langage des oiseaux .pdf


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A flock of

Genomes
by Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, and M. Thomas P. Gilbert

1308

sciencemag.org SCIENCE

12 DECEMBER 2014 • VOL 346 ISSUE 6215

Published by AAAS

SPECIAL SECTION

INSIDE
OPINION

Valuing collections p. 1310
RESEARCH ARTICLES

Comparative genomics reveals
insights into avian genome evolution
and adaptation p. 1311
Whole-genome analyses resolve early
branches in the tree of life of modern
birds p. 1320
RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARIES

Complex evolutionary trajectories
of sex chromosomes across bird taxa
p. 1332
Convergent transcriptional
specializations in the brains of humans
and song-learning birds p. 1333
Core and region-enriched networks
of behaviorally regulated genes and
the singing genome p. 1334
Three crocodilian genomes reveal
ancestral patterns of evolution among
archosaurs p. 1335
Evidence for a single loss of mineralized
teeth in the common avian ancestor
p. 1336
Statistical binning enables an accurate
coalescent-based estimation of the
avian tree p. 1337
SEE ALSO
▶ NEWS STORY P. 1275
▶ REVIEW p. 1341

PHOTO: (CLOCKWISE) © PAUL SOUDERS/CORBIS; © PETER JOHNSON/CORBIS; © ALFRED SCHAUHUBER/
IMAGEBROKER/CORBIS; © MICHAEL MELFORD/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY/CORBIS; © JAN VAN DER
GREEF/BUITEN-BEELD/MINDEN PICTURES/CORBIS; © JARED HOBBS/ALL CANADA PHOTOS/CORBIS

▶ PODCAST

C

haracterization of genomic biodiversity through
comprehensive species sampling has the potential to change our understanding of evolution. To
study evolution across a major vertebrate class,
dissect the genomics of complex traits, and resolve
a centuries-old debate on the avian species tree,
we formed a consortium focused on the sequencing and analyses of at least one genome per avian
order. The resulting data set of 48 consistently annotated bird genomes spans 32 of the 35 recently proposed
avian orders,* including all 30 neognath orders, and thus
represents a wide range of avian evolutionary diversity. Our
consortium’s analyses have resulted in eight papers published today in Science, as well as 20 papers in other journals
[avian.genomics.cn/en]. These include two flagship papers:
one exploiting genomic-scale data to generate a highly supported avian order phylogeny that resolves many debates
on the timing and topology of their radiation; the other
a comparative genomic analysis exploring avian genome

evolution and the genetic basis of complex traits. Other
studies in Science describe convergent brain regions and
gene expression for avian song learning and human speech,
the singing activated genome in songbirds, complex evolutionary trajectories of avian sex chromosomes, a single loss
of teeth in the ancestor of modern birds, the genomes of
their closest extant outgroup (crocodilians) and inferred dinosaur ancestor, and computational methods developed for
large-scale genomic analyses. Studies in companion papers
explore the genomic adaptations of penguins, genomics of
nearly extinct species, lineage-specific selection in birds,
paleoviral infiltration in bird genomes, and many other
questions. Thus, this study of a major vertebrate class
highlights the future promise of large-scale comparative
genomics, and we hope sets the stage for an approach for
sequencing and analyses of many more genomes of birds
and other vertebrate lineages.
*J. Cracraft, in The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World,
E. C. Dickinson, J. C. J. Remsen, Eds. (Aves Press, Eastbourne, UK, 2013), pp. xxi–xliii.

SCIENCE sciencemag.org

12 DECEMBER 2014 • VOL 346 ISSUE 6215

Published by AAAS

1309


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