Egyptian Parliment .pdf


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Nom original: Egyptian_Parliment.pdf
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Auteur: ksheir

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‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺸﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺭﻭ ﺯﻜﻲ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎل‬
‫ﻤﺤﺎﻡ ﻟﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺽ –ﺸﺭﻴﻙ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪ −‬א‬

‫‪٧٦١٥١١٩ − ٣٣٦١٦٠١ :‬‬

‫–א‬

‫‪٣٣٦١٦٠٢ :‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪−‬א‬

‫א א‬

‫‪−‬‬

‫‪٠١٠٢٦٣٧٧٧٣:‬‬

‫‪abdelmotaal@ammh-lawfirm.com :‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫א‬

‫ﻣﻘـــﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺯﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴـﺎﺌل‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻭﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘـﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺫ ﺃﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﺤـﺭﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻓﻘﻁ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻭﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ( ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺄﺼﻭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻁﺭﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﺎﻟﺴﻬﻡ ﺒﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﺩﻯ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻻ ﺯﺍل ﺴﺎﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻜﺎﻨﺘﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺨـﻼل‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﺌل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻨﻬﺞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺄﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺘﺤﻭﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻭﺕ ﻭﻭﻀـﻊ ﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻕ )ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻰ ﻜﺭﺘﻭﻨﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺨﺸـﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ( ﻭﻻﺯﺍل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺠﺎﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﺭﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻗﺩ ﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺭﻤﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻠـﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﺂﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻯ ﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﻭﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﺎﺌل‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺠﺭﻯ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻀﺤﻰ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺘﺠﺏ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺴﻭﻑ ﻨﻁﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﺪ )ﺇﺣﺼﺎء( ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒﲔ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻭﻯ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺼل ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺅﻗﺘﻴﻥ ﺘﺎﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ )ﺃﻭ ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻴـﺩﺓ ﻤﺸـﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ( ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﻨﺩﻭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻴﻨﺠﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻗﻭﻱ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩ ﻭﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﻋﻤﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﺴـﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻴـﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻘﻼل ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻌﻘﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺘﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺩﻭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻱ ﺒﺤﻀﻭﺭ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻌﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻠﻥ ﺒﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻨﺯﻴﻬﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻺﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺘﺯﻭﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜﺎﻓﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜﻠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻨـﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴﻥ ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻔﺸـﻰ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻫﻅﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﻨﺸﻭﺏ ﻤﻭﺍﻗـﻑ ﺃﻤﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺭﺍﺌﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻐﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪-:‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎء )ﻋﺪ( ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻜﱰﻭﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻟﻌﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻴﻔﺴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﻷﻋﻁﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪ )ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎء( ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻵﱄ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻠﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻗﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻜل ﻟﻭﻥ ﻭﺭﻗﻡ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﺌﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺯﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺯﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺒﻔﺭﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻁﺒﻘﹰﺎ ﻷﻟﻭﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺎﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-٢‬ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﺌﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺤﺯﺍﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﺤﺼﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻟﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴـﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﺴـﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻋﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺭﺸﺢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﺇﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺘـﻪ ﺴـﻬل‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﺭﻤﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺩﻟﻴل ﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﺘﻌﻁل ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﺠل ﻴﺩﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻤﺎﺴـﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫)ﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ( ﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺼﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﻜﻭﺩﻯ ﺴﺭﻯ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺘﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﻪ ﻋـﻥ ﻏﻴــﺭﻩ‬
‫)‪ (Pin Number‬ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ )‪ (Credit Card‬ﻭﻴﺘﺴـﻠﻡ ﺍﻟـﺭﻗﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻴـﺩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ )ﻤﺸﻔﺭﺓ( ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺤـﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺜﺒﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻭﺜﻘﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻤﻪ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓـﻲ ﺩﻭل‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻨﻤـﺎ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺴﺢ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺠﻭﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻤﺎﺴـﺢ ﻀـﻭﺌﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻴﺩﻴﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺤﺎل ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻀـﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﻭﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤـﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻏﻴﺭﻩ ﺒﺈﻨﺘﺤﺎل ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺼﺎﺤﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻼ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻭﻓﻰ )ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺕ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺀ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﻨﺘﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻜﺎﻤل‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﻭﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸـﺢ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺭﻤﺯﻩ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻲ ﻓﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻠﻤﺱ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺯ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﻭﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺫﺍﻜـﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅـﺔ ﻤﻌﻬـﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺒﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺹ ﻓﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺨﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌـﺩ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺇﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺼل ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ‪ ...‬ﺇﻟﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺄﺼﻭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺯﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺎﻗﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺭ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺘﺘﺴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ ﻭﺘﺘـﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻤﻥ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺄﺼﻭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺠﺸﻡ ﻤﺸـﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍﺒﻴﺭ‪..‬ﺇﻟﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨـﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﻓـﻰ‬

‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠل ﻟﻠﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻯ ﻟﻠﺼﻭﺕ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻜﻭﺩ ﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺴﺭﻯ‬

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‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺼﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﺤـﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺘﻜﻠﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻤﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺇﺴـﺘﺌﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻘﺎﺭ ﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻌﻁﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﻭﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺇﺨﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺃﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺘﺩﺨل ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤـﻨﻌﻬﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺘﻬﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺄﺼﻭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﻔﻅ ﻭﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﺼﻠﻲ ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺒﺩﻴل ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﻤـﻊ‬

‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺨل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺩ‬

‫ﺘﻤﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺠﺭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺇﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻜل ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻜل ﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻓـﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻴﺼﺎل ﺭﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺒـﻪ ﺒﻴﺎﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻭﺕ ﻭﺴـﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺩﻟﻴل ﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﻭﺭﻗﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺤﺠﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻌﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻁﻌـﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺩﺭﺃ ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﺎﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺃﻱ ﺠﻬﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺩﺭﺃ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﻀﺌﻴل ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﻋﻁل ﺃﻭ ﺨﻁـﺄ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻹﻴﺼﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﻗﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺠﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺒﻊ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻤـﺔ ﻤﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻫﻭﻟﻭﺠﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺍء ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ‪-:‬‬‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎﻴﻠﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻁﺎل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻌﻁل ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﺯﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺘـﺩﺨل‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ )ﻓﻴﺭﻭﺴﺎﺕ –ﻗﻨﺎﺒل ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ( ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻤﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺤـﺎل ﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻴﺎﻨﺘﻪ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺨﻠﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀـﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻤﺸﻐﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻤﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻘﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻋﻡ‪-:‬‬‫ﻴﻘﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ )‪ (Audio &amp; Video‬ﺒﻴﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻓﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻜﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﻓﻨﻴـﺔ ﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒـﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺤﺎل ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺴﻪ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭﻩ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺘﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠـﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﺘﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻴﺔ )‪ (Back Up Systems‬ﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺭﺃ ﺃﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺘﻤـﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺸل ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻌﻁﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺩﺭﺃ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺘﻰ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪ -٥‬ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻴل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻁﺎﻟﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺴـﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺸـﺭﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻜﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺒﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺫ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﺩﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻭﻀﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻭﻨـﺔ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺴﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٧‬ﻟﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻨﻅـﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ‪VSS‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺒﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻴﺼﺎل ﺭﺴﻤﻰ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﺘﺴﻠﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ‬
‫ﻼ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﹰﺎ ﻗﻁﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺨﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅﺔ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ‬
‫"ﺇﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ ﻏﻴـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨ ﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪An index of articles on vote counting (http://www.aceproject.org/ace‬‬‫)‪en/topics/vc/topic_index) from the ACE Project (http://www.aceproject.org‬‬
‫‪guide to designing and administering elections‬‬
‫‪Harvard Professor of Computer Science ''Avi Rubin's'' investigation of the‬‬
‫‪Diebold Voting machines used in many (inc. US) elections‬‬
‫)‪(http://avirubin.com/vote.pdf‬‬

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‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺒﺈﺴﻡ ‪ E-Voting‬ﻫﻭ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﺠـﺎﻤﻊ ﻴﺸـﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﺸﻤل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻷﻜﺸﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻭﺩﺓ ﺒﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻤﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻓﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﻅـﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ‪...‬ﺇﻟﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺸـﻤل ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨـﹰﺎ ﻨﻅـﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﻴﺔ "ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ" ﺃﻭﻨﻅـﻡ ﺍﻹﺴـﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭﻴﺔ )ﻭﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻔـﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ ﻜل ﺸﺨﺹ ﻭﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﺒﻊ ﻭﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺸـﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌـﻴﻥ ﻭﺒﺼـﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻯ ‪.(DNA‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸـﺭﻴﻥ ﻋـﻥ‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺜﻘﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺜﻘﺒـﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺜﻘﻭﺒـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﻀﻐﻁ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻴﻭﻀـﺢ‬
‫ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻴﺤﺭﻙ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺎ( ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﺈﻨﻬـﺎ ﻨﻅـﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻰ ﺒﺎﻹﻋﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﺼﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻤﺤﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺠﺱ ﺒﺼﺭﻯ ﺒـﺎﻟﻠﻤﺱ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﻠﻡ ﻀﻭﺌﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ " ﺃﻭ ﻁﺭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬـﺎ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻀﻐﻁ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ"‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺩ ﺇﻜﺘﺴـﺒﺕ ﻨﻅـﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨـﻰ ﺸـﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻔﺘﺎﺀﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤـﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺸﺎﺌﻌﹰﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴل ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤـﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺇﺘﺴـﻊ‬

‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ " ﻗـﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺴـﺎﻋﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜـﺎ ﻓـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ" ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ‪-:‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻴﺴﺠل ﺍﻷﺼـﻭﺍﺕ )ﻭﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺨﻼﻟﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ( ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺴـﺎﺌﻁ ﻭﺭﻗﻴـﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﺈﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﻘﻠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﺒﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺴﺠل ﻓﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﻴﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺜﻘﺏ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺒﻤﺜﻘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺨﻼﻓـﻪ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻠـﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺴﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤـل ﻟﻠﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ )ﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ‪ +‬ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ‪ +‬ﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ( ﻨﻅﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﻜﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺭﺍﺤـل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﺯ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺎﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺘﹰﺎ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤـل ﻴﺒـﺩﺃ ﻤـﻥ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﺭﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﺈﺩﺨﺎل ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠـﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﻅـﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺼﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺒﺈﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫)‪-: Direct-Recording Electronic Voting System (DRE‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﺴﺠل ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻴﺸﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻠﻤﺱ ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺯﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻗﻠﻡ ﻀـﻭﺌﻰ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺸﺎﺸـﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺎﺴﺢ ﺤﻴﻭﻯ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻰ )‪ (Biometric-Scan‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻤﺘﻁـﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺼـﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻤﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻯ ‪) D.N.A‬ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻴﺴﻠﻨﺩﺍ ﺤﺼﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﺍﺜﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻬﺎ( ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺜﺒﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌـﺔ‬

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‫ﻜﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ‪ +‬ﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﺒﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺤﺎﺴﻭﺒﻰ ﻴﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﻴﻭ ﻭﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺒﻰ ﻴﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻴﺴﻠﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﺭﺴـل ﺒﻴﺎﻨـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻭﺜﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬

‫)"‪-: (Public Network Direct-Recording Electronic Voting System "PNDREVS‬‬

‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ‪-‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ -‬ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺎﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎل ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻔـﺭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻓـﻰ ﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﺠﻤـﻊ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﺤﻁـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻯ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺯﻟﻬﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤـﻥ ﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﺒﺈﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺼﻭﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻘﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺯﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺃﻭ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺁﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺴﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨـﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸـﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻹﻨﺘﺨـﺎﺏ ﻤﻤﺜﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓـﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺜل ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻴﺭﻟﻨﺩﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻔﺭﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻺﺩﻻﺀ ﺒﺼﻭﺘﻪ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻯ ﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺁﻟﻰ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻤﻤﺎﺜل ﻓﻰ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻌل ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺸـﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺒﺭﻤﺠﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﻟﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻟﻭﺝ ﻋﺒـﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨـﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺁﻟﻰ ‪ +‬ﻗﺎﺭﻯﺀ ﻟﻠﻜﺭﻭﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ ‪+‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺭﻗﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪١٣‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻫﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﺴﺘﻘﺒل ُﻤﺩﺨﻼﺕ ﻭﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺤﺎل ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻟﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺭﺴﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻺﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻘﺭ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻯ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻤﻥ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨـﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺭﺼﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺨﺯﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﺏ ﻭﺼﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺸﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺘﺼـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺃﻗﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‪ -:‬ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ ﻤﺒـﺩﺃ ﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺴﺭﻯ "ﻜﻭﺩ"‬
‫ﻴﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺠل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺒﻁﺎﻗـﺔ ﻫﻭﻴـﺔ ﺫﻜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺨـﻼل‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﻯﺀ ﻜﺭﻭﺕ ﻤﻭﺼﻭل ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﻅل ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻨﻰ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﹰﺎ‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺼﻭﺘﻪ ﻭﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻰ ﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻟﺩﻯ‬

‫ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬
،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺴﺭﻯ "ﻜﻭﺩ" ﺃﻭ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺘﺎﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬
.‫ﻭﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ‬
:‫• ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺃﺼـﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ‬

.‫ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬٨ ‫ ﺤﺘﻰ‬٤ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــــﺎﺩﺭ‬

