306 711 Fahm .pdf



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‫ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻋــﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻯ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪2-1‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﻠــﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‬

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‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻋــﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول‬
‫ﺑﻘﻠــﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‬

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3

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‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫)ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ( ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ‬

‫‪10-7‬‬

‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫‪15-11‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ‬

‫‪20-16‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫‪23-21‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬

‫‪26-24‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‬

‫‪31-27‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬

‫‪37-32‬‬

‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‬

‫‪42-38‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ‬

‫‪44-43‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‬

‫‪51-45‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺭﻳﺴﻲ‬

‫‪56-52‬‬

‫ﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﻮﰊ‬

‫‪63-57‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ‬

‫‪67-64‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻴﺲ‬

‫‪72-68‬‬

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‫‪5‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔــﺪﺍﺀ‬

‫‪77-73‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﻮﻃﺔ‬

‫‪82-78‬‬

‫ﻏﻴﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻲ‬

‫‪86-83‬‬

‫ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻐﺎﱐ‬

‫‪94-87‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ‬

‫‪102-95‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﱯ‬
‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﺎ‬

‫‪107-103‬‬
‫‪111-108‬‬

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‫ﻓﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻌﺪﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﺎﺿﻞ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺟﺰﺃﻳﻦ‪ -‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻘـﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ )‪1426-1410‬ﻫـ =‪-1990‬‬
‫‪2006‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻭﺍﻓﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺛﻨـﺎ ﺍﻟﻌـﺮﰊ ﺍﻻﺳـﻼﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺔ "ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ" ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ "ﳒـﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ"‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌـﺪﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻀﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺾ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺣﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻭﺟﺎﺩﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﳛﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺷﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﻘﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺃﻭﻋﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﲑﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰎ ﻷﻣﺮ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳌﻴﺰﺓ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﲤﻴﺰﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﳊﻀﺎﺭﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﻴﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫" ﻭ‪‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻤﺎ ِﺀ ‪‬ﻧﺠ‪‬ﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﻻ ﻋ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﹶﳍﺎﹶ‬

‫ﺴﻒ‪ ‬ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻤﺲ‪ ‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺮ "‬
‫ﺲ ﻳ‪ ‬ﹾﻜ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬‬

‫ﺇﻧﲏ ﺁﻣﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗـﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﺃﻋـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺮﺻﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺛﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﻮﺡ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺸﺬﺍ ﻋﻄﺮ ﻟﻐﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﻖ ﺗﺮﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻄﻠﻌـﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﲡﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺘﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺍﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺣﻀﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻧﱪﺍﺱ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﲑﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺠﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﱘ ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮﻥ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﻫﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺻـﺎﳊﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﺃﺑﻴﺔ ﻃﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺔ ﺻﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﺬﹼﺓ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺛﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﻴـﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺣﻜﻴﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺳﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜـﻢ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ‪ " .‬ﻳ‪‬ﺆﺗ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﳊ‪‬ﻜﹾﻤ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﺸ‪‬ﺎ ُﺀ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻭﰐ ﺍﳊ‪‬ﻜﹾﻤﺔﹶ ﻓﹶﻘـ ‪‬ﺪ ﺃﹸﻭﰐﹶ ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺜ‪‬ﲑﺍﹰ "‪) .‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪(269:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‬

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‫ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫)ﺕ ‪ 2‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻫـ = ‪620‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ*‬
‫ﺳﻴﺪﺓ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻼﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﻛﺮ ﺍﻟـﺪﻫﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻃﻬـﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻛﻤﻞ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻄﻬـﺮ ﻣﺴـﺎﺭﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻄﻰ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺭﻛﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺒﻠﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻠـﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻜـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓـﻚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣـﺎﻥ ﻗﻴـﻮﺩﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺧﻀﻮﺿﺮﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﻔﻴﺾ ﺣﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻃﻴﺐ ﺃﻧﻔﺎﺳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺖ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻫﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺰﺍﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻘﻲ ﻛﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻭﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻧﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﲔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺫ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺘﻪ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺬﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺎﳍـﺎ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻭﺗﻪ ﺇﺫ ﺭﻓﻀﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﻮﺿﺘﻪ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁﺫﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺎﳌـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻤﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﻨـﲑ ﻭﴰﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺠـﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﻤـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﺌﻪ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻜﻨﻪ ﺍﻷﺛﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻃﻬﺮ ﺟﺎﺀﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺮﻯ ﻧﺒﻮﺓ ﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻗﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﰎ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻞ ﻓﺄﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺤﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺟﻰ ﻭﺃﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻨـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺮﺍﻣﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﳏﺘﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﻭﺣ ‪‬ﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺿﺄﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻭﺃﺳﻮﺓ ﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺘـﺪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴـﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻈـﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺼـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﶈﻤﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﻛﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﺣﺔ ﻋﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﻭﻋﻔﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺳﺨﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻮ ﳘﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺎﻛﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﻫﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲤﻠﻚ ﰲ ﻧﺼﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ ‪ ‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺗـﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺴﺤﺖ ﺁﻻﻣﻪ ﲝﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﺴﻤﺖ ﺟﺮﺍﺣﻪ ﺑﻌﻄﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺴﻠﺖ ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺒﻪ ﲝﺒـﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻋﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺍﺋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺄﺷﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻻﺯﻝ ﻭﺍﶈـﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻠﻤﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺒﺎﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻋﺘﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳊﻨﻮﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺮﺑﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺳﺠﺎﻳﺎﻩ ﻭﺧﺼﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﺧﻼﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺒﻴـﺖ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ )ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴـﻼﻡ( ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ ﺍﻷﻛـﺮﻡ ‪- ‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﳜﻠﻮ ﰲ ﺣﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ )ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ( ﺗﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﲟﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺎﺀ ‪ -‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺃﺗﺘﻚ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﻧﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺗﺘﻚ ﻓﺎﻗﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻣﲏ ﻭﺑﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺒﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼـﺐ ﻻ‬
‫ﺻﺨﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﳋﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﱰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ )ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ( ﻭﻟﻘﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ " ﺍﻗﹾﺮﺃ ﺑﺎﺳ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﺭﹺﺑﻚ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺍﻷﻛﺮ‪‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪‬ﻋﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹶﻠﹶﻢ‪"،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﹶﻖ‪ ،‬ﺧ ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺟﻊ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﺮﺟﻒ ﻓﺆﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻌﺪ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻫﺎ ﺍﳋﱪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺸﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ" ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﻼ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺰﻳﻚ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺑﺪﺍﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻚ ﻟﺘﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﹶﻞ )ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻑ( )ﺃﻱ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺃﺛﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ( ﻭﺗﻜﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﺍﺋﺐ ﺍﳊﻖ‪".‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ )ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ( ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺣﺘﺸﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳉﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﹼﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﱰﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻫﺮﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ "ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺪ ﻳﺴﺄﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎﺭ‬
‫ﳍﺎ" ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ "ﺧﲑ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻣﺮﱘ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ( ﻭﺁﺳﻴﺔ )ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ(‬
‫ﻭﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ(‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﱘ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪ " .‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻻ ﻋﺠﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺣﺰﻧﹰﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺧﺸﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ"‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﺣﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺰﻥ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺧﺪﳚﺔ )ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ( ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪620‬ﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻨﺖ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﻮﻥ )ﺟﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﺪﻓﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ( ﻋﻦ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻮﻳﻠﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻯ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺼﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺯﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﺑﻄﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺃﻧﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﻧﻄﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﻭﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺃﺻﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﲎ )ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ( ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﻨﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻡ‬
‫ﻛﻠﺜﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻥ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ )ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ( ﻧﱪﺍﺳﹰﺎ ﺃﲰﻰ‬
‫ﻼ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﺪﻳﻦ ‪‬ﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ؛ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﻦ ﻳﻀﻔﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀﻫﻦ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜ ﹰ‬

