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‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣــﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ و اﻹﺛﺒﺎت‬
‫‪LECTURE HANDOUT # 1A‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻄــــﻮر اﻟﺘﺎریﺨـــﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧــــﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧــــﻲ‪:‬‬
‫’ ﺟﻤﻴــﻊ اﻟﻄــﺮق ﺕــﺆدي اﻟﻰ روﻣـــﺎ! ‘‬
‫‪Evolution of the Civilian Legal System:‬‬
‫’ !‪‘ All Roads Lead to Rome‬‬

‫د‪ .‬ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬
‫‪mashael@law.kuniv.edu‬‬
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‪ :‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧــﻲ )‪2 .................................................................................................(Genesis: Roman Law‬‬
‫ﻣﺪوﻧــﺔ ﺟﻮﺱﺘﻨﻴــــﺎن )‪3 ....................................................................................................(The Institutes of Justinian‬‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻜﻨﺴـــﻲ )‪3 .............................................................................................................................. (Canon Law‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﺘﺠــﺎرة )‪3 ........................................................................................................................... (Law Merchant‬‬
‫اﻷوﺿﺎع اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﻗﺒﻴــﻞ اﻟﺜــﻮرة اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴــﺔ )‪3 .................................................................................................. (Pre-1789‬‬
‫اﻟﺜــﻮرة اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴــﺔ ‪4 .................................................................................................. (The French Revolution) 1789‬‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻧﺎﺏﻠﻴﻮن ‪4 ................................................................................... (The Code of Napoleon) 1804‬‬
‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋــﺺ اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧــﻲ )‪4 ...............................................................................(Characteristics of the Civil Code‬‬
‫اﻧﺘﺸــﺎر اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧــﻲ )‪5 ................................................................................................. (Reception of Civil Law‬‬

‫‪© Mashael A. Alhajeri, 2004‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮیﻦ‪ :‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧــﻲ )‪1(Genesis: Roman Law‬‬
‫•‬

‫اﻻﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮریﺔ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ -‬اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺴﺎﺏﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬روﻣﺎ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﻮء اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ -‬اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ )‪(Rome: the city-state‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﺕﺴﺎع اﻟﺮﻗﻌﺔ اﻟﺠﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪوﻟﺔ )‪(geographical expansion‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎم ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺕﻄﻮر اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪى ‪ 1200‬ﺱﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻻﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮریﺔ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ – اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺴﺎدس ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻃﺒﻘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ اﻷﺵﺮاف )‪(the patrician class‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ )‪(the plebeian class‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ )‪(the slaves‬‬

‫‪ o‬اﻟﺼﺮاع اﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ )‪:(struggle of the orders‬‬
‫ƒ‬
‫•‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻷﻟﻮاح اﻷﺙﻨﻰ ﻋﺸﺮ )‪(twelve tables of law‬‬

‫اﻻﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮریﺔ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ – اﻟﻘﺮن اﻷول ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪:‬‬

‫•‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎآﻢ )‪(Prater‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )‪(Judex‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ )‪(Jurisconsult‬‬

‫اﻧﻬﻴﺎر اﻻﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮریﺔ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺮﺏﻴﺔ – اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ اﻟﻰ اﻟﺮاﺏﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬هﺠﻤﺎت اﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺠﺮﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﺏﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫اﻧﺪﺙﺎر اﻟﺘﺮاث اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﺪون )اﻟﻤﻜﺘﻮب(‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﺠﻬﻞ و اﻟﺨﺮاﻓﺔ‬

‫‪ o‬اﺱﺘﻤﺮار اﻻﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮرﻳﺔ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺴﻄﻨﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫>‪<http://www.nova.edu/~levitts/chapter2.htm#_ftnref4‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﻣﺪوﻧــﺔ ﺟﻮﺱﺘﻨﻴــــﺎن )‪(The Institutes of Justinian‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺪوﻧﺔ )‪:(constituents‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﻄﻮر اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺘﺠﺎریﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻻﻧﺤﻄﺎط – اﻟﻌﺼﻮر اﻟﻮﺱﻄﻰ )‪(the middle ages‬‬

‫‪1. a refinement of the Institutes of Gaius‬‬
‫)‪2. the Digest (writings of classical jurists‬‬
‫)‪3. the Code (early imperial legislation‬‬

‫‪ o‬ﻧﻈﺎم اﻻﻗﻄﺎع )‪(feudal system‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮ اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ )‪:(the renaissance‬‬
‫‪ o‬دور اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎت اﻻﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﺸﺮح ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺘﻮن‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻌﻮدة ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻜﻨﺴـــﻲ )‪(Canon Law‬‬
‫•‬

‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮیﻒ ﺏﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻨﺴﻲ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻨﺴﻲ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﺘﺠــﺎرة )‪(Law Merchant‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫•‬

‫ازدهﺎر ﺡﺮآﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺼﻮر اﻟﻮﺱﻄﻰ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﺘﺠﺎري ﻟﺸﺒﻪ اﻟﺠﺰیﺮة اﻻیﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻤﺪن ‪ -‬اﻟﺪول‬
‫‪ o‬اﻷﺱﺎﻃﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‪ :‬اﺕﺤﺎدات اﻟﺘﺠﺎر ‪ /‬اﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎن اﻟﺘﺠﺎري ‪ /‬اﻟﺤﺴﻢ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎزﻋﺎت اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬

‫اﻷوﺽﺎع اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴـﺔ ﻗﺒﻴــﻞ اﻟﺜــﻮرة اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴــﺔ )‪(Pre-1789‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ‪ -‬آﺜﺮة اﻟﻘﻮاﻧﻴﻦ و اﻻﻋﺮاف و ﻋﺪم ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ‪ /‬ﻋﺪم اﺕﺴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‬

‫‪Encyclopedia Britannica, online: <http://www.britannica.com > (as accessed on November 2, 2004).‬‬
‫‪James G. Apple, A Primer on the Civil Law system, online:‬‬
‫‪<http://www.fjc.gov/public/pdf.nsf/lookup/CivilLaw.pdf/$file/CivilLaw.pdf> (as accessed on November 2, 2004).‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫اﻟﺜــﻮرة اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴــﺔ ‪(The French Revolution) 1789‬‬
‫•‬

