اجرام المراة .pdf



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‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻰ إﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ‬
‫آﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدیﺔ واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻜﻨﺎس‬
‫ﺷﻌﺒﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺨﺎص‬
‫‪:‬ﺏﺤﺚ ﻟﻨﻴﻞ اﻹﺟﺎزة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻘﻮق ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع‬

‫إﺟﺮام اﻟﻤﺮأة ودور‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت اﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻋﺎدة ﺕﺄهﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬

‫‪ :‬ﺕﺤﺖ إﺷﺮاف اﻷﺳﺘﺎذ‬
‫ﺟﻮاد أﻣﻬﻤﻮل‬
‫‪:‬ﻣﻦ إﻧﺠﺎز اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫‪.‬ﺳﻤﻴﺮة أ ‪.‬ﺏﺪیﻌﺔ ﺟـ ‪.‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺏـ‬
‫‪: 2004-2005‬اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫إﺟﺮام اﻟﻤﺮأة ودور اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت اﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫إﻋﺎدة ﺗﺄهﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﲰﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﳑﻴﺰﺍﻬﺗﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺒﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺒﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺇﺑﺎﻥ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﳌﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﲑﻱ ‪1930-1915‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺳﺠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺑﺒﲏ ﻣﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ﺑﺒﲏ ﻣﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﲟﻜﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﲏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺎﲤﺔ‬

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‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻼﺯﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ) (‪ .‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺑﺴﻂ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﳍﺎ ﻋﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺪﱘ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﲣﺬ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﺎﺛﺮﺓ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﺠﻼﺀ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻷﻣﺮ ﲤﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ ﳎﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺻﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻔﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ‪( ).‬ﻭﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﲣﻠﺺ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺃ ﻳﺼﻄﺒﻎ ﺑﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﺎﳓﺼﺮﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ) (‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﰲ ﲝﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻡ ﻭﺇﱃ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻟﱪﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ » ‪ « Guerry‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1833‬ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺩﰊ ﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺒﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻛﻴﺘﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1835‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻇﻬﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﳉﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﲣﻀﻊ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﻨﻘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ) (‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﺯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ "ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ" ﻳﻌﲎ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻭﻛﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﳝﺔ) (‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺳﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻲ‪،‬‬
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‫ﻛﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﻞ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺻﺪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻇﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻴﻄﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻣﺒﺎﻻﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﳘﺎﻝ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﺬﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﲔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﲜﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﺰﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﲢﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﺭﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ (‬
‫‪).‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻧﺎ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻟﺮﺻﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﻱ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﳝﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﺛﺮ ﻭﻗﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍ ﰲ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺮﺩ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﳓﲔ ﻬﺑﺪﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﺭﺗﺄﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺩﻣﺎﺟﻬﻦ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﺠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺳﺠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﲤﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻔﺸﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ) (‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺀ‬
‫ﳏﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻛﺎﺕ ﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻡ ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ( )،‬ﻭﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻘﻊ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻙ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻺﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻮﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﰒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺨﺼﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‪ :‬ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺠﺭﺍﺌﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﻴﻊ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻓﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺃﻭﻝ ﳐﺼﺼﲔ ﻓﺮﻋﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳉــــــﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋــــــﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﱭ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻛﻘﺘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻝ ‪...‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ‪ 33‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ‪ 6‬ﻳﺼﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺟﺮﳝﺘﲔ )‬
‫( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺛﺎﱐ ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﻻﺷﻚ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﱏ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﺻﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻻ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺺ –ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ -‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬
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‫ﺧﺺ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﻔﺼﻠﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 490‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ .493‬ﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 490‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‪" :‬ﻛﻞ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺍﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ" ﻭﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 493‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ" ‪:‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻠﲔ ‪ 490‬ﻭ ‪ 491‬ﻻ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻀﺮ ﺭﲰﻲ ﳛﺮﺭﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺎﺗﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ" ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﳉﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻄﻠﺒﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﲟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﲔ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﻉ ﺇﺫ ﺫﺍﻙ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺼﻤﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ‬
‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺬﻭﺫ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻲ ﻡ ‪ 489‬ﻕ ﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺷﺨﺼﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﲔ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 491‬ﻕ ﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺍ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﺃﺷﺪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺲ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ –ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ -484‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﻒ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ -485‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ ﺃﻱ ﻣﱴ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺇﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ ﻭﻋﻘﺎﻬﺑﻢ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 490‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻔﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻐﻠﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻬﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻧﺺ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ –‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 115‬ﻕ ﺝ – ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻟﻨﺺ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ؟‬
‫ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪:ϖ‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 93‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ" ‪:‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻠﲔ ‪ 490‬ﻭ ‪ 491‬ﻻ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻀﺮ‬