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‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺃﻭﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﺛﻞ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺗﻈﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻛﻨﻮﺯﹰﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻔﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻧﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺑﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﻴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻴﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻒ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﻳ‪ ‬ﻌﺒﹺ ‪‬ﻖ ‪‬ﺫ ﹾﻛ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺴ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫" ﻣﻀﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺻﻨ‪‬ﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺽ ﻭﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﹶﺴﲑﻭﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺ‬

‫ﺨ ‪‬ﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻢ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻟـ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ‪‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺿـ ﹺﺮ ﺍﻟـﺰﺍﻫـﻲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀٌ ﻣ‪‬ﺮﻓﱠـ ‪‬ﻊ"‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ )ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻗﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،55‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ )ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ(‪1992 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫)‪150-80‬ﻫـ = ‪767-699‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﳎﻤﻊ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ *‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ )ﻧﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ( ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ -‬ﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ -‬ﻭﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﻓﺼﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ )‪80‬ﻫـ = ‪699‬ﻡ( ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ‬
‫)‪86–65‬ﻫـ = ‪705 -685‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪150‬ﻫـ = ‪767‬ﻡ( ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ )‪158 – 136‬ﻫـ = ‪– 754‬‬
‫‪775‬ﻡ( ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺛﲑﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺎﺵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺳﲏ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﻣﻔﺘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻤﻨﺤﻪ ﲜﺪﺍﺭﺓ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻄﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﺘﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﲟﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ )ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺃﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ( ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺿﺮﺑﺖ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻟﺒﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻓﺮﻋﻬـﺎ ﺍﻷﺯﻛﻰ ﺟﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺯﺑـﺎﻥ‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪23-13) ‬ﻫـ = ‪644-634‬ﻡ( ‪-‬‬‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻃﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺼﺮ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺯﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺤﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻣﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻳﻐﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳊﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫)ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻋﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻤﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺷﻴﻮﺧﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺁﻻﻑ ﲝﺮ )ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ( ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﱰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻼﺯﻣﻪ ﻛﻈﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺩﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻠﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻫﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰉ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ )ﺣﱪ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ( )ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﲨﻌﻴﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻓﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺎﻏﺖ ﻓﻜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺬﺓ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ )ﻳﻘﺎﲰﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻑ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ( ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻧﺸﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻭﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻄﻠﻊ ﺗﻼﻣﺬ‪‬ﻢ ﲟﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻻﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ )ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳐﻀﺮﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﺵ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﲬﺴﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲦﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺄﺧﻼﻕ ﺭﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺯﻛﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﲝﺮ ﺑﻼ ﺳﻮﺍﺣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺨﺎﺀ ﻭﺑﺬﻝ‬
‫ﺑﻼ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻠﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻜﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺭﻉ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﻓﺎﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺻﻼﺓ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺻﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‪" :‬ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻀﺮﻩ ﻭﺃﺳﻔﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻼﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋﺒﺪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻭﺭﻉ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺭ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻠﺨﲑ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺰﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻼﻝ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﺭﻓﻴﻊ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺎﱂ ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻭﻧﱯ ﻛﺮﱘ )ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺟ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﻜﻞﱢ ‪‬ﻧﱯ‪ ‬ﻋﺪﻭ‪‬ﹰﺍ ﺷﻴﺎﻃﲔ‬
‫ﳉﻦ‪) (‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪ (112 :‬ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﱃ ﺭﺯﺍﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺲ ﻭﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻹ‪‬ﻧ ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﳏﻦ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﺳﻮﺃﻫﺎ ﺍﶈﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻈﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺠﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺻﱪ‬
‫ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺼﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻔﻪ ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﺐ ﻧﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﲢﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻌﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻻ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﰲ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻧﺰﺍﻫﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺗﺎﺟﺮﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﲝﺮﻳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻌﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻓﻊ ﲦﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺇﺫ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﱪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻔﻒ ﻭﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺯﺝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺬﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻁ ﺍﻓﺮﺝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺤﺒﺲ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﳑﻨﻮﻋﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﳉﻠﻮﺱ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻮﰲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ! ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻇﻞ ﺣﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺃﻟﹼﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻙ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻟﻔﺖ ﻛﺘﺐ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺅﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ( ﻟﻜﺎﺗﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﻮﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻔﻴﻀﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﻬﻪ ﻭﻓﻘﻪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ)ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ( ﳌﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻭﻫﱯ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻏﺎﻭﺟﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﲟﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺿﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺃﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺻﻄﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﲝﻖ‬
‫ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﺮﻓﻌﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺧﲑ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻓﻌﻞ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻧﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻛﻴﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ‬

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‫ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ )ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻻﺣﺘﻤﻠﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ )ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺯﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺬﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ‪‬ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ﹺﻡ ﱄ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻃﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫" ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬‬

‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻴ ﹺﻞ ﺳﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎ ‪‬ﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪‬ﻭﺃﺭ ‪‬‬

‫ﷲ ﰲ ﺑ ﹶﻠـ ‪‬ﺪ‬
‫ﻭ ﹸﻛﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﹸﺫ ‪‬ﻛـ ‪‬ﺮ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳـ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍ ِ‬

‫ﺐ ﺃﻭﻃﺎﱐ"‬
‫ﺕ ﺃﺭﺟﺎ َﺀ ‪‬ﻩ ﻣﻦ ﹸﻟ ﹺ‬
‫‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬‬

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‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،59‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ(‪1992 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ‬
‫)‪179-93‬ﻫـ = ‪795-711‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ*‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪179-93‬ﻫـ = ‪795-711‬ﻡ( ﻣﻨﺤﺪﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺭﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺘﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮﺕ ﻛﺎﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﳌﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﺠﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺣﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﺯﻛﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻋﺰﻩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺪ‬
‫ﳏﺪﺛﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﻛﺒﲑ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺃﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎﻩ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺃﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺣﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺒﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﲝﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺎﺵ ﺑﺄﺟﻮﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻀﺠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻢ ﺃﺩﺑﻪ ﻭﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺁﺳﺮ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺬﺓ ﻭﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﱘ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﺍﳌﺜﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ ﻓﻤﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺪﺭﻩ ﺻﻐﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻌﻬﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ -‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻭﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬

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‫ﻭﻣﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ‪ -‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ )ﺕ ‪124‬ﻫـ = ‪741‬ﻡ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ )ﺕ ‪148‬ﻫـ = ‪765‬ﻡ( ﻭﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠـﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻠـﻤﻲ‬
‫)ﺕ ‪117‬ﻫـ = ‪735‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﲏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻑ ﺑـ )ﺭﺑﻴﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ( )ﺕ ‪136‬ﻫـ = ‪753‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﻣﺘﻀﻠﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻭﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺟﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻭﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺗﺴﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﲝﺮ!! ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﺤﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﺜﻤﻴﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺗﻀﻴﻖ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩﻓﺘﺎ‬
‫ﳎﻠﺪ ﺿﺨﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺗﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺼﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳒ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﹸﻪ‬

‫ﺏ ﻳ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺎ ﹺ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻴـ ‪‬ﻪ ﺗ‪‬ﻨـﺎﻫﻰ ﻋﻠ ‪‬ﻢ ﺩﻳﻦﹺ ﳏﻤـﺪ‪‬‬

‫ﹶﻓ ‪‬ﻮﻃﱠـﺄ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺍﺓ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﹶﺴﺎﻟ‪‬ﻜـﹰﺎ"‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﻗﻒ )ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺟﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﺀ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻛﻞ ﲰﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﺭ ﻭﺳﻜﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺭﻉ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻔﻒ ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﻭﺀﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺴﺎﻩ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﱄ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺒﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻓﻄﺤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺘﻤﻜﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﲝﺘﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﺴﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻀﺮﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺮﻳﺌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻻ ﳜﺸﻰ ﰲ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻠﲔ ﻟﻪ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺯﻝ ﻭﺍﶈﻦ‬

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‫ﻓﺘﺂﺧﻰ ﺑﺎﶈﻨﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﲪـﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‬
‫)ﺕ‪231‬ﻫـ = ‪845‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﶈﻨﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )‪158-136‬ﻫـ =‬
‫‪775-754‬ﻡ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ "ﺇﻥ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ"‬
‫ﻭﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ "ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﺮﻩ ﻃﻼﻕ" ﻓﺄﰉ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻭﻇﻞ ﻳﻔﱵ‬
‫ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻐﻞ ﺣﺎﺳﺪﻭﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﺰﻳﻨﻮﺍ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﲏ "ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ"‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻘﻤﺔ ﺃﰉ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﲜﻠﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻔﺖ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻀﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻣﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﻳﻌﺘﺬﺭ‬
‫ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ "ﺍﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﺘﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺵ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺳﻮﻁ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻨﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﶈﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻞ ﺯﺍﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﻓﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻭﻗﺎﺭﺍ‪،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﺠﻠﺴﻮﺍ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻣﻮﻃﹼﺄﻩ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﹺﻝ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺮ ِﺀ ﺭﺍﻓﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺿﻌﺎ"‬
‫ﻭ ﹾﱂ ﺃ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻣ ﹾﺜ ﹶﻞ ﺍﳉﻮ ﹺﺭ ‪‬ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺮ ِﺀ ﻭﺍ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻓﻠﻪ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﻠﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﻲ "ﺍﳌﻮﻃﹼﺄ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺕ‬
‫‪204‬ﻫـ = ‪820‬ﻡ( "ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻧﻔﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻃﹼﺄ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ"‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﻭﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﺴﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﺮﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﲎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﳝﺤﺺ ﻭﻳﺪﻗﻖ ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻘﻲ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﺢ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ‪ ..‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻟﺴﺎﺕ )ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻋﻤﺎ ﲰﻌﻪ‬

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‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻟﺴﻪ( ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﲝﺘﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻴﻢ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻮﻩ ﺃﺻﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﺮﺟﻌﺎ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﻫﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﹸﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻐﺎﱄ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﳜﻠﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﻭﺍ ﻛﺘﺒﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ )ﺕ ‪453‬ﻫـ = ‪1061‬ﻡ( "ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﻚ" ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﻭﺃﻏﻼﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﻔﻮﺭ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ "ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺅﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ" ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺩﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﺎ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺧﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻘﺐ "ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ" ﺳﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﻊ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﺎ "ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ" ﻭﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻄﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﺣﱴ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ "ﻻ ﻳﻔﱴ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺎﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺳﺘﹰﺎ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﻼ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﻞ ﳘﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳚﻮﺩ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺎﺳﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻼ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺣﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻳﻨﺎﻓﺢ ﳎﺎﻫﺪﺍ ﻭﳎﺘﻬﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﺴﻜﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻣﲔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﺎ ﻭﻋﻮﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺖ ﻧﺒﻮﺀﺓ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﻮﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻼ ﳚﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺐ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺑﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻭﺍﻛ‪‬ﺘ ِ‬
‫"ﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺍ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺷ ﹾﺌ ‪‬‬

‫ﺐ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺ‬
‫ﻚ ‪‬ﻣﺤﻤﻮ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻋـ ﹺﻦ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻐﻨﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﻔـﱴ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗـﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺃﰉ‬
‫ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬

‫ـﺬﺍ"‬
‫ـ ‪‬ﻦ ﻗﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻫﺄﻧ َ‬
‫ﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻔـﱴ ﻣ َ‬

‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

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‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،54‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ(‪1992 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫)‪200-103‬ﻫـ = ‪815-721‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﻭﺍﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ*‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ )ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ( ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﺻﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺎﺟﺮﺕ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻮﻃﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺴﻘﻂ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﻣﺜﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ )‪200-103‬ﻫـ = ‪815-721‬ﻡ( ﺯﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ )ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ( ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺃﻧﺒﻐﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﳍﻤﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺟﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﻮﻥ ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺫﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻨﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻣﻦ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻃﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﺋﻊ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ‪‬ﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺳﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺷﻴ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﳍﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﻠﻘﺐ )ﻭﺍﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﺠﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻹﺫﺍﺑـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒـﻠﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄـﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺮ ﺣﺎﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﻳﻚ ﻭﺗﻘﻄﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺒ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﲰﺎﻩ ﺯﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻉ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﺎﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺮﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺋﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳉﺎﺑﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺭﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺻﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺑﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﻗﻌﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﻀﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﳒﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻲ ﺟﺎﺑﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﺟﱪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺣﻪ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬

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‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺭﻭﺟﺮ ﺑﺎﻛﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪692-601‬ﻫـ = ‪1292-1214‬ﻡ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ( )ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﹼﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ(‪.‬‬
‫" ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻧﻮﺭ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ﹺﻢ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﻙ ﺑﺎﳌﹸﲎ‬
‫ﻚ ﻏﺎﻓﻼﹰ‬
‫ﺴﻞﹾ ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺟﻬ‪‬ﺪ‪ ‬ﻭﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻜ ‪‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒ‪‬ﺮﻳ‪‬ﺔ‪ ‬ﺟﺎﻫ ﹸﻞ‬
‫ﻓﹶﻨ‪‬ﺪﺍﻣﺔﹸ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻘﹾﺒ‪‬ﻰ ﻟ‪‬ﻤ‪ ‬ﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺳ ﹸﻞ "‬

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‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،51‬ﺷﺒﺎﻁ )ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ(‪1992 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ(‬
‫)‪204-150‬ﻫـ = ‪820-767‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ـﺔﹲ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻞ*‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﺩﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﰉ‬
‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ )ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻪ ﻷﺑﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﰲ )ﻋﺒﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻑ(‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻏﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪150‬ﻫـ = ‪767‬ﻡ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﰲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ )ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ( ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻳ‪‬ﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﻳ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺰﺍﻣﻨﺖ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﲔ‪) :‬ﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻣﺎﻡ( ﻭﲪﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻟﻴﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻌﺪﻣﹰﺎ!‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻧﺒﻮﻏﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻮ ﻛﻌﺒﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﳏﺪﺛﹰﺎ ﳎﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺩﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﳌﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺷﺎﻋﺮﹰﺍ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺟﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻭﺁﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺳﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﲝﺴﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺩﺏ ﺍﳉﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﺎﻣﻴﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻓﻀﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﻏﻴﻮﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﻫﺮﺍ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺼﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋﻴـﻪ‪‬‬
‫"ﺩﻋـﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹺﻡ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ـﻮﺍﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺏﱄﺳ ِ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼ ‪‬ﻡ ﻻ ﺃ ‪‬‬

‫ﺴﺐﹺ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻤﻴ ﹺﻢ‬
‫ﳊ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ﹶﻘـ ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﹺﺬﻱ ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫ﻟﻴ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺃﻭ ﲤﻴـ ﹺﻢ"‬
‫ﺨـﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﹺﻘﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹴ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍ ﹾﻓ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻣﺸﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﲝﻤﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﱴ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﺳﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺘﺎﺏ ﺳﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺒﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻴﻴﻨﺔ )ﺕ ‪195‬ﻫـ = ‪810‬ﻡ( ﻧﻘﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﺒﲑ ﳏﺪﺛﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ( ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻓﺘﻴﺎﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪179‬ﻫـ = ‪795‬ﻡ( ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻣﻜﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ‬
‫ﰒ ﻗﻔﻞ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺫﺍﻉ ﺻﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻑ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻟﻘﺐ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺻﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﺰﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻣﺒﺪﻳﺎ ﺇﻋﺠﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬
‫"ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﺍ ﺃﻓﻘﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﱴ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻗﺎﺋﻼ‪" :‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ "،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﺍ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ( ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﳛﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﰊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ( ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﺋﻊ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺒﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻷﺩﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮﻩ ﻭﺩﺭﺓ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺣﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺂﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺒﲔ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺷﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺜﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﻓﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻄﺎﻁ( ﺳﻨﺔ )‪204‬ﻫـ‬
‫= ‪819‬ﻡ( ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ‪ 54‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﻰ ﻭﺃﻧﺸﺪ‪:‬‬
‫"ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﹶﺴﺎ ﻗﹶﻠﱯ ﻭ‪‬ﺿﺎﻗﹶﺖ ﻣ‪‬ﺬﺍﻫ‪‬ﱯ‬

‫ﺖ ﺭ‪‬ﺟﺎﺋﻲ ﻧ‪‬ﺤﻮ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻔﹾ ﹺﻮﻙ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﱠﻤﺎ"‬
‫ﺟ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﺲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﳏﱪﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻠﻤـﺎ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻨﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﺔ(‪.‬‬

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‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،50‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ(‪1992 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‬
‫)‪241-164‬ﻫـ = ‪855-780‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﻃﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ *‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺭ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ﺃﺭﻭﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﺷﻴﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‪" :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺃﻋﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻣﻨﻊ ﺟﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺒﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﻜﺖ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻧﺎﻥ ﻟﺘﻠﺘﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺭﲪﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﺒﻐﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻫﺎﺟﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﳒﺪ )ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ(‬
‫ﻭﺣﻄﺖ ﺭﺣﺎﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﺐ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻕ )ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﲔ(‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻨﺸﺄ ﻳﺘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﻜﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﺎﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺘﻴﻢ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ )ﳏﻤﺪ( ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺟﺪﻩ )ﺣﻨﺒﻞ( ‪ -‬ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﻫﺸﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺣﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺎﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﺳﻘﻒ ﳍﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺰﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺳﺎﺣﻞ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻠﻌﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺩ ﻭﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﻖ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻋﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻣﺰﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﻟﻌﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻘﺬﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻬﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺻﺮﺍ ﳍﺎ ﳏﺪﺛﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻔﻮﻫﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﳎﺮﺩﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻴﻒ ﻓﺮﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺤﲏ ﺇﻻ ﻟﺒﺎﺭﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﻓﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺮ ﻭﻋﺰﳝﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻠﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﺒﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﳌﺄﺛﻮﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲢﺪﻯ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺼﻌ‪‬ﺮ ﺧﺪ‪‬ﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﻡ ‪ -‬ﳐﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﻠﻢ ﺍﳌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﳍﻪ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺭﻳﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺻﺪﻕ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ "ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ" ﻭﻗﺪ ﲡﺸﻢ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺎﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻨﺸﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﲔ ﻭﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﳌﺴﲑﺓ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺁﺑﻪ ﲟﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻫﺒﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻼﻓﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻭﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﱪﺍ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ "ﻣﺮﺍﺑﻄﹰﺎ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ" ﻣﺘﺤﻔﺰﹰﺍ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﳊﻈﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳊﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻋﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻔﻆ ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺻﻄﻔﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻡ "ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﲔ )ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ( ﻣﻊ ﲤﺴﻜﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ‬
‫"ﻟﻠﺮﺃﻱ"‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺏ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ -‬ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﺤﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺗﺄﻟﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺋﻪ ﻷﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﺩﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻡ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻋﻄﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺫﻫﺒﺎ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪212‬ﻫـ = ‪827‬ﻡ( ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻫﺎ )ﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ( ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺰﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳍﻮﺟﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻀﻄﻬﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻗﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﺸﻨﺪﻱ )ﺕ ‪821‬ﻫـ = ‪1418‬ﻡ( ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﻣﺂﺛﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ "ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳓﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ‪ "،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺼﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺛﻖ )ﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﳍﻤﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻬﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺣﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺼﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﺿﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﲔ ﻭﺻﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ )ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ( ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺯﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺪﳝﺎ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳏﺪﺙ ﻭﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ‪ -‬ﻛﻞ ﳏﺪﺙ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺰﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻞ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﻫﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ﻭﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺼﻢ )ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ( ﻭﺭﺙ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺪﻋﻰ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪219‬ﻫـ = ‪834‬ﻡ( ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺤﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻀﺮﺑﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ﺟﻠﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﻴﺪﻩ ﻭﺣﺒﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼﻔﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺍﳊﻲ‪ ‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺱ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻨ ‪‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻯ ‪‬ﻋﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﺪﻣﻮﺍ !‬

‫ﺱ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃ ‪‬ﻫﻮﺍ‪‬ﺋﻬﻢ ﺃ‪‬ﺑﺪﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻳ ﹸﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺎ ﹺ‬

‫ﺤ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻡ‪"،‬‬
‫ﺸﺮ‪ ‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻤﺸﻲ ﺍﻟﺰ‪‬ﻣﺎ ﹸﻥ ﻭﺭﻳ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﱰﻟﻪ ﻟﺘﻠﺘﺌﻢ ﺟﺮﺍﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻳﺆﻣﻬﺎ ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻔﺮﻍ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺣﱴ ﻓﺎﺿﺖ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ )ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻨﺎﻫﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﺍ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﺯﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻔﻮﻟﺘﻪ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻀﺠﺖ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻄﻊ ﳒﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺭﻩ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻯ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺼﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺛﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺯﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻨﺔ ﺑﺘﺮﺍﺟﻌﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺰﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻭﻧﺸﺄ ﻭﺗﻮﰲ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﻢ ﻟﻮﺩﺍﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﻨﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﻨﺸﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬﻩ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻓﻴﺎﺀ ﻧﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺈﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻋﻄﺮﺍ ﺳﺮﻣﺪﻳﺎ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻪ‬
‫"ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻨﺪ" ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﹼﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺴﲑﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺃﺑﻮ(‬
‫ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺃﺑﻮ( ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺴﺎﻛﺮ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺍﱃ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﺯﻫﺮﺓ‪" ،‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ )‪1401‬ﻫـ =‬
‫‪1981‬ﻡ( ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺮ‪" ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ"‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ )‪1408‬ﻫـ = ‪1988‬ﻡ( ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺃﲪﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻣﻲ‪" ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﺑﲔ ﳏﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﳏﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ"‪ ،‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ "ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ"‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺛﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺷﺎﻛﺮ ﻗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﻃﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻏﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺾ ﻭﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲝﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺬﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻧﱪﺍﺳﺎ ﻷﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﻣﻔﺨﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺧﺮ ﺣﻀﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻋﻮﺿﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺂﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺰﺍﻩ ﲟﺎ ﺻﱪ ﺟﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺮﻳﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫ﳋ ﹶﻄـﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺐﺍﹶ‬
‫"ﻻﳝﺘﻄﻲ ﺍ ﹾ‪ ‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻣﻦ ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻛ ‪‬‬

‫ﳊـ ﹶﺬﺭﺍ‬
‫ﹶﻗـﺪ‪ ‬ﻡ ﺍ ﹶ‬

‫ﺐ‬
‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺭﺍ ‪‬ﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌـﻼ ‪‬ﻋﻔﻮﺍ ﹺﺑـﻼ ‪‬ﺗـ ‪‬ﻌ ﹴ‬

‫ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳﻨﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌـﻼ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﹶﻗﻀﻰ ‪‬ﻭﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻢ‬

‫ﺾ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍ ‪‬ﻛﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻃـﺮﺍ‬
‫‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘ ﹺ‬
‫ـﺒ ﹸﻠـ ﹶﻎ ﺍﻟﺴـﺆ ﹸﻝ ﺇﻻﹼ ‪‬ﺑـﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣﺆ‪‬ﻟﻤ ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ‪‬ﻳ ْ‬

‫ﺻـﹺﺒﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘـﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﳌـﲎ ﺇﻻﹼ ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻤـ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ‪‬ﻳـﻨﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻌـﻼ ﺇﻻﹼ ﻓـﱴ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺮ ﹶﻓـﺖ‬

‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻫـ ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣـﺮﺍ "‬
‫ﺧ‪‬ﻼﹸﻟ ‪‬ﻪ ﻓﺄﻃـﺎ ‪‬‬

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‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،65‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ(‪1993 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬
‫)‪232-165‬ﻫـ = ‪847–781‬ﻡ (‬
‫ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ *‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﺑﺎﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ)‪ (1‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺟﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺎﺿﺮﻩ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻟﻴﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺛﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺑﺮﻣﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﻰ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺻﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﺧﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳋﻔﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺫﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ )‪218 -198‬ﻫـ = ‪833 -813‬ﻡ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻮﺃﻩ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻳﻔﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬

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‫ﺑﻌﺜﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﲜﻤﻊ ﻭﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻗﺪﻣﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺪﺑﻪ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍ‪‬ﺴﻄﻲ ‪-Almagest -‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺩﻯ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻫﺎﻧﺘﺎ" )ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻫﻨﺪ( ﺃﻱ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻫﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺒﻮﻍ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻭﺷﺖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻃﻠﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻋﻨﻔﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺷﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻀﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﱪ ﻏﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺯﺍﺩ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻀﻨﻪ ﺧﻠﻔﺎﺅﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺼﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺛﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﻛﻞ ﻓﺰﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺗﺒﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺷﻬﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻟﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺃﲨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺭﺗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻡ "ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ" ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺮﻱ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ )‪9‬ﻡ = ‪3‬ﻫـ( ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻌﺪ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺩﻳﻔﻴﺪ‬
‫ﲰﻴﺚ ﻭﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﻴﻨﺴﻜﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻊ "ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ"‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻧﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳉﱪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﳒﺎﺣﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲝﺚ ﻣﻀﻦ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻌﻀﻠﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ "ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺋﺾ"‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺣﻞ ﺷﺎﻑ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺟﻬﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺷﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻬﺪﺕ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ( ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺇﺫ ﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳉﱪ ﺑﻮﺿﻌﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫"ﺍﳉﱪ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺪﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳉﱪ‬