‫هﺪف اﻟﺜﻮرة و ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎديء اﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻧﺎﺏﻠﻴﻮن ‪(The Code of Napoleon) 1804‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻧﺎﺏﻠﻴﻮن – ادراك اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﺮیﻊ ﻣﻮﺡﺪ ﻟﻠﺪوﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺏﻮﺽﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺠﺪیﺪ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﺸﻜﻴﻞ اﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫دور ﻧﺎﺏﻠﻴﻮن ﻓﻲ أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋــﺺ اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧــﻲ )‪5(Characteristics of the Civil Code‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺕﺄﺛﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ )‪(The Romanist influence‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺡﻞ اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻲ )اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺴﻮاﺏﻖ اﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪(precedents‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻻﺹﺪار ﺏﻮاﺱﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .3‬دور اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ و ﺕﺤﺮي اﻟﻨﻴﺎت‬

‫•‬

‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻻﺥﺘﺼﺎر‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﻘﺴﻴﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻤﺒﺎديء اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﺰواج‪ ،‬اﻟﻄﻼق‪ ،‬اﻷﺏﻮة‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﺹﺔ و اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺡﻖ اﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ و اﻟﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺘﺮآﺎت‪ ،‬اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‪ ،‬و اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت‬

‫•‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻘﻮد ‪ -‬اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺕﻘﻮم ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻻرادة )‪(autonomy of the will‬‬

‫‪Jeff Chapman, ‘The Code Napoleon’, online: <http://www.history-magazine.com/codenap.html> (as accessed on 02 November‬‬
‫‪2004).‬‬
‫‪Ibid.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ o‬ﺡﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )‪(liberty of contracting‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺁﺙﺎر اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )‪(privity of contract‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻋﺪم ﺵﻜﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد )‪(non-formality‬‬
‫‪ o‬أﺥﻼﻗﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )‪:(moralisation of contracts‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ﺡﺴﻦ اﻟﻨﻴﺔ )‪(bona fide‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )‪(culpa in contrahendo‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺘﻌﺴﻒ ﻓﻲ اﺱﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺤﻖ )‪(abuse of right‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻋﻘﺪ اﻹذﻋﺎن )‪(contract of adhesion‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﺡﻤﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﻄﺮف اﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ )ﺿﻤﺎن اﻟﻌﻴﻮب اﻟﺨﻔﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺕﻔﺴﻴﺮ اﻟﺸﻚ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﻪ ‪ /‬اﻟﺦ(‬

‫اﻧﺘﺸــﺎر اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧــﻲ )‪(Reception of Civil Law‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺕﻘﻮیﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺵﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﺠﻐﺮاﻓﻲ )‪:(legal transplant‬‬
‫‪ o‬اوروﺏﺎ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺏﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪(Louisiana / Quebec‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺱﻂ‪ :‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ و اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﻘﺎرن‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣــﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ و اﻹﺛﺒﺎت‬
‫‪LECTURE HANDOUT # 1B‬‬

‫ﺕﻄـﻮر اﻟﺘﺸﺮیﻌـﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ دوﻟـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮیـﺖ‬
‫د‪ .‬ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬
‫‪mashael@law.kuniv.edu‬‬
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬
‫ﺱﺮد ﺕﺎرﻳﺨﻲ ‪7 .........................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫دواﻋﻲ إﺹﺪار اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ رﻗﻢ ‪ 67‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪7 ........................................................................................................... 1980‬‬
‫اﺕﺠﺎهﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ رﻗﻢ ‪ 67‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪7 .................................................................................................................. 1980‬‬
‫ﺏﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ ‪7 ...........................................................................................................................................................‬‬

‫‪Mashael A. Alhajeri, 2004‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫©‬

‫• ﺱﺮد ﺕﺎریﺨﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﻔﺘﺮة ﻣﻨﺬ ﻗﻴﺎم اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ اﻟﻰ ‪ :1938‬ﻣﺬهﺐ اﻹﻣﺎم ﻣﺎﻟﻚ )أهﻞ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺬهﺐ اﻹﻣﺎم ﺟﻌﻔﺮ اﻟﺼﺎدق )اﻟﺸﻴﻌﺔ اﻹﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪/‬اﻟﺠﻌﻔﺮﻳﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻟﺠﺎن‬
‫اﻟﺤﺮف‪ ،‬إﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺏﻌﺾ اﻷﻋﺮاف و اﻟﻌﺎدات اﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪة‪.‬‬
‫‪ :1925 .2‬اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺏﺪار اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ )أﻟﻐﻴﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ‪.(1960‬‬
‫‪ :1938 .3‬ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻷﺡﻜﺎم اﻟﻌﺪﻟﻴﺔ )اﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻟﺤﻨﻔﻲ(‪.‬‬

‫• اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ :1940 .1‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻐﻮص اﻟﺼﺎدر ﻓﻲ ‪ 29‬ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ‪) 1940‬أول ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻋﺼﺮي ﻓﻲ دوﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ :1959 .2‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﻘﻀﺎء رﻗﻢ ‪) 1959/19‬اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ :1961 .3‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة رﻗﻢ ‪ 1961/2‬و ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت اﻟﻨﺎﺵﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع رﻗﻢ ‪.1961/6‬‬
‫‪ .4‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ رﻗﻢ ‪ ) 1980/67‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﻘﺎرن‪ :‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺏﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫• دواﻋﻲ إﺹﺪار اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ رﻗﻢ ‪ 67‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪1980‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺕﻌﺪد )ﺕﻨﺎﺙﺮ( ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺪوﻧﺔ ﺕﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻤًﺎ ﺵﺎﻣ ً‬

‫• اﺕﺠﺎهﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ رﻗﻢ ‪ 67‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪1980‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ :‬ﺟﺎء إﺥﺮاج اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﻘﺎ و ﻣﻨﺎهﺞ اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ إﻳﺮاد اﻷﺡﻜﺎم اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺹﺪر‬
‫اﻟﻤﺪوﻧﺔ‪ ،‬و ﻣﻦ ﺙﻢ ﺕﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ أﻗﺴﺎم‪/‬آﺘﺐ‪ /‬أﺏﻮاب‪/‬ﻓﺼﻮل‪/‬ﻓﺮوع‪/‬ﻣﻮاد‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﻤﻮﺽﻮع‪ :‬اﺱﺘﻤﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن أﺡﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﻘﺎرن و اﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻹﺱﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺡﺪ ﺱﻮاء‪ ،‬دون اﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺏﻤﺪرﺱﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺏﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﺏﺪر ﺟﺎﺱﻢ اﻟﻴﻌﻘﻮب‪ ،‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺿﻴﻪ و ﺡﺎﺿﺮﻩ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺒﺤﻮث و اﻟﺪراﺱﺎت اﻟﻌﺮﺏﻴﺔ‪.(1988 ،‬‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﺹﺒﺤﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﺼﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬اﻷوﺿﺎع اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﺮﺏﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ط ‪) 4‬ﺏﻴﺮوت‪ :‬دار اﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻼﻳﻴﻦ‪.(1981 ،‬‬

‫‪.3‬‬

‫ﺱﻠﻴﻤﺎن اﻟﻤﻄﻮع‪" ،‬ﻟﻤﺤﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺕﻄﻮر اﻟﻘﻀﺎء و اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ"‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻣﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﻌﺪد ‪ ،7‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪.1974‬‬
‫‪S H Amin, Legal System of Kuwait (Glasgow: Royston Publishers, 1991).‬‬
‫‪Abdul-Reda Assiri, The Government and Politics of Kuwait: Principles and Practices (Kuwait: Al-Watan Printing‬‬
‫‪Press, 1996).‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪4.‬‬
‫‪5.‬‬

‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣــﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴــﺔ و اﻹﺛﺒــﺎت‬
LECTURE HANDOUT # 2

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣــﺔ ﻓــﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﺮیــﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣــﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘــﺰام‬
Introduction to General Theory of Obligation
‫ ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬.‫د‬
mashael@law.kuniv.edu
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳـﺎت‬
10 ...............................................................................................................(Defining Obligations) ‫ﺕﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
10 ..............................................................................................(Characteristics of Obligations) ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
11 ....................................................................... (Significance of the Theory of Obligations) ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
11 ........................... (Philosophical Schools and the Theory of Obligations) ‫أﺙﺮ اﻟﻤﺬاهﺐ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
12 ........................................................................................................... (Sources of Obligations) ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬
12 .............................................................................................................................................. (Glossary) ‫ﻣﺴﺮد‬
13 .....................................................................................................................(Supplemental Reading) ‫ﻟﻺﻃﻼع‬
13 ..................................................................................................................... (Reference Materials) ‫ﺏﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬

©

Mashael A. Alhajeri, 2004

8

‫ﻣﺼــﺎدر‬
‫اﻻﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼــﺎدر‬
‫اﻹرادﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻟﻌـﻘــﺪ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﻹرادﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻹرادة‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬

‫اﻟﻔـﻌــﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻓـــﻊ‬
‫)اﻹﺙﺮاء ﺏﻼ‬
‫ﺱﺒﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺡﺴــﺎب‬
‫اﻟﻐﻴــــﺮ(‬

‫اﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻀﺎر‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴـــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎن‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋــﻦ‬
‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻐﻴـــﺮ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋــﻦ‬
‫ااﻷﺵﻴﺎء‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺵﺎﻏـــــﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻮع‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎﺏـــﻊ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻗﺎﺏﺔ‬

‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺵﺮ‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺕﺴﻠــﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻴـــﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻖ‬

‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬
‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻔﻀﺎﻟــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن‬

‫ﺕﻌﺮیﻒ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Defining Obligation‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺕﻨﺄى اﻟﺘﺸﺮیﻌﺎت اﻟﺤﺪیﺜﺔ ﺏﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ إیﺮاد اﻟﺘﻌﺮیﻔﺎت‪ ،‬و ﺕﺘﺮك هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﻌﺮیﻒ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬راﺏﻄﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .2‬ذات ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺏﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻦ أو أآﺜﺮ ‪ Õ‬داﺋﻦ‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻣﺪﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Characteristics of Obligation‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﺏﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﺮواﺏﻂ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .a‬ﻻ ﺕﻌﻨﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺎﻟﺮواﺏﻂ اﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ أو اﻷﺥﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .b‬اﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻳﻘﺘﺮن ﺏﺎﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ )اﻹﺟﺒﺎر( ‪ Õ‬دﻋﻮى ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺟﺒﺮي‬

‫‪) Æ‬ﻳﻘﺎرن ذﻟﻚ ﺏﺎﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ(‬
‫´ )ﻳﻘﺎرن ذﻟﻚ ﺏﺎﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ(‬

‫اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد إذًا هﻮ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺼﺮا اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ ‪ +‬اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Õ‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬هﻮ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ اﻟﻮﻓﺎء ﺏﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺱﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺪاﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺟﺒﺎر اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﺏﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎء‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ذات ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻳﻠﺘﺰم اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﺏﺄداء ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺕﻘﻮﻳﻤﻪ ﺏﺎﻟﻨﻘﻮد‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺕﺨﺮج ﻋﻦ إﻃﺎر ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )و ﺕﺨﻀﻊ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻷﺡﻮال اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ آﻮن اﻻﻟﺘﺰام راﺏﻄﺔ ﺵﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬إﻻ اﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺱﻠﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺪاﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺵﺨﺺ اﻟﻤﺪیﻦ‪ ،‬و إﻧﻤﺎ ﺕﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺱﻠﻄﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ذﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺪیﻦ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬یﺘﺮﺕﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟﻚ أن ﺕﺪﺥﻞ اﻟﻤﺪیﻦ ﺽﺮوري ﻻﺱﺘﻴﻔﺎء اﻟﺪیﻦ )یﻘﺎرن ذﻟﻚ ﺏﺎﻟﺤﻖ اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻲ اﻟﺬي یﻌﻄﻲ اﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﺱﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺵﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺸﻲء(‪.‬‬
‫إ َذًا ﻣﺤﻞ اﻟﺤﻖ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ هﻮ ‪ Õ‬اﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺱﺪاد دﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺪي(‬
‫ﻣﺤﻞ اﻟﺤﻖ اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻲ هﻮ‬

‫‪ Õ‬ﺵﻲء ﻣﺎدي‬

‫)ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺎر(‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫أهﻤﻴﺔ ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Significance of the Theory of Obligation‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﺮواﺏﻂ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺨﺎص )و ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‪ ،‬إﻟﻰ ﺡﺪ ﻣﺎ( ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺱﺎس اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻓﻜﺮة اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﻣﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ أﻏﻠﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬أیﺎ ﻣﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎت )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﻮد‬
‫اﻟﺒﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺕﻄﻮر ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪:‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻷﻓﻜﺎر اﻟﻔﺮدﻳﺔ )ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺡﺮﻳﺔ اﻹرادة ‪.(autonomy of the will‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻷﻓﻜﺎر اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ و اﻻﺵﺘﺮاآﻴﺔ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻮﺱﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺡﻘﻮق اﻟﻌﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﺎرﺋﺔ‪) .‬اﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬اﻟﺴﻨﻬﻮري‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻷول‪ :‬ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪ ،‬ص ‪(.731-703‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ(‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻨﺰﻋﺔ اﻻﺱﺘﻬﻼآﻴﺔ )ﺡﻤﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺿﻤﺎن اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻌﺔ(‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ أﺥﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻌﺎم و اﻵداب )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻣﺮة(‬
‫ﻋﺪم اﻟﺘﻌﺴﻒ ﻓﻲ اﺱﺘﻌﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻖ ) ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻣﻀﺎر اﻟﺠﻮار ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ(‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻀﺎر‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎرﺏﺔ اﻹﺙﺮاء ﺏﻼ ﺱﺒﺐ‬

‫ﺕﻘﺴﻴﻢ اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ أﺱﺎس ﻣﻮﺽﻮﻋﻬﺎ ) ‪Classification of Obligations according to its Subject‬‬
‫‪(Matter‬‬
‫•‬

‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻻﻳﺠﺎﺏﻲ )اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺈﻋﻄﺎء و اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﻌﻤﻞ( × اﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﺴﻠﺒﻲ )اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺎﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎع ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ(‬

‫•‬

‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ )اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﻐﺎﻳﺔ( × اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﻮﺱﻴﻠﺔ )اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺒﺬل ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ(‬

‫أﺛﺮ اﻟﻤﺬاهﺐ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Philosophical Schools and the Theory of Obligations‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﻤﺬهﺐ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ )‪:(The Subjective Theory‬‬
‫‪ .a‬اﻻﻟﺘﺰام راﺏﻄﺔ ﺵﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺏﻴﻦ اﻟﺪاﺋﻦ و اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ وﺟﻮدﻩ ﺏﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺵﺨﺺ أي ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .b‬اﻵﺙﺎر اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺕﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ هﺬا اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬هﺬا اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺮ ﺡﻮاﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﻖ أو ﺡﻮاﻟﺔ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮم اﻻﻟﺘﺰام إﻻ إذا آﺎن ﺟﻤﻴﻊ أﻃﺮاﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺵﺨﺎص اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدﻳﻦ ﻓﻌﻼ )اﻻﺵﺘﺮاط ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺡﻴﺎة ﺵﺨﺺ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺏﻌﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﺪم اﻣﻜﺎن ﻗﻴﺎم اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺈرادة ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة ﻟﺪاﺋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺏﺠﺎﺋﺰة(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻟﺤﺎﻣﻠﻪ )ﻷن اﻟﺪاﺋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪد(‪.‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪ .2‬اﻟﻤﺬهﺐ اﻟﻤﺎدي )‪:(The Objective Theory‬‬
‫‪ .a‬اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﻣﺠﺮد ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺹﺮ اﻟﺬﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬اذًا هﻮ ﺵﻲء ﻣﺎدي ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ أﻃﺮاﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ داﻳﻦ و ﻣﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬هﺬا اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬
‫أن اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬و هﻮ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ اﻟﻮﻓﺎء ﺏﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬أي ﺱﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺪاﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺟﺒﺎر اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﺏﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎء‪.‬‬
‫‪ .b‬اﻵﺙﺎر اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺕﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ هﺬا اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬هﺬا اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ ﻳﻘﺮ ﺡﻮاﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﻖ و ﺡﻮاﻟﺔ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻳﻘﻮم اﻻﻟﺘﺰام و ان آﺎن أﺡﺪ أﻃﺮاﻓﻪ ﺵﺨﺺ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺏﻌﺪ )اﻻﺵﺘﺮاط ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺡﻴﺎة‬
‫ﺵﺨﺺ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﺏﻌﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬إﻣﻜﺎن ﻗﻴﺎم اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺏﺈرادة ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة ﻟﺪاﺋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻳﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺏﺠﺎﺋﺰة(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻳﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻟﺤﺎﻣﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬اﻟﻘﻮاﻧﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺮﺏﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺟﻤﻊ أﻏﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺏﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺬهﺒﻴﻦ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ و اﻟﻤﺎدي‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Sources of Obligation‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام هﻲ اﻷﺱﺒﺎب اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺌﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺕﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺼﺎدر إرادﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ‪ +‬اﻹرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة )ﺕﺼﺮﻓﺎت ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ(‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺼﺎدر ﻏﻴﺮ إرادﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻀﺎر ‪ +‬اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ )واﻗﻌﺎت ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ(‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮد )‪(Glossary‬‬

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‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣــﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴــﺔ و اﻹﺛﺒــﺎت‬
‫‪LECTURE HANDOUT # 3‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫‪Introduction to the Theory of Contract‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬
‫‪mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

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‫ﻣﺼــﺎدر‬
‫اﻻﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼــﺎدر‬
‫اﻹرادﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻟﻌـﻘــﺪ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﻹرادﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻟﺘــﺰام‬

‫اﻹرادة‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬

‫اﻟﻔـﻌــﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻓـــﻊ‬
‫)اﻹﺙﺮاء ﺏﻼ‬
‫ﺱﺒﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺡﺴــﺎب‬
‫اﻟﻐﻴــــﺮ(‬

‫اﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻀﺎر‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴـــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻀﻤﺎن‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋــﻦ‬
‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻐﻴـــﺮ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋــﻦ‬
‫ااﻷﺵﻴﺎء‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺵﺎﻏـــــﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻮع‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎﺏـــﻊ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﻟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻗﺎﺏﺔ‬

‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺵﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎدر اﻻﻟﺘﺰام )‪(Sources of Obligation‬‬
‫‪15‬‬

‫ﺕﺴﻠــﻢ‬
‫ﻏﻴـــﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻖ‬

‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬
‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻔﻀﺎﻟــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧــﻮن‬