‫ﺭﲰﻲ ﳛﺮﺭﻩ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺿﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ "‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 286‬ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺟﺮﳝﱵ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﳏﻀﺮ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺮﺭﻩ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺣﺼﺮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 56‬ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪493‬‬
‫ﻕ ﺝ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺎﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﳝﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺇﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻣﻼ ﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻣﻄﺎﺭﺩﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻼ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﺭﺩ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻀﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺑﻂ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺒﺲ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺏ‪:‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﲞﻂ ﻳﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﻼﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﺬﻳﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻓﻪ ﺑﺈﻣﻀﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳜﻀﻊ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪:‬‬‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻠﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﺭﻗﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺮﻳﻌﺎ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺫﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻬﺑﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 286‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﻡ ﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﱪﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﻋﻪ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ( ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ 493‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 286‬ﻕ ﻡ ﺝ ) (‪" :‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪".‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺇﺫ ﺗﻜﻴﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 491‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ‪" :‬ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﲡﻮﺯ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻃﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻳﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻼ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻛﻲ ﺗﻜﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻫﺘﺪﻯ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺻﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﻘﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻄﺎ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ‪" :‬ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻐﻠﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲣﻔﻀﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳚﻬﻠﻮﻬﻧﺎ‪"( ).‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺎ ﲞﻠﻞ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﲣﺪﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ –ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 486‬ﻕ ﺝ‪ -‬ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻻ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻜﻴﻴﻒ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 491‬ﻣﻨﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﱂ‬
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‫ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﺸﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺒﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻃﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ "ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻬﺎ" ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﻬﺗﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺝ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻯ ﺿﺪ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻀﻊ ﺣﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪" : 492‬ﺗﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻜﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺣﺪﺍ ﳌﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻜﻰ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ"‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻓﻘﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ "ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻝ "ﻭﻻ ﳛﻮﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺎ ﺃﻡ ﻋﺎﺯﺑﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻮ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺡ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻛﻢ ﺧﺸﻴﺔ ﺇﻣﻼﻕ ﳓﻦ ﻧﺮﺯﻗﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ(‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ‪ 449‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 458‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪ 17‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻪ ‪ 1963‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻜﻦ ﲦﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﲡﺮﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﲑ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﻩ ﻇﻬﲑ ‪ 10‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮﺯ ‪ 1939‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲰﺢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 453‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺟﺒﺘﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﻣﱴ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺍﺡ ﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺇﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﰒ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮﺯ ‪ 1967‬ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺗﲔ ‪ 453‬ﻭ ‪ 455‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ‬
‫ﺝ ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻇﻬﲑ ‪ 1939 – 7 – 10‬ﻭﲟﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 453‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪" :‬ﻻ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺟﺒﺘﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻣﱴ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺍﺡ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﺄﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ‪ "...‬ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲪﻠﺖ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﶈﺎﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻌﻲ ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮﺫﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺟﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﺸﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﻟﻮﻥ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻠﺠﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﻋﺪﳝﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺣﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻦ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﰲ ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﲡﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﱵ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﰲ ﻭ ﻡ ﺃ )ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﳚﺪﺭ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺪﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺑﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺣﺪ ﳊﻴﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﲔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻛﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪" :449‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺣﺒﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﺿﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﺎﻗﲑ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺎﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 120‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 5000‬ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﻬﺗﺎ ﻓﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ" ﲟﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﺣﱴ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﰲ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﺒﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻭﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﺎﺕ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺤﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻛﺎﳉﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻷﺛﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻛﻮﺏ ﺍﳋﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬
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‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 449‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻛﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﻗﲑ ﺃﻭ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺭﺩﻑ ﻗﺎﺋﻼ "ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ" ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﲟﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﲔ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺿﻰ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤـﺎ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 449‬ﻻ ﺃﺛـﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺿﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ ﻭﲡﻬﺾ ﺭﻏﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺈﻋﻄﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻘﺎﻗﲑ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 454‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫"‪ ...‬ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 120‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 500‬ﺩﺭﻫﻢ"‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺒﻤﺠﺮﺩ ﺇﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻲ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻧﺺ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪449‬ﻕ ﺝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ "ﺑﺈﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺣﺒﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ "ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻓﺤﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺘﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 455‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ "‪ ...‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻛﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻪ" ﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻼ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﲡﺮﳝﻪ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﱂ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺣﻘﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 453‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﲟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 1‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮﺯ ‪ 1967‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻛﺄﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻫﺮﻣﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﱰﻑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺮﻯ ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺣﻴﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﲔ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻓﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪.453‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻼﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻛﺎﳌﻤﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺣﺮﺻﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺿﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﳏﻔﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺃﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻴﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﲢﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻼ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﺩﺍﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻬﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﺅﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻓﻼ‬‫ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻘﻴﲏ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﲏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 449‬ﻕ‬
‫ﺝ "‪ ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺣﺒﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪...".‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﺛﻘﺎ ﻭﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﻭﻏﻠﻮ ﻻ ﳏﻞ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻇﻨﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﰲ ﺧﻠﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻨﺪﺍ ﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ‪:‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﺗﻌﲏ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻚ ﺑﺎﳉﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲤﺘﺪ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﻟﻮ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
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‫ﻓﻌﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺮﳝﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﻞ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﳛﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺇﺫ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺷﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻈﺮﻓﲔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 449‬ﻕ ﺝ ﻫﻲ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ" ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰎ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﲟﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﰲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 451‬ﺟﺎﺯﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ‪ 40‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﶈﺮﺿﲔ ﺑﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 455‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 451‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴـﺎﺩ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉـﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻣﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﺈﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻘﺎ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺷﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 450‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ﺝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻕ ‪ 449‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻕ ‪..." 449‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﱂ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﺎ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻣﻼﺑﺴﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺟﻬﻀﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺪﺩ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 450‬ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺘﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
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‫ﻭﻳﺸﺠﻌﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪-‬ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪451‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‪" :‬ﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﻼﺣﻈﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺃﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﻟﺪﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺐ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﺋﻌﻮ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺼﺤﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮﻭﻬﻧﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻠﲔ‬
‫‪ 449‬ﻭ‪ 450‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﳛﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ .87‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳌﺪﺓ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻳﻌﺪﺩ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺭﺳﻮﺍ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺷﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﻣﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺑﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺷﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﲢﺪﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺼﺤﻮﻥ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻫﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 129‬ﻕ ﺝ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 129‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪455‬ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ 120‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 2000‬ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﺑﻐﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺃﻡ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻉ ﺃﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺯﻋﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﻟﻺﺟﻬﺎﺽ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻏﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 449‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﻈﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺟـﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴـﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳓﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬـﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﲡﺮﻡ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻌﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺑﺮﻱﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺫﻧﺐ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﻜﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﲔ ‪ 19‬ﻭ ‪ 20‬ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪ ﳐﻔﻒ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻣﺜﻼ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ (302‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺠﻴﻜﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ (369‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺧﻀﻌﺖ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 397‬ﻕ ﺝ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪: "...‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺃﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻄﺒﻖ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﺧﻔﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺘﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻄﻔﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺪ‪ ...‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻋﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻻ ﻋﱪ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺡ ﻟﻸﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻠﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﳏﻞ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﱂ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﺩﻭﳕﺎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺪﺍ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 397‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺘﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﱵ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﳚﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﱂ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 397‬ﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 397‬ﻕ ﺝ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻷﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 130‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ "ﻭﻻ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳌﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ "ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔـــــﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜــــــﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟـــﺠـــﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌــــــﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻳﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪ 634‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ 1025‬ﻣﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2004‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ‪26 167 82 359‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ‪4.10% %26.34 %12.93 %56.63‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﺎﺕ ‪26 286 96 617‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﲜﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﻨﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﰲ )ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻭﻝ( ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ )ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺛﺎﱐ( ﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ )ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲰﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻬﺑﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﲢﺮﺹ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺷﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺟﺮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺟﺴﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻓﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﲤﺲ ﲝﺮﻣﺔ ﻣﺴﻜﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪.‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %26.34‬ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،2004‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪ 167‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻻﻳﺬﺍﺀ )ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ( ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ )ﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻗﺬﻑ(‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ‪7 35 117 8‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﺎﺕ ‪18 50 209 9‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %70,05‬ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻪ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ،%0,85‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ،%10,26‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﲔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %46,15‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪42,74%).‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %20,96‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪%4,79‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪% .4,20‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﰲ )ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻭﻝ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳔﺼﺺ )ﻣﻄﻠﺒﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ( ﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺸﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻷﺯﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳋﻄﻮﺭﻬﺗﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﺕ ﳍﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﻬﺑﺎ )‬
‫(‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻴﺰﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺩﺕ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﺯﻫﺎﻕ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺼﺪﺍ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﱪﺭ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺘﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﻣﺸﺪﺩ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 392‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ‪" :‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﻤﺪﺍ ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻗﺎﺗﻼ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺑﺪ‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻱ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺯﻫﺎﻕ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﺧﻰ ﺯﻣﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﻲ ﻭﺇﺯﻫﺎﻕ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﻲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺗﺐ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪( ) .‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺑﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﱴ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﻈﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﲜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﲜﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻛﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺻﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺮﺻﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺳﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﻌﻤﺪ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻬﻧﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﻔﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﳉﺴﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﺍ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺗﺴﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺳﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺋﻂ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﱰﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﻬﺗﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻜﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄﻬﺗﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻠﺒﺴﲔ ﲜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﲣﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 423‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺬﺭ ﳐﻔﺾ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻓﻘﻮﺍﻣﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪" :‬ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺬﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺣﻴﻠﻮﻟﺘﻪ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪"( ).‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﻔﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬
‫ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 432‬ﻓﺄﺷﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻹﳘﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﲬﺴﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲣﻀﻊ ﻟﻈﺮﰲ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺼﻴﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 434‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ) ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﻨﺤﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻔﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺙ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺟﺴﻤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺎﻝ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻬﺑﺎ‬
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‫ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻨﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺟﺴﺪ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﻷﺫﻯ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 400‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺄﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﲤﺰﻳﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﳉﺴﻢ ﻛﺎﻻﲪﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﳉﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺛﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺟﺴﺪﻩ) (‪ .‬ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﻤﺰﻗﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻛﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺺ ﺷﻌﺮﻩ) (‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻆ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺲ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻓﻴﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﱴ ﺍﲡﻬﺖ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﳝﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﳋﻔﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﱂ ﳜﻠﻒ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﳉﺴﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺃﳌﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 30‬ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﲑ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮﺯ ‪ 1974‬ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻢ ﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ) (‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳋﻔﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳜﻠﻒ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺿﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳜﻠﻒ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 400‬ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ‪-‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ -401‬ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻋﺎﻫﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﳝﺔ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺲ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 402‬ﺑﻔﻘﺪ ﻋﻀﻮ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻫﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻹﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺻﺪ ﺃﻭ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺿﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺰﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﳉﺴﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺗﺴﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺴﺮ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻣﺘﻠﺒﺴﺔ ﲜﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻳﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 433‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﺒﺼﺮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻫﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺡ ﻏﲑ ﻋﻤﺪﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻐﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 434‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺟﺮﳝﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺮ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻬﺗﺪﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ‪ ،‬ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻼﻑ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﲜﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ 2004‬ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ 82‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ % 12.93‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ‪5 24 1 8 44‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﺎﺕ ‪5 30 1 10 50‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪) %53,66‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %40,90‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ (%59,10‬ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪) %29,27‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺷﻴﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ ،%95,84‬ﻭﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ (%4,16‬ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %9,76‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﺘﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﺿﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪%.6,10‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻄﻠﺒﲔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 505‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪" :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﺲ ﻋﻤﺪﺍ ﻣﺎﻻ ﳑﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻟﻠﻐﲑ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺳﺎﺭﻗﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪".‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﲤﻴﻴﺰﺍ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﺮﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﺋﺰﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ) (‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻝ ﳑﻠﻮﻙ ﻟﻠﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺟﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﳊﻈﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﻪ ﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺱ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﺎﻻ ﳑﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺿﺎﻩ‪( ).‬‬