‫)‪(Algebra‬‬

‫ﺍﱁ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﱰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ "ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺍﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺷﺴﺘﺮ" ﺳﻨﺔ )‪1143‬ﻡ = ‪538‬ﻫـ( ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺃﺳﺲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ‬
‫"ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻳﺶ )ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺭﻙ( ﺭﻭﺯﻥ" ﻧﺸﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪1831‬ﻡ =‬
‫‪1247‬ﻫـ( ﻟﺘﺘﻮﺍﱃ ﻃﺒﻌﺎﺗﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﺬﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺎ ﻳﻨﻬﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﺑﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻇﻤﺄﻯ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﻮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﱪ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻀﻠﻌﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻳﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻇﻞ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺃﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﳐﺘﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪) ،‬ﺍﻟﻐﻮﺭﻳﺜﻤﻲ‬
‫‪ ،(Algorithmi‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﲨﻊ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻏﲑ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﳒﺒﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﳍﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﱰﺍﻫﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﻫﻢ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻋﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺮ )ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺜﲑ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻬﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ)‪ (3‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬

‫‪0987654321‬‬

‫)ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﺭﺑﺎ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﺔ( )ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺑﺎﳍﻨﺪﻳﺔ(‪، 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 :‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ "ﺭﺍﻡ ﻻﻧﺪﻭ" ﺃﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺰﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﻭﻩ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪874‬ﻡ = ‪261‬ﻡ( ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺃﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ )‪876‬ﻡ = ‪263‬ﻡ( ﻃﺒﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﰊ "ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﺑﻮﻳﺮ" ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ" ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪(4‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﺮﻉ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳉﱪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﲢﻒ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺧﺰﺍﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳊﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﲟﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﲝﻮﺙ ﻧﻔﻴﺴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺗﺸﺬﻳﺒﻪ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﻳﺒﻪ ﻷﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻓﻄﺎﺣﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﻠﻴﻤﻮﺱ )ﺕ‬
‫‪168‬ﻡ( ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ "ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ"‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﳏﺎﻛﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻠﺪﹰﺍ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺑﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲜﺪﻳﺪ ﳐﺘﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺒﺪﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺫﺧﲑﺓ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﺏ ﻭﻋﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﻟﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﲨﻊ ﻣﻊ ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺮﱘ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪ ،‬ﳑﻴﺰﺍﹰ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﺑﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺒﻞ ﻛﺮﱘ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺟﻢ ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﺷﺮﻳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻦ ﺑﺈﺧﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭﺯﻣﻼﺋﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺮﺑﲔ‬

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‫ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﺛﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻫﻲ ﲝﺜﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻬﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺭﺧﻴﺼﺔ ﻭﺿﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﹰﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺟﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺟﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺍﻥ ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺭﺧﲔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺻﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺯﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﻯ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻭﻣﺜﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺀُ ﻳﻮﻟﹶ ‪‬ﺪ ﻋﺎﻟ‪‬ﻤﹰﺎ‬
‫" ﺗﻌﻠﻢ َﻓﻠﹶﻴ‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺃﺧﻮ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹾﻢﹴ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻤﻦ‪ ‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻮ ﺟﺎ ‪‬ﻫ ﹸﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶﺒﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﹶﻮ‪‬ﻡﹺ ﻻ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹾﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪ ‪‬ﻩ‬

‫ﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺘﻔﱠﺖ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﻴـﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﹶﺤﺎ ‪‬ﻓ ﹸﻞ"‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﻐ ‪‬‬

‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬
‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،82‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ(‪1994 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣـﺶ‬

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‫‪ (1‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻏﻔﻠﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﻒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳒﺪ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﱘ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿـﻌﺔ‬
‫ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ! ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﻨﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﲔ ﻣﺴﻘﻂ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﰲ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻡ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺎﻡ )‪165‬‬
‫ﻫـ=‪ 781‬ﻡ( ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺎﻡ )‪ 232‬ﻫــ = ‪ 847‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺧ‪‬ﻮﺍﺭﺯﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ ) ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﻄﻰ (‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﻮﻻ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻡ )ﺧﺮﺯﻡ( ﻭﺧﻴﻮﺓ )ﺧﻴﻔﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻗﺪﱘ ﻭﺷﻬﲑ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺑﻄﻠﻴﻤﻮﺱ ﻛﻠﻮﺩﻳـﻮﺱ )ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻮﺯﻱ(‬
‫)‪ ،(168 - 90‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ "ﺍﻷﻛﱪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻀﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻼﻓﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻄﻰ ﺑﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺴﲎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻱ )ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ( ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲡﻮﻳـﺪ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ‬
‫ﻟـﻸﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺒﺎﺭﻳـﺔ )ﻣﻐﺮﺑﻴـﺔ( ﻭﻫﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ )ﺷﺎﻣﻴـﺔ( ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺮﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺭﲰﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ )ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴـﺔ( ‪‬ـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳــﻢ‬

‫‪0123456789‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜـﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﺔ( ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ‪، 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1‬‬
‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﳚﺪﺭ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺃﳓـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘـﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺡ ﺍﻵﺳﻴﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﹰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺮﲰﲔ ﻟﻸﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻄﺄﹰ ﺑﺎﳍﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻳﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪1979 ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ 56‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (4‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪ ،58‬ﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ ﳎﻤﻮﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ 5 ،‬ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺪ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺕ‪ ،.‬ﺹ ‪ . 87-86‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓـﺮﻭﺥ‪ ،‬ﺗـﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻼﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﺑـﲑﻭﺕ‪1980،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪ ،141‬ﻭﻫﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﻤﺖ ﳒﻴﺐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻞ‪ 1977 ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ 119‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‬
‫‪ 88‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜـﺮ ﺍﻟـﺮﺍﺯﻱ‬
‫)‪311 – 240‬ﻫـ = ‪923 – 854‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ*‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮ‪‬ﻱ)‪ (1‬ﻭﻋﺎﺵ ﰲ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ -‬ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ‪ -‬ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻧﺎﻫﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻒ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺄﳌﻊ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﱘ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ "ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﺣﺪ ﺩﻫﺮﻩ ﻭﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ"‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺛﻖ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺑﻼ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺸﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺎﻝ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺇﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺃﻓﺔ ﻻ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﲟﺮﺿﺎﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺻﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻮﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺭﺣﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻆ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﺗﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮﻱ ﻋﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺮ‪‬ﺳﺎﹰ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻠﻊ ‪‬ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﻭﲝﻮﺛﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻃﻼﻋﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﻭﺳﱪﻩ ﻷﻏﻮﺍﺭ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻘﺮﺍﻁ )ﺑﻘﺮﺍﻁ( )‪ 377 – 460‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻡ‪ (.‬ﻭﺟﺎﻟﻴﻨﻮﺱ )‪131‬‬
‫– ‪ 201‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‪ (.‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳍﻨﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﳏﻄﺎﺕ ﺭﺣﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﻣﺴﻘﻂ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻭﻧﺸﺄﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻮﱃ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺋﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎ‪‬ﺎ)‪ (2‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻠﺒﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﻩ ﻋﻀﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻀﻲﺀ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻋﻠﻖ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻌﻔﻨﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻔﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺸﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﺷﺢ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﻓﺮ‪‬ﺷﺢ ﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻊ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﺆﺧﺬ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻬﻢ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭﳍﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﻔﻮﺯ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﺐ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺭﻳﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻤﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﳊﺼﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳉﺪﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﺒﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ‪ 14‬ﻓﺼ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻄﱯ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺳﺲ‬