‫‪ .1‬اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻹرادﻳﺔ )اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ(‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻹرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر ﻏﻴﺮ اﻹرادﻳﺔ )اﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ(‪ :‬اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻀﺎر‪ ،‬اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻓﻊ و اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪.‬‬

‫ﺕﻌﺮیﻒ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )‪(Defining the Contract‬‬
‫● اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻟﻐ ًﺔ‬

‫● اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧًﺎ‪ :‬ﺕﻮاﻓﻖ ارادﺕﻴﻦ أو أآﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺡﺪاث أﺙﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ )إﻧﺸﺎء اﻟﺘﺰام‪/‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‪/‬ﺕﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ‪/‬إﻧﻬﺎﺋﻪ(‬

‫● اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﺹﻄﻼﺡًﺎ‬

‫● اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ‪ X‬اﻻﺕﻔﺎق )‪(Contract X Convention‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‬

‫‪ Õ‬ﻣﺘﺮادﻓﺎت‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‬

‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻨﺸﺊ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ X‬اﻻﺕﻔﺎق ﻳﻤﺘﺪ اﻟﻰ اﻵﺙﺎر )ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ ‪ /‬اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ‪ /‬اﻧﻘﻀﺎء(‪ .‬اذًا ﻓﺎﻻﺕﻔﺎق‬
‫أوﺱﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )‪(Domain of the Contract‬‬
‫● ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﺮواﺏﻂ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺨﺎص )و ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‪ ،‬إﻟﻰ ﺡﺪ ﻣﺎ( ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺱﺎس اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪.‬‬
‫● رأي ‪ Õ‬ﻟﻴﺲ آﻞ اﺕﻔﺎق ﻋﻘﺪاً‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮد هﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺕﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺨﺎص‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اذًا ﻳﺨﺮج ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ● :‬اﻻﺕﻔﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫● ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺰواج‬

‫● اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻹدارﻳﺔ‬

‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻘﺪ اﻹذﻋﺎن ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﻘﺪا ﺏﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ )ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﻔﺎوﺿﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻻﺕﻔﺎق ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻋﻘﺪا إﻻ إذا آﺎن ﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻣﺘﻌﺎرﺿﺔ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺏﻴﻊ ‪ /‬إﻳﺠﺎر(‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻻﺕﻔﺎق اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻢ ﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﻘﺔ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﻘﺪا‬
‫)ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫● ﻧﻘﺪ‬

‫‪ Õ‬هﺬا اﻟﺮأي ﻳﻨﻄﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﺕﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺎم و اﻟﺨﺎص‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬آﻮن ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺰواج ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن و ﻟﻴﺲ ﺏﺈرادة اﻹﻃﺮاف ﻟﻴﺲ ﺱﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﻌﺪم اﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﻋﻘﺪا‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد ﻳﻨﻈﻤﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬
‫ﺏﻘﻮاﻋﺪ ﺁﻣﺮة )ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ /‬أﻳﺠﺎر ‪ /‬ﺕﺄﻣﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻘﺪ اﻹذﻋﺎن ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﺥﺮاﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻷﺡﻮال اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ و اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم هﻲ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﺨﻼﺹﺔ‬

‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ أن اﻻﺹﻄﻼﺡﻴﻦ ﻣﺘﺮادﻓﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﺕﻔﺎق ﺏﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﺏﻘﺼﺪ اﺡﺪاث أﺙﺮ ﻳﺮﺕﺒﻪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪ ،‬ﺏﻐﺾ‬

‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ أﻃﺮاف اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺱﻮاء آﺎﻧﻮا ﻣﻦ أﺵﺨﺎص اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻌﺎم أو اﻟﺨﺎص‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻹرادة )‪(Autonomy of the Will‬‬
‫•‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺮف ﺏﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ )ﺕﻐﻠﻴﺐ اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎرات اﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻇﻬﻮر ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻹرادة‪:‬‬
‫‪16‬‬

‫‪ o‬ﻣﻀﻤﻮن ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻹرادة‪:‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﺔ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ )اﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ(‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ )اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺵﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ(‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺪأ ﻧﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺁﺙﺎر اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )‪(privity of contract‬‬

‫‪ o‬ﺕﻄﻮر ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻹرادة‪:‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ دﻳﻨﻴﺔ‪ / Canon law: pacta sunt servanda :‬اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ‪ /‬ﺱﻴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎدة اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺪأ و اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺱﻴﺎﺱﺔ "دﻋﻪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬دﻋﻪ ﻳﻤﺮ" )‪(Laissez faire; laissez passer‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﺕﺪﺥﻞ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ إﻃﻼق هﺬا اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ )اﻟﻔﻜﺮ اﻻﺵﺘﺮاآﻲ‪/‬اﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮد آﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ /‬دﻋﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻠﻊ اﻷﺱﺎﺱﻴﺔ و ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻢ أﺙﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ‪ /‬ﻣﻨﻊ اﻻﺡﺘﻜﺎر ‪ /‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﺎرﺋﺔ ‪ /‬ﻓﻜﺮة اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻌﺎم ‪ /‬آﺜﺮة اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬
‫اﻵﻣﺮة ‪ /‬اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺮا ً ﻟﻜﺜﺮة اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪ :‬أي اﻟﺨﺮوج ﻋﻦ ﻓﻜﺮة اﻷﺙﺮ اﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺥﻼل‬
‫اﻻﺵﺘﺮاط ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ(‪.‬‬

‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻌﻘﻮد )‪(Contract Categories‬‬
‫)‪(1‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد رﺽﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﺵﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻘﻮد رﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ Å‬ﺕﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺏﻤﺠﺮد و ﺟﻮد اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬أي ﺏﻤﺠﺮد ﺕﻼﻗﻲ إرادﺕﻲ ﻃﺮﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺏﻴﻊ ‪ /‬إﻳﺠﺎر(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺏﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻌﺎم‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ اﻻﺕﻔﺎق ﻋﻠﻰ ﺥﻼﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻘﻮد ﺵﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ Å‬ﻳﺸﺘﺮط ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺕﻼﻗﻲ إرادﺕﻲ ﻃﺮﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ‪ +‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ هﻨﺎ هﻮ رآﻦ ﻣﻦ أرآﺎن ﺹﺤﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )ﺏﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺮﺿﺎ و اﻟﻤﺤﻞ و اﻟﺴﺒﺐ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺏﻴﻦ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏﺔ آﺮآﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ‪ X‬آﻮﺱﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﺙﺒﺎت‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﻬﺪف ﻣﻦ اﺵﺘﺮاط اﻟﺸﻜﻞ هﻨﺎ هﻮ‪ :‬أ‪ .‬ﺕﻴﺴﻴﺮ اﻹﺙﺒﺎت‬
‫ب‪ .‬ﺡﻤﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫ج‪ .‬ﺕﻨﺒﻴﻪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻟﻰ ﺥﻄﻮرة اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‬

