibizumab.
Key Words: age-related macular degeneration, smoking, vascular endothelial growth factor,
bevacizumab, pegaptanib, ranibizumab
 
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
AMD: Age-related macular degeneration
CFH: Complement factor H
OCT: Ocular coherence tomography
RPE: Retinal pigment endothelium

ARM: Age-related maculopathy
CNV: Wet AMD
PDT: Photodynamic therapy
VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor

Introduction
Age- related macular degeneration is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in
persons older than 50 years in the western world.1

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Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts
from Acacia arabica Barks
Yamina MOULAY, Zineb GHIABA & Mokhtar SAΪDI
Laboratoire V.P.R..S, Université de Ouargla,
BP 511 route de Ghardaia.30000 Ouargla, Algeria
Received: November 23, 2013; Accepted: March 11, 2014
Corresponding author Email yamoulay@yahoo.fr

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.20 

Abstract. Acacia Arabica plant is well known in the region of North African Sahara for its efficiency in the

traditional treatment of several diseases such as diarrhoea, eczema, tonsillitis and conjunctivitis. This work was
aimed to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol:water (8:2) and acetone:water
(7:3) extracts of barks of Acacia Arabica growing in Tamanrasset (Algeria). Total phenolic contents of the
extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their antioxidant activities were evaluated using
Phosphomolybdenum, reducing power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) methods. The highest
phenolic content was obtained from acetone:water extract. For the evaluation of antioxidant activity and for
Phosphomolybdenum and Reducing power methods, it was found that the methanol:water extract is more
effective than acetone:water extract who has showen more effectiveness by the DPPH method. These results
suggest that Acacia Arabica may act as a chemopreventive agent, providing antioxidant properties.

Key Words: Acacia arabica; total phenolic; antioxidant activity; Phosphomolybdenum assay; RPA;
DPPH

1. Introduction
Human body is exposed to a large number of foreign chemicals everyday [1]. The
most of which are man-made and the inability to properly metabolize them negatively affects
the health by the generation of free radicals. Oxidative damage originates from an increase in
free radical production either by exogenous radicals such as radiation, pollution and cigarette
smoking. Other sources are endogenous sources, such as inflammation, the respiratory burst
and xenobiotic killing[2-4].
Natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, curcumin and terpenoids are
found in various plants [5]. They can reduce the access of oxidants and other deleterious
molecules due to their ability to scavenge oxygen‐nitrogen‐derived free radicals by donating
hydrogen atom or an electron, chelating metal catalysts, activating antioxidant enzymes, and
inhibiting oxidases [6]. Based on accumulative evidence, in recent decades, tremendous
interest has considerably increased in finding natural substances (i.e. antioxidants) present in
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Determination of free sterols in red and brown algae by FTIR spectroscopy
N. BOUZIDI1,2, H. SERIDI1,3, Y. DAGHBOUCHE1,2 & M. EL HATTAB 1,*
1

Laboratory of natural products chemistry and of biomolecules (LCPN-BioM), University of Blida1,
P.O.B. 270 Soumâa (Blida 09000). Algeria.
2
Laboratory of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, University of Saad Dahlab, Blida.
P.O.B. 270 Soumâa (Blida 09000) Algeria.
3
Marine Biology Laboratory - Houari Boumediene University of Sciences and technology. Algeria.

 
 
Received: November 25, 2013; Accepted: March 12, 2014
Corresponding author M. El Hattab

Copyright © 2014‐POSL
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.26 
 
 