1. ^ Bellis, Mary. The History of Voting Machines
http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa111300b.htm About.com
2. ^ a b "Protecting the Integrity and Accessibility of Voting in 2004 and Beyond.
http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=14581People for the American
Way
3. ^ Election Incident Reporting System
https://voteprotect.org/index.php?display=EIRMapNation&amp;tab=ED04&amp;cat=02&amp;start_
time=&amp;start_date=&amp;end_time=&amp;end_date=&amp;search
4. ^ Thompson, Ken (August 1984) Reflections on Trusting Trust
http://www.acm.org/classics/sep95/
5. ^ Lombardi, Emanuele electronic voting and Democracy http://www.electronicvoting.org/
6. ^ Greg Lucas, "State bans electronic balloting in 4 counties; Touch-screen firm
accused of 'reprehensible,' illegal conduct", San Francisco Chronicle (May 1, 2004)
http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/05/01/MNG036EAF91.DTL
7. ^ Hardy, Michael (Mar. 3, 2004). California nixes e-voting.
http://www.fcw.com/fcw/articles/2004/0503/web-evote-05-03-04.asp FCW.com.
http://www.fcw.com/
8. ^ State of California Secretary of State (February 17, 2006). Approval of use of
Diebold Election Systems, Inc.
http://www.ss.ca.gov/elections/voting_systems/diebold_cert.pdf
9.
^ "Legislative Committee Resolution Awaiting BOD Approval".
http://www.aitp.org/newsletter/2004julaug/index.jsp?article=evoteside.htm (July
2004). Information Executive http://www.aitp.org/newsletter
10. ^ Oriez , Charles (July 2004). "In Search of Voting Machines We Can Trust".
http://www.aitp.org/newsletter/2004julaug/index.jsp?article=evote.htm Information
Executive http://www.aitp.org/newsletter

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻓﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒـﺎﺕ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ )‪Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺍﻟـﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻹﻗﺘـﺭﺍﻉ )‪ Voter Verified Paper Ballot (VVPB‬ﻭﻫﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻁل ﺒﺈﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻴﺩﻭﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﻨﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺯﻡ ﺍﻷﻤـﺭ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫ﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻀﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻭﺕ ﻭﻴﺤـﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻨﻅﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﻔﻅ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﻓﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ‬
‫ﻴﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫ﺒﺎﻹﻁﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺨﻴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ‪-:Voter Verified Audit Trail‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺠﺎﻤﻊ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﺈﺴﻡ )‪ (VVAT‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫‪١٦‬‬

‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺘﻴﻥ‪.‬ﻭﺘﺭﻯ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ )‪ (VVPAT‬ﻫـﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻥ ﻋﻤـ ﹰ‬
‫ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪-:‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻤﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭ ﺒﻁﺎﺒﻌـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺇﻴﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻭﻟﻭﺠﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻡ‬

‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺘﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺫﻟـﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ Mercuri Method‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎﻩ ‪-:‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺸﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻁﻌﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺢ ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺌﻰ ﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﻋـﺩ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﻘﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﻅل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺸﻔﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﺭﻤﻴﺯ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻴﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺭﻗﻭﻤﻪ ﺒﻜﻭﺩ ﻤﺸﻔﺭ ﺘﺤﺘﻔﻅ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ‪،‬ﻭﻤﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌـﺔ ﺴـﻼﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫)‪ƒ AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project (http://www.electionreformproject.org/‬‬
‫]‪http://www.verifiedvoting.org Verified Voting.org‬‬
‫‪ƒ ProCon.org's Extensive VVPAT Overview‬‬
‫)‪(http://www.votingmachinesprocon.org/subvervvpat.htm‬‬
‫)‪ƒ Manual Count Audits (http://www.coloradovoter.net/moin.cgi/ManualCountAudit‬‬
‫‪– how to actually audit using Voter Verified Paper Audit Trials‬‬
‫‪ƒ Voter Verified e-voting explained (http://www.free‬‬‫)‪project.org/resolution/explain.html)- (FREE Project &amp; FIPR‬‬
‫‪ƒ Questions and expert answers on VVPATs (http://www.votingmachines‬‬
‫‪procon.org/subvervvpat.htm)-Voting Machines ProCon.org‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺴﻼﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺸﺠﺭﺕ ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻟـﺫﺍﺕ ﺒـﺂﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﻴﺼﺎل ﺭﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺘﺜﺒﺕ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻭﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺘﺴﻠﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺜﺒﺕ ﺸﺨﺼـﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ )ﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺤﻭﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ( ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻻ ﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﻭﻗﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻓﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٧٥‬ﺘﻡ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﺇﺘﻔـﺎﻕ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻜـﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻤﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ )ﻭﻫـﻰ ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ( ﺇﻀﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬
‫)ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ( ﻭﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻹﺘﻔـﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻪ "ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻘﺏ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﻗﻴـﺎﻡ ﻤﺠﻠـﺱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻭﺥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻰ ﺒﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺌﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻭﻀـﻊ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻘﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺼﺩﻭﺭ ﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻨﻪ ‪" :‬ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ" ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩٨٤‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻤﺕ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ، ٢٠٠٢‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﻋﻤﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﺴـﺘﻘﻠﻴﻥ )‪ ، (NASAD‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺇﺴـﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺫﻟـﻙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﻰ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺘﺠﻭﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﻟﻠﻔﺤـﺹ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻹﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﺼﺩﺭﺕ )‪ (NASAD‬ﻗﺎﺌﻤـﺔ ﺒـﺎﻵﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ ﻗﺎﻤـﺕ ﻟﺠﻨـﺔ ﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ‬
‫‪١٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺭﺃﺴﻬﺎ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺒﻭﻀـﻊ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬـﺎﺕ‬
‫ ﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻗـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻗﻴـﺔ‬٢٠٠٥ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﺴـﻭﻑ‬