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‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﺸﺪﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻬﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻈﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺟﻨﺎﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻓﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﺑﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻗﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻣﻼ ﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻔﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻈﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﻟﻨﻘﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺧﺼﺼﺖ ﳍﺮﻭﻬﺑﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 507‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﺊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ ،508‬ﻓﻴﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﱴ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻈﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ‪ 509‬ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻱ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺣﻖ ﺑﺰﻱ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻟﻴﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺷﺨﺼﲔ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻖ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻣﺰﻭﺭﺓ) (‪ ،‬ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﱰﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺪ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﲎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﳏﺮﻙ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﺮﻭﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﲡﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﻧﺔ ﺑﻈﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﻔﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﻈﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 510‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 534‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻕ ﻳﻌﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﻭﻕ ﳑﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺣﺪ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﳑﻠﻮﻛﺎ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺭﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﺭﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺻﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﲡﻮﺯ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﲏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 535‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ )‬
‫(‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﳛﺘﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻭﻓﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺣﺎﻃﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺯﺟﺮﻱ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻚ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 70‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻇﻬﲑ ‪ 19‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪ 1939‬ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1935‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺘﺒﺲ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻨﻴﻒ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1931‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰎ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 534‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ) ( ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻭﲢﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﺔ ﳉﻠﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻛﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺳﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1996‬ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺰﺟﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﰎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪543‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 316‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲟﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﳝﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺐ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﻬﲑ ﺷﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻛﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺷﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺮﻗﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺿﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﲟﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺷﻴﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 316‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻛﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﳐﻮﻝ ﳍﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 240‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺮﺭ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪-‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ‪ -239‬ﺩﻭﳕﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺍﶈﺮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺑﻨﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺳﻨﺪﺍ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺷﻴﻜﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺻﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺎ ﳉﻨﺤﺔ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻮﻓﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻔﲔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %25‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻘﻄﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺐ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﻛﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﻜﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺤﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻨﺸﺮ ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﻓﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﺰﻳﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﻠﻤﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺰﻭﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺰﻳﻔﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﻬﲑﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺿﻤﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺰﻭﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺰﻳﻔﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻹﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ؛ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ؛ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﲣﻀﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺰﻳﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺰﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﺒﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻵﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻙ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻭﺗﻀﻢ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻫﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪...‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﲡﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﰎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻧﺺ ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﲤﺲ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪ 359‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ % 56,63‬ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ‪ %35,09 ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ‪ %33,15‬ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ‪ %28,41‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻫﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻫﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ‪7 5 126 119 102‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﻤﺎﺕ ‪10 8 283 190 126‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﰲ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺛﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺎ ﳉﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 498‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﲪﻰ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻋﻰ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﺮﺿﺎﺋﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺵ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻃﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﲢﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎﺋﺘﲔ‬
‫ﻭﲬﺴﲔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﱴ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪499‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﻖ ﻗﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺎﱐ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺻﻮﳍﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳑﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﳘﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪،‬‬