Abstract. A new analytical method was developed for the determination of free sterols in the extracts of the red
alga Asparagopsis armata and the brown one Cystoseira sedoides by using FTIR spectrometry. Sterols samples
were globally refered to cholesterol content because it is the major sterol contained in red algae [1] and to
fucosterol because it is the principal one contained in brown ones [2]. The method involves the use of cholesterol
as reference standard in the case of red alga and a correction factor of 1.259 ±0.003, which represents the ratio
between the slopes of calibration lines obtained from fucosterol and cholesterol in the case of brown alga. To
isolate the sterols, the lipidic extract of the algae were heated in methanol and diluted with water and then
preconcentrated on DSC-18 solid phase cartridges and eluted with 1 mL dichloromethane stabilized with βamylene. The determination of free sterols by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was carried out by
considering the specific band of cholesterol at 1047 cm-1 corrected with a baseline established between 1060 and
1014 cm-1. The sterols content were obtained by the external calibration. The concentrations obtained were 1.9 ±
0.5 % and 1.5 ± 0.4 % in Asparagopsis armata and Cystoseira sedoides, respectively.
Key Words: Sterol Determination, Cholesterol, Fucosterol, Asparagopsis Armata, Cystoseira Sedoides,
Fourier Transform Infrared, Solid Phase Extraction

 
Introduction
It has been well documented that the primary sterols of red algae are cholesterol and
other C-27 sterols. On the other hand, the major sterol in brown algae is fucosterol and
cholesterol has been found at trace levels. However in the green algae there is no single major
sterol.1,7
Sterols are commonly used in taxonomy, because they are constituents of the cell membranes
and their composition depend on the taxonomic position of organism investigated, on the
environment and seasonal variation.8,9 The usual work up for sterol purification includes
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Direct Bioautography for Antifungal Activity Measurement
“Case of Bayoud Disease”
Noureddine BOULENOUAR 1,2, Abderrazak MAROUF 3 & Abdelkrim CHERITI 2
1

Biological Sciences Department, El-Bayadh University, El-Bayadh 32000, Algeria
Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory, Bechar University, Bechar 08000, Algeria;
3
Biological Sciences Department, Naama University, Naama 45000, Algeria.
2

Received: October 10, 2013; Accepted: February 15, 2014
Corresponding author Email noureddine.boulenouar@gmail.com

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.33 

Abstract. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa) is the causal agent of a lethal disease of date palm

“Phoenix dactylifera L.” called Bayoud. The antifungal test against Foa was evaluated using direct
bioautography for extracts from four medicinal and/or poisonous plants (Acacia raddiana, Asteriscus graveolens
(Forsk.), Citrullus colocynhis (L.) Schrad, Pergularia tomentosa). The choice of extracts was based on activity
against Foa using disc diffusion techniques and relative virulence. The most effective extracts (detected
inhibition and relative virulence decreased below 50%) were chosen for direct bioautography test.
Direct bioautography has a great importance based on effectiveness. Extracts from Acacia raddiana showed no
effect on chromatograms. The best results were represented by ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits
(7.75  1.06 mm) and ethyle acetate extract of Asteriscus graveolens stems (7.001.41 mm).
The efficiency of some species especially Citrullus colocynthis indicates the presence of highly sensitive targets in
foa, which can be exploited for the development of efficient treatment against Bayoud.

Key Words: Date palm, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, antifungal, Medicinal plants, Poisonous
plants, direct bioautography

1. Introduction
Palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) represent for the saharian populations the trees
which maintain the ecological and socio-economic equilibrium (Ben Abdallah, 1990; Djerbi,
1991). Many Fusarium species are serious plant pathogens (Herrmann et al., 1996). Fusarium
oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Killian & Maire) Malençon, is the causal agent of Bayoud disease,
the most dangerous disease of “Phoenix dactylifera L.” (Bounaga and Djerbi, 1990). There is
no effective treatment to date.
The studies realized by our research group (Boulenouar et al., 2009; Boulenouar et al., 2012)
on nine plants prompted us to conduct a study on the extracts that showed the most important
effect on Foa using antifungal evaluation by direct bioautography (Boulenouar et al., 2011).