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‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺗﻜﺄ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﱃ‬
‫)ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺷﻔﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺑ‪‬ﺮﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺄﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ‪" ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻴﻪ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺛﻖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺰﺍﺝ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ"‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﻴﻮﻁ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺧﻴﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﲏ ﺍﻹﻛﻠﻴﻨﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺸﺄ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺐ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺮﻉ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺣﻘﻖ ﳒﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻃﺐ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﻧﻜﻤﺎﺷﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﰲ ﻓﺤﻮﺻﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺍﺗﺴﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺗﻀﻠﻌﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺭﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻨﺎ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﺨﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻇﻞ ﺣﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ )‪11‬ﻫـ = ‪17‬ﻡ( ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻜﻞ ﲡﺮﺑﺔ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﲜﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻓﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻔﺔ ﺯﻳﻐﺮﻳﺪ ﻫﻮﻧﻜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻡ‪" ،‬ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﺴﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺏ"‪ ،‬ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ 600‬ﻋﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻳﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻛﺒﲑ )ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺫﺍ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻄﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﺛﲏ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺗﺎﻟﺮ )ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ(‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ ﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﱰ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﱄ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻃﺒﺎﺅﻩ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺟﻌﻮﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺪﺩ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺀ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ )ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻣﺆﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﺧﺼﺒﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 224‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 56‬ﻣﺆﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺫﻳﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻟﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﺔ "ﺍﳊﺎﻭﻱ" ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ‪ 10‬ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻭ‪ 24‬ﻣﻘﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﺔ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻮﻧﻜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻬﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻪ ‪ -‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﱄ ﻭﺻﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﺭﻝ‬‫)ﻛﺎﺭﻝ( ﺃﳒﻮ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ )‪678‬ﻫـ= ‪1279‬ﻡ( ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻓﺮﺓ ﲝﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﴰﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ " ﺃﻥ ﳝﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﲞﺼﺎﺋﺼﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻫﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺼﻬﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻮﺗﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻏﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ )ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻭﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺧﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﻠﻘﺐ ﺃﰊ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻴـﺖ‪ ‬ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺘﲎ ﺇﻻﹼ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻤــﺪ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻋ‪‬ﻤـﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮﺱ‪ ‬ﺃﻭﺗـﺎ ‪‬ﺩ‬

‫ﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪ ‬ﻓﻮﺿﻰ ﻻ ﺳ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﹶﺓ ﳍﻢ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﺼ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﺳ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﹶﺓ ﳍﹸﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟ‪‬ﻬﺎﻟﹸﻬﻢ ﺳﺎﺩﻭﺍ"‬

‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،73‬ﺷﺒﺎﻁ )ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ(‪1994 ،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣـﺶ‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﰲ ﴰﺎﻝ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ )ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺷﺮﻕ ﻃﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻃﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴـﻮﻡ(‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﻴﻞ )‪ 18‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺃﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻫـﺎﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﳚﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪88‬ﻫـ = ‪ 706‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ‬
‫)‪430-354‬ﻫـ = ‪1038-965‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺎﺕ*‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﻭﻟﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ )ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ( ﻭﺗﻮﰲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ )ﻣﺼﺮ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺎﺵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳎﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻃﻤﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ‪411-375) ،‬ﻫـ = ‪1021-985‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺎﻇﻢ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﰲ ﺃﺯﻫﻰ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺗﻔﻮﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺒﻮﻏﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻋﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺧﻂ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﲝﻮﺛﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﻮﻗﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﻭﺛﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺼﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻀﻊ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻴﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﺦ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ )‪980‬ﻫـ = ‪1572‬ﻡ(‪ -‬ﻳﻨﻬﺾ‬
‫ﻼ ﻗﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻳﺎﺩﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻜﺴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻗﺒﻼﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬
‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﳌﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳍﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺴﺮ ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﺱ ﻗﺰﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻄﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﳋﺴﻮﻑ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻌﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﲝﺎﺛﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺴﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻻ ﳛﺼﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ‪‬ﻠﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﲝﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﻨﻮﺯ ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻳﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺷﱴ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺭﺍﻓﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻓﺪ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ ﻓﺨﺮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻨﺎﺑﻐﺔ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ‪ -‬ﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﺭﺩﻭ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮ( ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻓﻴﻨﺘﺸﻲ )‪925 - 856‬ﻫـ = ‪1519 -1452‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺭﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫)ﻣﺼﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻭﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺧﲑ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻇﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﻗﻠﻴﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﺻﻴﺒﻌﺔ )‪668 -600‬ﻫــ = ‪1269 -1203‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ( ﻣﺎﺋﱵ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﲔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻏﺮﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻴـﺜﻢ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﺗﻨﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻀﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺟﺬﻭ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ‪‬ﻧﺎ ﺗـَـﺪ‪ ‬ﱡﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻨـﺎ‬
‫" ﺗﻠ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻧﻈﹸـﺮﻭﺍ ﺑ‪‬ﻌﺪ‪‬ﻧـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭﹺ "‬

‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬

‫* ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ )ﳎﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،49‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ(‪1991 ،‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻓﻴﺼﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪،3‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ(‪1990،‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﻟـﻲ‬
‫)‪505 -450‬ﻫـ = ‪1111 -1058‬ﻡ(‬
‫‪‬ﺣﺠ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ*‬
‫)‪(1‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺪ ﰲ ﻃﻮﺱ‬

‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺩﺭﻭﺳﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻓﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﻎ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﳓﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺒﺤﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﺘﺒﹰﺎ ﻏﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﻠﺘﻪ ﻷﻟﻘﺎﺏ ﺳﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺭﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺪﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻣﻔﻜﺮﻳﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ )ﻳﺮﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ( ﰲ ﺃﺳﺮﺓ ﻓﻘﲑﺓ ﻋﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﻣﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺴﺮ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﰉ ﰲ ﻛﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﻛﺮﱘ ﺗﻘﻲ ﱂ ﳛﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺣﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺮﻳﺼﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺣﻠﻘﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﳐﺎﻟﻄﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻮﻟﻌﹰﺎ ﲟﺠﺎﻟﺴﻬﻢ‬

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‫ﻭﲰﺎﻋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﺴﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺘﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳝﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﻟﺪ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﺘﻔﻘﻬﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻋﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻟﺘﻀﺮﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﺎﳊﲔ ﻛﺮﳝﻲ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻣﻔﺮﻃﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﱂ ﳝﻬﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻮﻥ ﻓﻐﻴﺒﻪ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻮﻓﺔ ﻓﺎﺿﻼﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﻔﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺻﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﺄﺧﻴﻪ )ﺃﲪﺪ( ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑﺓ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻛﻢ ﻟﺒﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﰲ ﲪﻰ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﻩ ﻭﻭﺻﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ‬
‫)‪(2‬‬