‫ﻋﻘﻮد ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ Å‬اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻲ هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻜﻮن ﺕﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﺤﻞ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ رآﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮم ﻣﻦ دوﻧﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻰ هﻨﺎ ﺏﺎﻟﺘﺮاﺿﻲ ﺏﻞ ﻳﺸﺘﺮط اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬هﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻘﻮل(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻷﺹﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‪ :‬اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ رآﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ اﻻ اذا اﺵﺮط ذﻟﻚ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪/‬اﻻﺕﻔﺎق‪/‬اﻟﻌﺮف )م ‪ 68‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ آﻮﻳﺘﻲ(‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﺘﺸﺮیﻌﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎة ‪ X‬اﻟﻌﻘﻮد ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎة‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎة‬

‫Š هﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﻈﻤﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ﺏﻘﻮاﻋﺪ ﺥﺎﺹﺔ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺏﻴﻊ ‪ /‬هﺒﺔ ‪ /‬إﻳﺠﺎر‪ /‬ﻋﺎرﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫Š أﻧﻮاﻋﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫أ‪ .‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ )ﺏﻴﻊ ‪ /‬هﺒﺔ(‬
‫ب‪ .‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻧﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ )اﻳﺠﺎر ‪ /‬ﻋﺎرﻳﺔ(‬
‫ج‪ .‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﺕﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ )وآﺎﻟﺔ ‪ /‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻟﺔ ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﻞ(‬
‫د‪ .‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﻀﻤﺎن )ﺕﺄﻣﻴﻦ ‪ /‬آﻔﺎﻟﺔ(‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﻮد ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎة‬

‫Š هﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺮد ﻟﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ﺕﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎ ﺥﺎﺹﺎ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﻔﻨﺪﻗﺔ ‪ /‬اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ /‬اﻹﻋﻼن(‪.‬‬
‫Š هﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﻈﻤﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ﺏﻘﻮاﻋﺪ ﺥﺎﺹﺔ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺏﻴﻊ ‪ /‬هﺒﺔ ‪ /‬إﻳﺠﺎر‪ /‬ﻋﺎرﻳﺔ(‬
‫Š ﺕﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ أﺡﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺏﻄﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻒ و اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﻔﺮوﺽﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ واﺡﺪ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﻠﺰم ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ  هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺮﺕﺐ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ آﻞ ﻃﺮف ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ آﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻣﻠﺘﺰﻣﺎ ﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻵﺥﺮ‪ ،‬أي أن آﻼهﻤﺎ‬
‫داﺋﻦ و آﻼهﻤﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﻦ ﺏﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ اﻵﺙﺎر اﻟﻤﺘﺮﺕﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﻠﺰم ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت آﻞ ﻃﺮف ﺱﺒﺐ ﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت اﻟﻄﺮف اﻵﺥﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺕﺨﻠﻒ أﺡﺪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻪ ﻳﺠﻴﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻵﺥﺮ اﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎع ﻋﻦ ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻪ ﺏﺪورﻩ )اﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺏﻌﺪم‬
‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻋﺪم اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻳﺠﻴﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻟﻤﺘﻀﺮر ﻃﻠﺐ ﻓﺴﺦ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺏﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﻌﻴﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬إذا أﺹﺒﺢ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻼ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ أﺟﻨﺒﻲ ﻓﺎن اﻻﻟﺘﺰام اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺏﻞ ﻳﻨﻘﻀﻲ و ﻳﻨﻔﺴﺦ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺕﻠﻘﺎء ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﻠﺰم‬
‫ﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ واﺡﺪ‬

‫ هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺮﺕﺐ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت ﻓﻲ ذﻣﺔ أﺡﺪ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮن ﻷﻃﺮاف اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺹﻔﺔ اﻟﺪاﺋﻦ و اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﻬﺒﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ إذا أﺥﻞ أﺡﺪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺏﺎﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻵﺥﺮ اﻟﺪﻓﻊ ﺏﻌﺪم اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ أو ﻃﻠﺐ اﻟﻔﺴﺦ )ﻓﻼ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ(‪ ،‬و ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺟﺒﺮا‪ .‬أﻣﺎ اذا آﺎن اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻼ ﻟﺴﺒﺐ أﺟﻨﺒﻲ ﻓﺎن اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻨﻔﺴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺕﻠﻘﺎء ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫)‪ (4‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﻤﺪة‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻓﻮریﺔ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﻔﻮرﻳﺔ‬

‫Š هﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺙﺮ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ آﻢ اﻻداءات ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬ﺏﻴﻊ( ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺕﻨﻔﺬ ﻣﺮة واﺡﺪة ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫Š ﺕﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻔﻮري ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺕﺤﻮﻟﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬و إﻧﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺕﺘﺠﺎوز دﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻣﺠﺮد آﻮن ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺪ أوﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺏﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫Š هﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺆﺙﺮ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ آﻢ اﻻداءات ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )ﻣﺜﺎل‪ :‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎر ‪ /‬ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ /‬ﺕﻮرﻳﺪ(‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮة‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘـــﻮد اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤــﺮة‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘـــﻮد اﻟﻔﻮرﻳــﺔ‬
‫اﻷﺹﻞ إن ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺦ أﺙﺮ رﺟﻌﻲ )ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ آﺎن ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ(‬

‫ﻻ ﻣﺠﺎل ﻟﻠﻔﺴﺦ ﺏﺄﺙﺮ رﺟﻌﻲ ﻟﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺕﻢ ﺕﻨﻔﻴﺬﻩ ﻓﻌﻼ‬