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‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺗﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ ،502‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺋﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﻠﻔﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﲑﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﻨﺎﺩﻕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺴﻴﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﳏﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺡ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺻﺎ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻃﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﶈﻞ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺠﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺁﻻﻑ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻨﺎ ﲜﻠﺐ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺫﻛﻮﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻧﺎﺛﺎ ﻗﺼﺪ ﲢﺮﻳﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺍﻓﺼﻞ ‪ 504‬ﺇﱃ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 40‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﲬﺲ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﺎﺿﻰ ﻋﻦ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻃﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﰲ ﳏﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 120‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 500‬ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﲢﺮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 20‬ﺷﺘﻨﱪ‬
‫‪ 1914‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪30‬‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮﺯ ‪ 1929‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻲ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 724.66‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 14‬ﻧﻮﻧﱪ ‪ 1967‬ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﻨﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﰲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻳﻔﻘﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﲝﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﻋﻼﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﱴ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻷﺯﻗﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻃﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﺴﻜﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻬﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺮﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﺏ ﻣﺴﻜﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻛﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻔﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﲬﺴﲔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻖ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﲤﺲ ﺑﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﻇﺮﻓﺎ ﻣﺸﺪﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ‬
‫ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻴﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻗﺼﻰ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﱵ ﺍﳊﺒﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻨﻊ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺰﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﻖ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪ 26‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﲑ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪61‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺣﲔ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺈﻳﺪﺍﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻓﻼﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻜﺮ ﺑﲔ ﰲ‬
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‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﲤﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‪،‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺘﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ؟‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺠل‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﻱ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻣﻨﺎ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ( ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻨﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﰲ "ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻭﻝ" ﻧﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺛﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ‬

‫ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻭﺍﺗﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ)ﻷﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ‪:‬ﻧﺒﺎ ﺍﺑﲏ ﻵﺩﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﺇﺫ ﻗﺮﺑﺎ ﻗﺮﺑﺎﻧﺎ ﻓﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻄﻮﻋﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻗﺘﻞ )ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﺓ( ‪:‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﻗﺘﻠﻨﻚ ) ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ(ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺘﻠﻪ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﺳﺮﻳﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ "ﺃﻭﺭﳕﻮ" ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ "ﺑﺖ ﻋﺸﺘﺎﺭ" ﻭﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ "ﲪﻮ ﺭﺍﰊ‪".‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ "ﺃﻭﺭﳕﻮ" ‪ 2003-2111‬ﻕ ﻡ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻏﺮﺕ ﲟﻔﺎﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻼ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻀﺎﺟﻌﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ "ﻟﺒﺖ ﻋﺸﺘﺎﺭ" ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ "ﲪﻮ ﺭﺍﰊ" ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺒﺪ‬
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‫ﺗﻘﺮﺑﺎ ﻟﻶﳍﺔ ) (‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ –‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﲟﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ -‬ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﱴ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﺺ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺼﺼﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻮﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻮﻁ ﺧﺎﻧﺖ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺻﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﺰﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬

‫ﺭﺳﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺸﺮﻯ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ)ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ‪:‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻬﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬

‫ﻇﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﻃﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ (‪ ( ).‬ﳓﻦ ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻨﺠﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺰﺍﺋﻦ ﻣﺼﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻜﺴﻮﺱ‪ -‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﳏﺎﺳﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻬﺰﺕ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﻭﺻﺪﺕ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻫﻴﺄﺕ ﻟﻚ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻓﺮﻓﺾ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺇﺻﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻣﺴﻜﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻒ ﻓﻤﺰﻗﺖ ﻗﻤﻴﺼﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻟﻔﻘﺖ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻬﺗﻤﺔ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﻬﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ( ) ( ‪:‬‬
‫)ﻭﺭﺍﻭﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻫﻴﺖ ﻟﻚ‪(...‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﳏﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﺨﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﳜﺸﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻬﻧﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻘﺘﻠﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺪﻓﻨﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﻣﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲡﻨﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳋﺰﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺸﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻇﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻣﺴﻮﺩﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻈﻴﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺃﳝﺴﻜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﻮﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻳﺪﺳﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻻ ﺳﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻜﻤﻮﻥ(‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳏﺮﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﱂ ﳛﺮﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺮﳝﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻻﺑﻨﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺰﱐ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﳛﺮﻡ ﺇﺗﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀ ﲢﺮﳝﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﻤﻠﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﲤﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻧﻌﻤﱵ)ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﻟﻜـﻦ ﻭﺑﱰﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪: ( ).‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺃﻱ(ﻭﺭﺿﻴﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻨﺎ ﺇﺧﻼﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ‬
‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻗﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻋﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺣﺪﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻨﺔ ﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﲔ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺰﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺮﻳﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻛﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ) (ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻤﱴ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﺭﺍﺟﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﺀ ﻛﺠﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﻛﻮﺯﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﳍﺎ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻴﻮﻳﺔ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﺘﻐﲑ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﻣﺮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻞ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ؟‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻗﺪﱘ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﺴﻢ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺘﺨﻔﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻓﺎﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻗﺪﱘ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
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‫‪828‬ﻫـ ) (‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻋﺮﻑ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﺓ ﲝﻔﻈﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﻫﻦ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺯﻣﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳋﻤﻴﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ‪( ) .‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ –ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﲣﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻬﺑﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺄﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭ ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺨﻔﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﲑﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻬﻧﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻀﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﻭﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺛﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻻﺯﺍﻝ ﺿﺌﻴﻼ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 2745‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ) ( ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺷﺎﻬﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻐﲑﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻅ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺇﲨﺎﱄ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﻐﲑ ﺃﳕﺎﻃﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺠﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻨﺢ ﻣﻦ ﳏﻜﻤﱵ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪( ) 2002-2001‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﻨﺔ ‪( ).2004‬‬
‫‪2004‬‬
‫‪2001-2002‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
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‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫‪9 6‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‬
‫‪50 42‬ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬
‫‪126 13‬ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ‬
‫‪190‬ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭ‪ 283‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ 176‬ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫‪12 17‬ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﲑ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲏ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﲦﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 2002‬ﻭ‪ 2004‬ﻭﺟﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻔﺖ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺮﻭﺭ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻫﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻣﺔ ﺳﻴﺤﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻻ ﳏﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻴﺶ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﺣﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻫﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺓ ﺃﺩﻯ ﻬﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﳓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﲔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 20‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﱵ ‪ 2002‬ﻭ‪ ،2003‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪20‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 20‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫‪ 2002/12/31‬ﻭ‪( ).2003/12/31‬‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫‪31-12-2004 31-12-2002‬‬
‫‪5 6‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫‪18 23‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‬
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‫‪27 22‬ﺿﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫‪4 4‬ﺍﻹﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬
‫‪9 4‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫‪7 8‬ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪70 67‬ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﶈﻜﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ 20‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺍﳔﻔﺾ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﳔﻔﺾ ﻋﺪﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 23‬ﺇﱃ ‪.18‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ‪ 22‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 27‬ﺳﺠﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻓﻤﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻦ ‪ 67‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 70‬ﺳﺠﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﻙ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳋﻔﻲ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰎ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﻪ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺛﺮﺍﺋﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؟ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ؟‬
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‫ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﳔﺼﺺ ﻣﺒﺤﺜﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﻠﻴﻔﻮﺭﺩ ﺷﻮ ‪-‬ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﲤﺎﺭﺱ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻭﺣﺎﲰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ‪ ( ).‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﻫﻮﺭﺍ ﰲ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﳚﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‬
‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻱ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ )ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ(؟‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻳﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1993‬ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ‪ 25000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ‪ ، 61.2‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ‪ 250.000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ‪ 75‬ﻭ‪ 85‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻭﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ 250.000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ‪( ).117.2‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﻱ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ‬
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‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻳﻮﻓﻖ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻬﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ‪ 54.7‬ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ 10.000‬ﻧﺴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ 32.6‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1896‬ﻭ‪ ،1920‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ‪12%‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﱂ ﺗﺰﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ‪ % 4‬ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﻳﺎﻑ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺼﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ) ( ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ‪ % 81.19‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 2004‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ % 18.81‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﳍﺎ ) (‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻮﻓﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﲔ ﻋﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪14 14 208 1019‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫‪1.12% 1.12% 16.57% 81.19%‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﲡﻬﻨﺎ ﳓﻮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪1019‬‬
‫ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺇﻻ ‪ 236‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ 208‬ﺟﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻮﺯﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻋﲔ ﻋﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﺑﻮﻓﻜﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﺳﺒﺒﻪ ﺗﻘﺎﻋﺲ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﺐ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﺑﻼﻍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﲤﺎﺳﻜﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺑﻄﺎ ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻜﺎﻬﻧﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺗﺴﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﱪ ﺳﻴﺰﺍﺭ ﳌﱪﻭﺯﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ ﳕﻄﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻃﺎﺑﻊ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﺑﺮﻱ ﻭﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﲔ ﻭﻬﺗﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﺍﻉ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﲜﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻗﺴﻢ ﲝﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺰﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﺱ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻭﻫﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ) (‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﻳﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﰎ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﻱ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ) (‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ 2004‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪99.04‬‬