‫ﻋﻮﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻟﻴﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻮﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺮﺟﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻧﺎﺷﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺰﺍﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ )‪465‬ﻫـ = ‪1072‬ﻡ( ﰒ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺒﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﻭﺩ ﲪﻞ ﻋﺼﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺣﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ )‪473‬ﻫـ=‪1080‬ﻡ( ﻣﺘﺠﻬﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭ)‪ (3‬ﻟﻠﻐﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻭﻗﺘﺌﺬ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮﺓ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻊ ﺑﻨﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺪﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﺯﻡ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﲏ‬
‫)ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱄ‪ -‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ( ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺈﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻒ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﻧﺒﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻗﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻈﻢ ﰲ ﻋﲔ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﻪ )ﺍﳉﻮﻳﲏ( ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺧﻄﻔﺖ ﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪478‬ﻫـ =‬
‫‪1085‬ﻡ( ﻟﻴﺘﻐﲑ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﺍﳉﻠﻞ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﺩﻩ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺟﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﲔ ﺳﺮﻫﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ )ﺕ‬
‫‪485‬ﻫـ = ‪1092‬ﻡ( ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ )ﻧﻮﺍﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ( ﻓﺎﺣﺘﺸﺪ ﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺇﺟﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻠﻪ ﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﱰﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻇﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﲝﻀﺮﺗﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺛﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﺍﻉ ﺍﲰﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺷﺪﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪484‬ﻫـ = ‪1091‬ﻡ( ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺎﹰ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ‬

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‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻠﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻼﹰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﻟﻨﺸﺮﻩ ﻭﺇﻳﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﻣﻐﺎﺭﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ -‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﺮﹰﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻌﺰﻑ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ‪ -‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ‪ -‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ )ﺗﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ( ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‪) ،‬ﺍﳌﻨﻘﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﳘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺯﻫﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﻭﻋﻠﻮ ﺍﳉﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬
‫ﰲ ﳎﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺸﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻳﻀﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺻﻒ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﺸﻮﺍﺭ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪488‬ﻫـ =‬
‫ﻼ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ‪،‬‬
‫‪1095‬ﻡ( ﺣﺎﺟﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻘ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﳎﺎﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻜﻔﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺟﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‪" :‬ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ" ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﺢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺮﲨﲔ ﻟﺴﲑﺗﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﺭﺩﺣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﺭﻛﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﲑ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﺗﺎﺷﻔﲔ )ﺕ‬
‫‪500‬ﻫـ = ‪1106‬ﻡ( ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺶ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺳﻼﻃﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺑﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﻭﺑﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﺩﺭﺍﺟﻪ ﺟﻮﺍ ﹰﻻ ﳚﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ‬
‫ﻭﳚﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺧﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻃﻤﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻃﻨﻪ ﻃﻮﺱ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ )‪500‬ﻫـ = ‪1106‬ﻡ(‬

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‫ﻟﻴﻨﻜﺐ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﻓﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻦ ﻭﻣﺸﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺒﺚ ‪ -‬ﲢﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﲑﻳﻦ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻧﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻧﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﺭ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﻞ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﻘﻂ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻃﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻘﻀﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻆ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﳎﺎﻟﺴﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﻐ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺑﻀﺔ ﲝﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺗﻼﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺿﺎﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﺃﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺑﻨﻘﺎﺀ ﺳﺮﻳﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻃﻬﺮ ﺫﻳﻠﻪ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻼ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻘﻲ ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺘﺄﻣ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺻﺎﺩﻕ ﻭﺭﻋﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﺍﻩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺯﺍﻫﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺘﺒﺘ ﹰ‬
‫ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﻮﻓﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻐﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺣﺎﻣﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻛﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﻧﺸﺄ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺻﻮﻓﻴﺔ )ﺻﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ( ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻬﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ…ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺷﺖ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﺘﻀﻠﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﲟﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﲡﺎﺭﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺼﺮ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﲦﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﳐﻄﻮﻃﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪" (1) :‬ﺍﳌﻨﻘﺬ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻼﻝ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﺓ ﲡﺎﺭﺑﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺿﻤﻨﻪ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺯﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﹰﺍ ﻗﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺘﻤﲔ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪،‬‬

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‫)‪(2‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻠﻤﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬

‫"ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ"‪،‬‬

‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺑﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻓﺨﺮﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻤﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﲝﻖ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻻﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺭﺛﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺟﻴﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(3‬‬

‫"‪‬ﺎﻓﺖ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﺾ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻴﻤﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻔﻨﺪ ﺣﺠﺠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺼﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺑﻄﻞ ﺯﺧﺮﻑ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻭﺯﻳﻒ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺼﻢ ﲝﺠﺠﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺤﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﺯﻟﺰﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﱂ ﺗﻘﻢ ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ (4).‬ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‪" :‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﺩﻩ ﺯﺍﻫﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﲰﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﰲ ﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻜﺎﺭﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﻌﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺗﺪﻧﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﺗﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﻣﺮﺿﺎﺓ ﺍﷲ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪" ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﹰ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺰﺩ ﻫﺪﻯ ﱂ ﻳﺰﺩﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪﹰﺍ" ﻭﻧﺴﺘﺸﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺴﺪ‬
‫ﻓﺤﻮﻯ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ‪" :‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺢ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ‬ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪" :‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻟﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻻ‬

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‫ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺀﹰﺍ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﺴﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﺧﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻩ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺠﻬﺰ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ"‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺬﺍﻕ ﻣﺘﺒﻌﻲ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻣﺮﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻔﻠﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻴﻘﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺮﺩ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﺮﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻌﺖ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﺶ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻣﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻣﻔﺎﺭﻗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﳎﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻼ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺟﻨﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪".‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﺖ ﺍﻧﺼﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﺿﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺭﺩﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺤﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺠﺮ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻫﻀﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻧﱪﺍﺳﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻳﺎﺟﲑ ﻋﺘﻤﺘﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪﻭﺓ ﻧﺘﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ﻧﻨﺴﺞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻴﻮﻃﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺒﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻋﺎﳌﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﻭﺃﻇﻠﻪ ﺑﻈﻠﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻇﻞ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﻇﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻭﻣﻦ‪ ‬ﻃﹶ ﹶﻠﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻼ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻏﲑﹺ ﹶﻛﺪ‪‬‬

‫ﺏ"‬
‫ﺳ‪‬ﻴ‪ ‬ﺪﺭﹺﻛﹸﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻐ‪‬ﺮﺍ ‪‬‬

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