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Etude de l’effet des huiles essentielles brutes foliaires de Colocynthis
vulgaris (L.) Schrad (Cucurbitaceae) sur l’activité cholinestérasique chez les
imagos de Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775)
HAMID OUDJANA Aicha, BOUDRAISSA Idriss, MOKADEM Samia, ROUIBAH Meriem,
KEMASSI Abdellah, BOUAL Zakaria, DADDI BOUHOUN Mustapha & OULD EL HADJ
Mohamed Didi
Laboratoire de Protection des Ecosystèmes en Zones Arides et Semi arides
Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, BP 511 Ouargla 30000 Algérie
Received: November 17, 2013; Accepted: March 21, 2014
Corresponding author Email mohameddidi@yahoo.fr

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.38 

Résume. Le présent travail porte sur l’étude de l’effet de la toxicité sur l’activité cholinestérasique et quelques

paramètres physiologiques chez des individus mâles et femelles de Schistocerca gregaria élevé en laboratoire et
exposé aux huiles essentielles brutes des feuilles de Colocynthis vulgaris. Les manifestations d'intolérance
générale à cet extrait apparaissent vers 30 à 60 minutes après l’exposition, l’activité cholinésterasique montre
une diminution par rapport aux individus témoins, elle est de 8,08±2,65 nanomole/mn/ml chez les mâles, et de
16,34±1,15 nanomole/mn/ml chez les femelles de Schistocerca gregaria traités par l’extrait d’huiles essentielles
de C. vulgaris. Pour les lots des individus traités, le taux de protéines laisse apparaître une différence entre les
femelles et les mâles. Il augmente chez les individus mâles pour atteindre 46,11±16,17 μg/ml alors qu’il est
35±13,22 μg/ml chez les individus femelles. Toutefois, l’activité spécifique chez les individus traités diminue
chez les mâles (0,19±0,04 nanomole /min /mg), mais pour les femelles traitées semble stable avec 0,49±0,26
nanomole /min /mg. De même, les individus de Schistocerca gregaria exposés à l’extrait d’huiles essentielles
brutes foliaires, laissent apparaître des perturbations au niveau des réponses neurochimiques et
comportementales, d’où une toxicité accrue de cet extrait de C. vulgaris.

Mots clés: Cholinestérase, Toxicité, C. Vulgaris, S. Gregaria, Huiles Essentielles
Effect study of foliar crude essential oils of Colocynthis vulgaris (L.) Schrad (Cucurbitaceae) on
cholinesterase activity of the imagos of Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775)
Abstract. The present work focuses on the study of the effect of toxicity on cholinesterase activity and some
physiological parameters in males and females of Schistocerca gregaria bred in the laboratory and exposed to
crude essential oils of the leaves of Colocynthis vulgaris. The manifestations of general intolerance at this
extract appear around 30 to 60 minutes after exposure, cholinesterase activity shows a decrease compared with
the witnesses, she is 8.08 ± 2.65 nmol / min / ml in males and 16.34 ± 1.15 nmol / min / ml in females of
Schistocerca gregaria treated by the extract essential oils from C. vulgaris. For lots of individuals treated, the
rate of protein reveals a difference between females and males. Increases in males to reach 46.11 ± 16.17 mg /
ml, whereas it is 35 ± 13.22 mg / ml in female individuals. However , the specific activity of individuals treated
decreased in males (0.19 ± 0.04 nmol / min / mg ), but seems stable for females treated with 0.49 ± 0.26 nmol /
min / mg. Similarly, individuals Schistocerca gregaria exposed to foliar extract of crude essential oils, reveal

38

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal Vol. 8(1) 2014
ISSN 2170-1768
CAS-CODEN:PBJHB3

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal

2014 
Vol. 8  No. 1  

ISSN 2170‐1768 

Antioxidant activity of Imino-Hesperidin derivatives
Omar FANDOUGOUMA1, *, Naouel CHEIKH1, Nasser BELBOUKHARI1
& Abdelkrim CHERITI2
1

Bioactive Molecules & Chiral Separation Laboratory
Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory
University of Bechar, P.O. BOX 417, 08000 Bechar, Algeria

2

Received: November 29, 2013; Accepted: March 26, 2014
Corresponding author Email fandougouma@yahoo.fr

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.45 

Abstract. DMF solution of imino-Hesperidin derivatives was screened for its antioxidant activity

based on their capacity to scavenge the free β-carotene radical after exposure to a UV lamp at 254 nm.
In the first time, we have synthesized seven new compounds derived from Hesperidin 1 based on
condensation reactions and nucleophile additions simple and easy to carry. Hesperidin 1 which is a
natural molecule extracted in the laboratory (LPOS) from orange peel (genre Citrus sp.), which is the
best known flavanone of citrus and the most studied. The structural elucidation of these new products
(mono-iminohesperidin 3-4 and bis-iminohesperidin 5-9 derivatives) was achieved by IR, UV, 1H
NMR and 13C NMR. The results of antioxidant activity proved that these compounds showed
antioxidant activity by means of β-carotene greater than that of Hesperidin 1.