‫ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬٢٠٠٧ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
.‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼـــﺎﺩﺭ‬
ƒ US Election Assistance Committee (http://www.eac.gov/)
ƒ 2002 Voting Systems Standards (http://www.eac.gov/election_resources/vss.html)
ƒ National Institues of Standards and Technology and the Help America Vote Act
(HAVA) (http://vote.nist.gov/)
ƒ Voting System Certification &amp; Laboratory Accreditation
(http://www.eac.gov/voting_sys_cert.htm)
ƒ National Association of State Election Directors (http://www.nased.org/)
ƒ Federal Election Commission official website (http://www.fec.gov/)
ƒ ProCon Testing Overview (http://www.votingmachinesprocon.org/subtesttrans.htm)
ƒ AEI-Brookings Election Reform Project (http://www.electionreformproject.org/)

٢٠

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬
‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻲ ﰲ ﺩﻭﻝ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻡ ﺇﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨـﺩ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺸﺭﻜﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺵ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﻭﺼﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺸـﻜل ﺩﻭﺭﻱ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩٨‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻴﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﻯ ﻗﻁﻌﺘﻴﻥ"ﺁﻟﻴﺘﻴﻥ" ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻁﺭﻓﻴﻪ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺒﻘﺒﺱ ﺍﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻭﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻫﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻭﺼﻭﻟﺘﻴﻥ ﺒﻜﺎﺒل ﻁﻭﻟﻪ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﻤﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ )ﻭﻫﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ( ﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻤﺼﻨﻌﻪ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻰ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻪ ﻓﻰ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺼﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻡ ﻜﺴﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﺘﻔﺴﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﺘﺎﺒـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻌﺩﻴﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﺅﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺧﻮاص اﻵﻟﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻵﻟﺔ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻟﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎء ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﺎت ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ٦‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬آﻞ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻵﻻت اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ‪ ٣٨٤٠‬ﺻﻮت ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬اﻵﻻت اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﺪرج ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ٦٤‬ﻣﺮﺷﺢ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻤﺮﺷﺤﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ‪ ٦٤‬ﺗﻀﺎف ﺁﻻت إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮم اﻟﻤﺼﻮت ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻹﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎل اﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﻘ ًﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻵﻟﺔ أن ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﻤﺼﻮت اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺰر أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮة ﻓﺈذا ﻣﺎ ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺰر ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬
‫واﺣﺪة ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺼﻮت وﺗﺮﺑﻂ اﻵﻟﺔ ﺁﻟﻴ ًﺎ )أى ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ذات اﻟﻤﺼﻮت( ﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ اﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ‬
‫اﻟﺬى ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﺒﺪأ ))ﺻﻮت واﺣﺪ ﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ واﺣﺪ((‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ اﻵﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮﺣﺪﺗﻴﻦ )اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺘﻴﻦ( واﻟﺒﻄﺎرﻳﺎت ‪ ٥٥٠٠‬روﺑﻴﺔ هﻨﺪﻳﺔ وأدى ذﻟﻚ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎت ﺣﻴﺚ أن اﻟﻌﻤﺮ اﻹﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻰ ﻟﻶﻟﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬اﻵﻻت ﺻﻐﻴﺮة وﻣﺘﻴﻨﺔ وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ وﺳﻬﻠﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺣﺪ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺗﻠﻚ اﻵﻻت ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎم اﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮة أو إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎت دوارﻩ أو إﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬
‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎت ﻣﺰورة ‪..‬إﻟﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ذاآﺮﺗﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﺪة ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ١٠‬أﻋﻮام وأى ﻋﺒﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ أو اﻟﺸﺮﻳﺤﺔ ﻳﺆدى‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻓﺴﺎد اﻟﺸﺮﻳﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﻳﺆدى إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺁﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻟﺤﻈﻴﺔ رﺻﺪ وﺧﺮوج اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ اﻵﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﺣﺼﺎء ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ اﻵﻻت اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺒﻜﺎت اﻹﺗﺼﺎﻻت وﺗﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ اﻟﺘﻼﻋﺐ واﻟﺘﺰوﻳﺮ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺠـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻁﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﺒل ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺈﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻴﻘﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺃﻴﺔ ﺃﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺒﺩﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻜل ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻁﺒـﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻭ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻭﻜﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸـﺤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ )ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺨﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺸـﺎﻡ(‬
‫ﻤﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻜل ﺁﻟﺔ )‪ (ID Number‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺃﻱ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺒﺂﻟﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺒﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺯﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻟﺭﻤﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻴﻀـﺊ‬