‫ﻳﻠﺰم اﻻﻋﺬار ﻓﻲ ﺡﺎل اﻟﺘﺄﺥﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬

‫ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮط اﻻﻋﺬار‬

‫ﻻ ﻣﺠﺎل ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﺎرﺋﺔ )إﻻ إذا آﺎن اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺆﺟﻼ(‬

‫هﻲ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﺎرﺋﺔ‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺏﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﻌﺎوﺽﺔ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﺒﺮع‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎوﺿﺔ‬

‫‪ Å‬هﻮا ﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺄﺥﺬ ﻓﻴﻪ آﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺏﻼ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ )اﻟﺒﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﻌﺎوﺿﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺕﻜﻮن أﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ أو ﺕﺠﺎرﻳﺔ ﺡﺴﺐ اﻻﺡﻮال‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﺒﺮع‬

‫‪ Å‬هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﺄﺥﺬ ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺏﻼ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ )اﻟﻬﺒﺔ(‬
‫‪ Å‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﺒﺮع ﺕﻌﺘﺒﺮ أﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (6‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ ﺕﺤﺪیﺪ اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت و ﻗﺖ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﺤﺪدة ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد اﺡﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﺤﺪد اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬

‫ هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت اﻷﻃﺮاف ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻹﺏﺮام )اﻟﺒﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻻﺡﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫ هﻮ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮف ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار أداء اﻹﻃﺮاف ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪ ،‬ﺏﻞ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﺘﺒﺎرات ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ )اﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (7‬ﻣﻦ ﺡﻴﺚ ﻣﺴﺎهﻤﺔ إرادة اﻷﻃﺮاف ﻓﻲ و ﺽﻊ اﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪیﺔ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﺴﺎوﻣﺔ ‪ X‬ﻋﻘﻮد إذﻋﺎن‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﻤﺴﺎوﻣﺔ‬

‫ اﻷﺹﻞ هﻮ ﺕﺴﺎوي اﻟﻤﺮاآﺰ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮة اﻟﺘﻔﺎوض‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻘﺪ اﻹذﻋﺎن‬

‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺨﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ أﺡﺪ اﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻵﺥﺮ دون ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻔﺎوﺿﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫اﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣــﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴــﺔ و اﻹﺛﺒــﺎت‬
‫‪LECTURE HANDOUT # 4‬‬

‫ﻧﺸـــﻮء )ﻗﻴـــﺎم( اﻟﻌﻘـــﺪ‬
‫‪Formation of Contract‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬
‫‪mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬

‫‪.4‬اﻟﺮﺿﺎ‬
‫)‪(Consent‬‬

‫‪.3‬اﻟﻤﺤﻞ‬
‫‪(Subject‬‬
‫)‪matter‬‬

‫أرآﺎن‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫‪.2‬اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫)‪(Cause‬‬

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‫‪.1‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫)‪(Form‬‬

‫أرآــﺎن اﻟﻌﻘــﺪ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬اﻟﺮﺿﺎء )‪(Consent‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻟﻤﺤﻞ )‪(Subject matter‬‬
‫‪ .3‬اﻟﺴﺒﺐ )‪(Cause‬‬
‫‪ .4‬اﻟﺸﻜﻞ )‪ ،Form‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ(‬

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‫اﻟﺮﺽﺎء ) ‪( Consent‬‬
‫_________‬

‫ﺡﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 31‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﰲ‬
‫ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪ .‬ﻓﺠﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﺃﻳﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺮآﺰ ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻗﺮﺕﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ دوﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪ ،1996 -1992‬اﻟﻘﺴﻢ ‪ ،3‬ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ‪ ،3‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪة ‪ ،6‬ص‬
‫‪) 216‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ :‬وزارة اﻟﻌﺪل‪.[CD] .( 2001 ،‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧ ًﺎ‪ :‬ﺕﻮاﻓﻖ ارادﺕﻴﻦ أو أآﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺡﺪاث أﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ )إﻧﺸﺎء اﻟﺘﺰام‪/‬ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‪/‬ﺕﻌﺪیﻠﻪ‪/‬إﻧﻬﺎﺋﻪ(‬
‫‪Å‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ أن ﺕﻜﻮن اﻹرادة ﺟﺎدة و ﺟﺎزﻣﺔ‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫اﺕﻔﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﺸﺮف )‪(Gentlemen’s agreement‬‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ أن ﺕﺘﺠﻪ اﻹرادة إﻟﻰ إﺡﺪاث اﺙﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫ﺕﻨﻌﺪم اﻻرادة ﻟﺪى ﺏﻌﺾ اﻷﺵﺨﺎص‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة‬
‫•‬

‫ﻣﺮاﺡﻞ ﺕﻄﻮر اﻟﺮﺿﺎ )أو ﻣﺮاﺡﻞ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة(‪:‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺘﺪﺏﻴﺮ )ﻣﺮﺡﻠﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ)ﻣﺮﺡﻠﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ )ﻣﺮﺡﻠﺔ ﻣﺎدﻳﺔ(‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (33‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮیﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ 6‬اﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺬآﺮة اﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ . 1‬ﻳﻠﺰم‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﺮﺿﺎء‪ ،‬ﺕﻮاﻓﺮ اﻹرادة ﻋﻨﺪ ‪24‬‬
‫إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‪ ،‬و أن ﻳﺤﺼﻞ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ . 2‬و ﻳﻔﺘﺮض ﺕﻮاﻓﺮ اﻹرادة ﻋﻨﺪ إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺘﺼﺮف‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ اﻟﻌﻜﺲ أو ﻳﻘﺾ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ﺏﺨﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة‪:‬‬

‫ﺡﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫"ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻢ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻻﺯﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻜﻮﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻢ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺮآﺰ ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻗﺮﺕﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ دوﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪ ،1996 -1992‬اﻟﻘﺴﻢ ‪ ،3‬ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ‪ ،3‬ﻗﺎﻋ ﺪة ‪ ،3‬ص‬
‫‪) 214‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ :‬وزارة اﻟﻌﺪل‪.[CD] .( 2001 ،‬‬