Key Words: Hesperidin, Citrus sp., antioxidant, β-carotene

Introduction
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitous in plants food and they can
be found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, wine and fruit juices, which are
based on 2-phenylchromone or 2-phenylbenzopyrone, they have a C6–C3–C6 carbon
skeleton where two benzene rings (A- and B-ring) are linked through a heterocyclic
pyran or pyrone ring (C-ring) in the middle. The B-ring is located at the 2-position
and the C-ring contains a C2–C3 double (Fig. 1).[1-2] In plants, flavonoids are
performing a variety of functions including pollination, seed dispersal, pollen tube
growth, resorption of mineral nutrients, tolerance to abiotic stresses, protection
against ultraviolet and allelopathic interactions, etc.[3] Natural flavonoids are known
for their significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals in vivo and in vitro.
In addition to these important effects, several beneficial properties have been
attributed to these dietary compounds, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-protozoal, anti-fungal and anti-carcinogenic
effects. The best described property of almost every group of flavonoids is their
capacity to act as antioxidants able to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen
45

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal Vol. 8(1) 2014
ISSN 2170-1768
CAS-CODEN:PBJHB3

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal

2014
Vol. 8 No. 1

ISSN 2170‐1768 

In vitro effect of Hesperidin & Hesperitin on calcium oxalate
Crystallization: The Chiral Impact
K. Sekkoum1, N. Belboukhari1*, A. Cheriti2, N. Lahmer1 & A. Naas2
1
2

Bioactive Molecules & Chiral Separation Laboratory (BMCS)
Phytochemistry and Organic Synthesis Laboratory (POSL)
University of Bechar, Bechar- 08000, Algeria.

Received: May 19, 2013; Accepted: November 25, 2013
Corresponding author Email belboukhari.nasser@yahoo.com

Copyright © 2014‐POSL 
DOI:10.163.pcbsj/2014.8.1.51 
 
 

Abstract. Hesperidin, an abundant bioflavonoid in citrus fruits, has been reported to possess a wide range of
pharmacological properties. In this study, the antilithiasic activity of hesperidin a glycoside flavanone extracted
from leaves peel of three different citrus species, (C. reticulata, C. clementina, C. sinensis), this activity may be
explained by interaction of two enantiomers or diastereomers of hesperidin and hesperitin.
Key words: Hesperidin, Hesperitin, flavanone glycoside, orange peels, calcium oxalate, antilithiasic
activity.


1. INTRODUCTION
Urolithiasis is a global problem affecting human beings for several centuries and calcium
oxalate is one of the main constituents of kidney stones. A large number of studies have been
carried out to identify substances which inhibit calcium oxalate crystallization and any plants
extracts have been investigated to their anti-lithiasic effect, but no pure natural product has been
studied yet.
Hesperidin is one of the bioflavonoids which is greatly found in Citrus species and is the major
active constituent of tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet orange (citrus sinensis) peel.
Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside comprising the flavanone hesperitin and the disaccharide
rutinose. The potential activity and chiral characteristic of Hesperidin and Hesperitin give a new
research promotion in the pure anti-lithiasic compounds from natural resource [1-6].
Hesperitin are obtained in good yield by Hydrolysis of Hesperidin in energetic condition.
51
 

PhytoChem & BioSub Journal
Peer-reviewed research journal on Phytochemistry & Bioactives Substances

ISSN 2170 - 1768

ISSN 2170-1768

POSL

Edition LPSO
Phytochemistry & Organic Synthesis Laboratory
http://www.pcbsj.webs.com , Email: phytochem07@yahoo.fr



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