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249 en factores humanos atm.pdf


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INTRODUCTION
Historical background
1.
The Tenth Air Navigation Conference (Montreal, 5-20 September 1991) “recognized the
importance of Human Factors in the design and transition of future ATC systems”. It also “noted that
automation was considered to offer great potential in reducing human error”. It further recommended that “work
conducted by ICAO in the field of Human Factors pursuant to ICAO Assembly Resolution A26-9 include, inter
alia, studies related to the use and transition to future CNS/ATM systems”.
2.
Following the recommendation of the Conference, the ICAO Air Navigation Commission
agreed that its task “Flight Safety and Human Factors” would be revised to include work on Human Factors
considerations in future aviation systems with an emphasis on CNS/ATM-related human-machine interface
aspects.
3.
Based on the decision of the Commission, the Secretariat contacted experts from selected
States and international organizations and reviewed recent and ongoing studies to identify Human Factors
issues of relevance to ICAO CNS/ATM systems. The survey identified several areas in which application of
Human Factors knowledge and experience would enhance future ICAO CNS/ATM systems safety and
efficiency:


Automation and advanced technology in future ATS systems. The application of state-ofthe-art technology and automation is fundamental to the ICAO CNS/ATM concept. Experience
shows that it is essential to take into account the human element during the design phase so
that the resulting system capitalizes upon the relative strengths of humans and
computer-based technology. This approach is referred to as a “human-centred” automation.



Flight deck/ATS integration. ICAO CNS/ATM systems will provide for a high level of
integration between aircraft and the air traffic control system. This will bring new and different
challenges. The various components of the system will interact in new ways, and new means
of communication between pilots and air traffic controllers will be available. A dedicated
systems approach must be adopted to address the issues associated with this integration and
to ensure that the system as a whole is “user-friendly”.



Human performance in future ATS. The human element is the key to the successful
implementation of the ICAO CNS/ATM concept. A broad base of scientific knowledge of
human performance in complex systems is available and research continues to provide more.
Additional research is still needed regarding the influence of organizational and management
factors on individual and team performance in ATS. Information transfer in complex systems,
the system-wide implications of data-link implementation, automated aids such as conflict
prediction and resolution advisory systems, and the allocation of authority and functions
between air and ground in future systems are areas in which guidance is necessary.



Training, selection and licensing of controllers. Acquiring technical skills alone will not
guarantee on-the-job performance with high reliability and efficiency. Resource management
training programmes specially tailored to ATS requirements are under development. Although
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