‫ﻀﻭﺀ ﺃﺤﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺯ ﻤﻊ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺼﻭﺕ ﺤﺎﺩ ﻤﺴﻤﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺴـﺠل‬
‫ﺴﻤﻌﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺒﺼﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻭﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﺭ ﻏﻠﻕ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﺴـﺘﺤﻴل‬

‫ﻟﻶﻟﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺼﻭﺕ ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺼل ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻤﺴﺌﻭل ﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺠل ﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﺩﻭﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺇﻨﺘﻬـﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺤﻭﺯﺓ ﻤﻨﺩﻭﺏ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬

‫ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻴﻨﻘﺹ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸـﻭﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻭﺘﺴﻠﻡ ﻟﻤﻨﺩﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــــﺎﺩﺭ‬

ƒ The Bombay Ballot: What the U.S. can learn from India's electronic voting
machines. Slate.com Article (http://www.slate.com/id/2107388/) ''dated'' 29
September 2004, ''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ Electronic Voting Machine: An Electronic Marvel. Indian-Elections.com Article
(http://www.indian-elections.com/electoralsystem/electricvotingmachine.html)
''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ Gearing up for India's Electronic Election. BBC Article
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/3493474.stm) ''dated'' 27 February 2004,
''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ Global lessons in e-voting News.com Article
(http://news.com.com/Global+lessons+in+e-voting/2009-1008_3-5387540.html0
''dated'' 30 September 2004, ''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ A voting revolution in India? Businessweek Article
(http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_16/b3879074.htm) ''dated'' 19
April 2004, ''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ Indian elections enter final phase. Guardian Article
(http://www.guardian.co.uk/india/story/0,12559,1213396,00.html) ''dated'' 10 May
2004, ''accessed'' 14 May 2006.
ƒ Article related to voting by ballot paper in The New York Times
(http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE4DE1E38F93AA15751C1A9
62948260) ''dated'' 29 December 1984, ''accessed'' 14 May 2006.

٢٤

‫ً‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﱰﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ‪-:‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻓﻰ ‪ ٣١‬ﻤـﺎﻴﻭ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﺃﻀـﻴﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻘـﺭﺓ )‪(١‬‬
‫ﻁﺒﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺩﻯ ﻤﻌﺩ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﻭﺍﻨﻬﺎ ‪ " -:‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ" ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻓﺼﺤﺕ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ ﻋـﻥ ﻗﻴـﺎﻡ ﻤﺴـﺌﻭل‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ ﺒﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴﻠـﺔ )ﺨـﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﺎﺌل‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ( ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﻟـﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺇﺨﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻭﺥ‬

‫ﻭﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺏ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﻟﻜل ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺎﺕ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﻟﻜل ﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻜﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ٢٠٠٦‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﺘﺭﺒﻭﺭﻭ ﻓﻰ ﺃﻭﻨﺘﺎﺭﻴﻭ ‪ Peterborough, Ontario‬ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺭﻜﻬـﺎﻡ ‪Markham‬ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٣‬ﻭﺒﻠﺩﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺩﻤﻨﺘﻭﻥ ‪ Edmonton‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٤‬ﻭﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻭﺒﻴﻙ ‪Quebec‬ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٥‬ﻭﺒﻠﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﻨﺩﺴﻭﺭ ‪Windsor‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.٢٠٠٢‬‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬

ƒ Elections Canada (http://www.elections.ca/)
ƒ Elections Ontario (http://www.electionsontario.on.ca/)
ƒ Office of the Chief Electoral Officer (OCEO) New Brunswick
(http://www.gnb.ca/elections/)
ƒ DGEQ - Quebec 2005 municipal elections
(http://www.electionsquebec.qc.ca/municipales2005_en/)
ƒ List of all provincial election offices] including clickable map
(http://www.gnb.ca/elections/electionlinks-e.asp)
ƒ Paper Vote Canada (http://blog.papervotecanada.ca/) a blog about electronic voting
issues in Canada
ƒ Access, Integrity and Participation: Towards Responsive Electoral Processes for
Ontario (http://www.electionsontario.on.ca/usr_files/election_report_2003_en.pdf)
ƒ ACCÈS, INTÉGRITÉ ET PARTICIPATION : vers des processus électoraux
souples pour l’Ontario
(http://www.electionsontario.on.ca/usr_files/election_report_2003_fr.pdf)
ƒ Ontario Democratic Renewal Secretariat
(http://www.democraticrenewal.gov.on.ca/)
ƒ What If They Hold A Vote And No One Shows Up?
(http://www.backbonemag.com/php_site/home.php?m_column_id=php_news/wmvie
w.php?ArtID=789) Backbone Magazine article about Markham Internet voting
ƒ Edmonton Vote 2004 &gt; Advance Vote
(http://www.edmonton.ca/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_272_214_0_43/htt
p%3B/CMSServer/COEWeb/city+government/municipal+elections/advance+vote/def
ault.htm)
ƒ Canada unlikely to imitate U.S. e-voting effort: experts
(http://www.itbusiness.ca/index.asp?theaction=61&amp;lid=1&amp;sid=57193&amp;adBanner=eG
overnment)
ƒ Global Election Announces (2000) Year-End System Sales; Increased Revenues
(http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2000_July_25/ai_63663824)
ƒ Canada Legal Information Institute (CanLII) Canada Elections Act, 2000, c. 9 &gt;&gt;
18.1 Electronic voting process (http://www.canlii.org/ca/sta/e-2.01/sec18.1.html)
ƒ NB ponders e-voting
(http://www.globetechnology.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20040513.gtnbnb0513/BNS
tory/Technology/&amp;ord=1100364966203&amp;brand=globetechnology&amp;force_login=true)
"Globe and Mail'' May 13, 2004
ƒ Vote Tabulation Machine Use in the City of Saint John
(http://www.gnb.ca/elections/04mun/04munvotetab-e.asp] Office of the Chief
Electoral Officer, Government of New Brunswick
ƒ Bell Business Solutions - Elections made simple
(http://businesssolutions.bell.ca/default.aspx?tabid=247] supplied machines in 2005
Quebec municipal election)

٢٦

‫ً‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﱰﻧﺖ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺟﻨﻴﻒ ﻓﻰ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪-: State of Geneva – Switzerland‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺠﻨﻴﻑ )ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺠﻨﻴﻑ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺤﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻨﺘﻭﻥ( ﻫﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺩﺭﺴﺕ‬

‫ﻭﻁﺒﻘﺕ ﻭﻨﻔﺫﺕ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺤﻠﻭل ﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﻨﻅﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﺒـﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻅﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺫ ﻴﻨﺎﻴﺭ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ، ٢٠٠٣‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒـﻕ ﻓـﻰ ﺠﻨﻴـﻑ ﻗـﺩ ﺇﺘﺒﻌﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻨﻔﺩﺭﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻋـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻨﻤﺎ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻟﺸـﻔﺭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴل ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺘﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﻭﻤﺸـﺎﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﺒﺎﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﺒـﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨـﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺅﻤﻨﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺱ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺎﺩﻯ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺘﺸﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺠﻨﻴﻑ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ ﻫـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺭﻜـﺯ‬

‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺠﻨﻴﻑ ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﻌﺎﻭﻨﺔ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ‪ HP‬ﻭﺸﺭﻜﺔ ‪ .Wisekey‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﻷﺤﺩ ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻟﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨـﺎﺏ ﻋﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺘﻔﺎﺩﺕ ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫‪http://www.geneve.ch/evoting/english/welcome.asp‬‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ١٩٩١‬ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻭﺤﺔ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻤﺱ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﻀﻊ ﺍﻹﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺁﺨﺭ‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، ٢٠٠٤‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻤﻤﻐﻨﻁﺔ ﻭﺁﻟﺔ ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺘﺴـﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻗﻠﻤـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻀﻭﺌﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ ﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻐﻨﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺌﻰ ﻁﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﻴﺼـﻭﺕ ﺸـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺕ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺇﻴﺼـﺎل ﻭﺭﻗـﻰ‬