‫‪ %‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪ % 0.96‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ % 84.95‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫‪ %15.05‬ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ % 63.12‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫‪ %36.88‬ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪% 47.79‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫‪ % 52.21‬ﲟﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﻱ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺫﺓ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫‪%‬ﻉ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ‪ %‬ﻉ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ‪ %‬ﻉ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ‪ %‬ﻉ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ‪ %‬ﻉ‪.‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫‪- - 5.79 59 51.03 520 20.51 209 22.67 231‬ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫‪2.4 5 24.04 50 0.96 2 16.35 34 56.25 117‬ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ‬
‫‪- - - - - - 21.43 3 78.57 11‬ﻋﲔ ﻋﺮﻣﺔ‬
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‫ ‪- 15 - - 15 - 48‬ﺳﺒﻊ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ) (‬‫‪- 28.57 4 21.43 3 - 50 7‬ﺑﻮﻓﻜﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﳍﺎ‬

‫ﻡ‬

‫ﻣﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﻬﺗﻴﻤﻦ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %51.03‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %22.67‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %20.51‬ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻣﺆﻭﻧﺔ ﺷﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺿﺎ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%56.25‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %24.04‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﺪﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻊ ﻳﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺑﻮﻓﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻼ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﺭﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﺴﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻨﻌﺪﻡ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﻊ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ ﺑﺒﻮﻓﻜﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﲔ ﻋﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺮ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺗﻨﻌﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﳍﺬﺍ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﺮ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻘﻄﺔ؟‬
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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ‪" :‬ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻼﺫ ﻭﻋﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻬﻮﺍﻬﺗﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﻮﻧﺖ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻟﻜﻪ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ...‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻘﺒﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻑ ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺬﻣﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‪..."( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺫﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﻣﻔﺴﺮﺓ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺰﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺸﻲ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻏﻠﺐ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻀﻌﻒ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﲑﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﻀﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻳﺼﺤﺒﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺗﻜﺒﺔ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﻬﺑﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﺑﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻫﺒﻮﻁ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻇﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺪﻉ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻱ ﻭﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻦ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﰒ ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ‪( ).‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺪﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﲟﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﲡﻬﻨﺎ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺍﺣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﲝﺜﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻄﺎﺑﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﻲ ﻓﺄﻏﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺎﻬﻧﺎ ﳝﺘﻬﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﲜﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﺽ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ (...‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻔﻀﻲ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ )ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ‪).‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬
‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻔﺸﻰ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﻯ ﳝﺘﻬﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊـﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﻣﻦ‬
‫ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻷﺑﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺤﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳋﱪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﳍﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳒﺪ ﻋﺪﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻫﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﻬﺠﺮﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﲝﺜﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺯﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻜﺪﺱ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻫﺎﻣﺸﻴﺔ ﳏﺮﻭﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﳓﺮﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲤﺴﻜﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﲝﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺌﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﻋﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺼﻄﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﺟﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺨﺮ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ )ﻭﻳﺴﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ( ﻭﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﻞ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﳜﻠﻖ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺑﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﱐ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻭﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺿﺂﻟﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﺘﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﺐ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺸﻲ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺮ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳓﻼﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲤﺖ ﺑﺼﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺮﺗﻜﺒﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻛﻮﻬﻧﻢ ﺫﻛﻮﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺇﻧﺎﺛﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﺢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻭﺃﺷﺪ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻘﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ ‪:‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻃﻤﺄﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﲔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ ﲟﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺒﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﻤﻞ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻴﻂ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﻬﺗﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻬﺗﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ ﻣﺰﻣﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﻛﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﻨﺎ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﻝ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺗﺎﻡ ﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻏﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪﺓ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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‫ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻭﺻﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﻓﺦ ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺒﺤﺜﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﺎ ﻭﺟﺴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﰎ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺭﺻﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺳﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﻣﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺷﱴ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﻓﻠﻨﺪﺭﺱ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺭﻗﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ 10/1‬ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺛﻘﻞ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺋﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻹﺣﺼﺎﺀ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ %4 ،1970‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪10% 1969‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ‪ %14‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ‪ %8‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬
‫‪ ( )...%12‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺳﲑ ﺍﳉﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﲟﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻜﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪2004‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ) (‬
‫ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬
‫‪B‐Achour http://www.4shared.com/dir/3606424/ec958298/sharing.html‬‬

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