‫ﻟﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫‪[1] PourEva (http://www.poureva.be/, Pour une Ethique du Vote Automatisé‬‬
‫)‪Retrieved from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_voting_in_Belgium‬‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴل ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، ١٩٩٦‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﺘﻠـﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺎﺴﺏ ﺸﺨﺼﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﺍﺯ ‪ IBM 80836‬ﻤﻌﺩل ﻹﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ ﻜﺂﻟـﺔ ﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ، ٢٠٠٠‬ﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴل ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻯ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﺠﻨﺒﻴـﺔ ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺘﺼـﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴل‪ .‬ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ‪ ، Linux‬ﻭﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺁﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﻴﺘﻌﺫﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴـل‬
‫ﺒﺈﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﻭل ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓـﻰ ﺇﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺘﻬـﺎ ﻤﺜـل ﺩﻭل‬
‫ﺒﺎﺭﺍﺠﻭﺍﻯ ﻭﺇﻜﻭﺍﺩﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫)‪ƒ Electionworld (http://www.electionworld.org/brazil.htm‬‬
‫)‪ƒ Adam Carr's Election Archive (http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/b/brazil/‬‬
‫‪ƒ Simulated voting machine‬‬
‫‪(http://www.tse.gov.br/eleicoes/urna_eletronica/simulacao_votacao/UrnaApplet2.htm‬‬
‫‪)Portuguese)Courtesy of the Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court website. (Java‬‬
‫)‪required‬‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﱰﻧﺖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻰ ﰲ ﺇﺳﺘﻮﻧﻴﺎ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻫـﻰ ﻭﺴـﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻨﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺩﻤﺠﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﻤـل‬
‫ﻤﻔﺘﺎﺤﹰﺎ ﻋﺎﻤﹰﺎ )ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﻤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺘﻴﺢ ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻹﺜﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﻫﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ(‪ .‬ﺨﺼﺼﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻹﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴـﺩ ﺍﻹﺴـﺘﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻁﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺨﻴـﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺇﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺤﻴﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻁﺒﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻋﺩ ﻭﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﻤﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺯﻟﻬﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ ﻤﺤﻘﻘﹰﺎ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ))ﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ((‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪See the material on the homepage of the Estonian National Electoral Committee:‬‬
‫‪http://www.vvk.ee/engindex.html‬‬
‫‪Main statistics (source: [3] (http://www.vvk.ee/english/report2006.pdf)Table 11,‬‬
‫)‪p 27‬‬

‫‪٣٠‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﲤـــــﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺼﻔﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺘﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﻤﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺱ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﻟﺼﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ))ﺼﻭﺕ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻟﻨﺎﺨﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ(( ﺃﻯ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻲ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨـﺕ ﺘﻴﺴـﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﻭﺘﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻜﺎﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻐﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻰ ﻤﺭﺒﻁﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻰ ﻫـﻭ ﻭﺠـﻭﺩ ﺴـﻠﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺎﻴﺩﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻜﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌـﺎل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺯﻴـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﺤﻘﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﻐﺎﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻓﻼﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻫﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻭﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺸﻴﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺭﻀﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻋﺏ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻀﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻫﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺩﻭﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻨﺼ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌ ﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻨﻅﺭﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫**************************‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫ﻓﻬـــــــــﺮﺱ‬

‫א‬

‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺃﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺨﺒﻴﻥ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﺩﻭﻯ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫• ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ )ﻋﺩ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻀﻭﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬
‫‪٣‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ ﹰﺎ‪ -:‬ﺍﻟﻌﺩ )ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴ ﹰﺎ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻋﻡ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼــــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ ‪ -:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﺨل ‪-:‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬
‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺒﺈﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫)‪Direct-Recording Electronic Voting System (DRE‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬
‫‪Public Network Direct-Recording Electronic Voting‬‬
‫"‪System "PNDREVS‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﺩ )ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺀ( ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬

‫•‬

‫‪١٢‬‬
‫‪١٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻹﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻭﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬

‫‪١٢‬‬
‫‪١٢‬‬
‫‪١٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‪-:‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻼﻤﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ‪:‬ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻭﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺴﻼﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼـــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪١٦‬‬
‫‪١٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‪ :‬ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ -:‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫• ﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫• ﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼــــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ ‪ -:‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻨﺩﺍ‬

‫• ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺩﺭﺍﻟﻰ‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜ ﹰﺎ ‪ -:‬ﺇﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺨﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺠﻨﻴﻑ ﻓﻰ ﺴﻭﻴﺴﺭﺍ‬
‫‪State of Geneva – Switzerland‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬
‫‪٢٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌ ﹰﺎ‪ -:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﺎ‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫ﺨﺎﻤﺴ ﹰﺎ‪ -:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﺯﻴل‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫ﺴﺎﺩﺴ ﹰﺎ ‪ -:‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺴﺘﻭﻨﻴﺎ‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼــﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬
‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫ﺨﺎﺘﻤـــﺔ‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬


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