‫اﻷﺹﻞ ‪ Õ‬اﻟﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎت‪ ،‬اذًا ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺏﻤﺠﺮد ﺕﻮاﻓﺮ اﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺏﻪ دون اﺵﺘﺮاط ﺵﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ‪ /‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ )إﻻ إذا ﺕﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﺵﺘﺮاﻃﺎت ﺥﺎﺹﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺼﻮر ‪ Õ‬أ‪ .‬ﺕﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺹﺮﻳﺢ )ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ‪ /‬ﺏﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ .‬ﺕﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺿﻤﻨﻲ )ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ إﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺱﺘﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻲ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ اﻹﻳﺠﺎر(‪ .‬اﻧﻈﺮ اﻟﻤﺎدة ‪ 35‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ آﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Å‬ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ )اﻟﻜﻼم(‬
‫‪ Å‬ﺏﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏﺔ‪ :‬رﺱﺎﻟﺔ ‪ /‬ﺏﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ /‬رﺱﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ Å‬ﺏﺎﻹﺵﺎرة‪ :‬اﻹﻳﻤﺎء ‪ /‬إﺵﺎرة اﻷﺏﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺏﺲ )‪) (silence circonstancié‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‪ ":‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮض اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺏﻴﺎن ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻮﻻ"(‬
‫ﻻ ﻟﻠﺒﺲ‬
‫‪ Å‬ﺏﺎﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻒ اﻟﺼﺮﻳﺤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺕﺘﺮك ﻣﺠﺎ ً‬
‫•‬

‫اﻟﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ‪ Å‬ﻳﻜﻮن ﺏﻤﺠﺮد ﺹﺪور اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (34‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮیﺘﻲ‬
‫أو ﺏﺎﻹﺵﺎرة اﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ اﻻﺱﺘﻌﻤﺎل أو ﺏﺎﻟﻤﺒﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ﻳﻜﻮن ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ أو ﺏﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏﺔ‪25‬‬
‫اﻟﺪاﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺮاﺿﻲ أو ﺏﺎﺕﺨﺎذ أي ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺁﺥﺮ ﻻ ﺕﺪع ﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل ﺵﻜًﺎ ﻓﻲ دﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺡﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬و ذﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺡﺎﻟﺔ ﺥﺎﺹﺔ ﺡﺼﻮل اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻰ یﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة أﺛﺮﻩ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ؟‬
‫ﺡﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 36‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺻﺪﻭﺭﻩ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟـﻪ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫"ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺮآﺰ ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻗﺮﺕﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ دوﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳ ﺖ ‪ ،1996 -1992‬اﻟﻘ ﺴﻢ ‪ ،3‬ﻣﺠﻠ ﺪ ‪ ،3‬ﻗﺎﻋ ﺪة ‪ ،4‬ص‬
‫‪) 215‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ :‬وزارة اﻟﻌﺪل‪.[CD] .( 2001 ،‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ‪ Å‬ﻳﻜﻮن ﺏﻤﺠﺮد ﺹﺪور اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ‪ Å‬ﻳﺘﺮاﺥﻰ اﻟﻰ وﻗﺖ اﺕﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻼ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬إذا ﻳﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة أﺙﺮﻩ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ وﻗﺖ وﺹﻮﻟﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ )اﻟﻮﺹﻮل ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺏﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻗﺎﺏﻠﺔ ﻹﺙﺒﺎت اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬أي إذا أﺙﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺪم ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺏﻪ ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ أﺙﺮﻩ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﻤﻦ ﺹﺪر ﻋﻨﻪ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺕﻐﻴﻴﺮﻩ ‪ /‬اﻟﻌﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ اﺕﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺏﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻧﻈﺮ اﻟﻤﺎدة ‪ 37‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻻﺡﻆ ‪ Å‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ إﺵﻜﺎل ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﺡﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﻤﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻜﺎن و زﻣﺎن واﺡﺪ )إذ أن ﺹﺪور اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ و وﺹﻮﻟﻪ ﻳﺘﻤﺎن ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ(‪ ،‬و إﻧﻤﺎ ﺕﺜﻮر اﻟﺼﻌﻮﺏﺎت ﻋﺎدة ﻓﻲ ﺡﺎل اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫أﺛﺮ اﻟﻤﻮت ‪ /‬ﻓﻘﺪ اﻷهﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة‬
‫•‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﺼﺮي ‪ Õ‬إذا ﺹﺪر اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ﺙﻢ ﻣﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺹﺪر هﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ أو ﻓﻘﺪ أهﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﺎن ذﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ أن‬
‫ﻳﺮﺕﺐ هﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ أﺙﺮﻩ‪) ،‬ﻣﺬهﺐ اﻹرادة اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة(‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ‪ Õ‬ﻳﺴﻘﻂ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺏﻤﻮت اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ أو اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ أو ﺏﻔﻘﺪ أﺡﺪهﻤﺎ اﻷهﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪26‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (42‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮیﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻘﻂ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺏﻤﻮت اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ أو اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ أو ﺏﻔﻘﺪ أﺡﺪهﻤﺎ اﻷهﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﺪم ﻣﻄﺎﺏﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺹﺎﺡﺒﻪ‬
‫•‬

‫اﻹرادة اﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ )اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ( ‪ X‬اﻹرادة اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة )اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻤﻮﺽﻮﻋﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻔﺮدي )اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ(‬

‫‪Õ‬‬

‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻤﺎدي )اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ(‬

‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻌﺒﺮة ﺏﺎﻹرادة اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة )اﻟﻬﺪف هﻮ إﺿﻔﺎء اﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺏﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺡﺘﻰ ﺕﺴﻮد اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺜﻘﺔ و‬

‫اﻟﻌﺒﺮة ﺏﺎﻹرادة اﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ أو اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺡﻴﺚ ﺕﻮﻟﻰ اﻷهﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺕﻄﺒﻴﻘًﺎ ﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‬
‫ﺱﻠﻄﺎن اﻹرادة(‪.‬‬

‫اﻻﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎن(‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮیﺘﻲ‬

‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ اﻟﻌﺎم‪ :‬ﺕﻐﻠﻴﺐ اﻹرادة اﻟﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ )اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻔﺮدي(‪.‬‬
‫‪ Õ‬اﻻﺱﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬اﻹرادة اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة )اﻻﺕﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻤﺎدي(‪ ،‬ﺏﺸﺮﻃﻴﻦ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (38‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮیﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬إذا اﺥﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ﻣﻊ ﺡﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺹﺎﺡﺒﻪ‪ ،‬آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻌﺒﺮة ﺏﺎﻟﻘﺼﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬و ﻣﻊ ذﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﻮز ﻟﻤﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة أن ﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﺏﻪ‪ ،‬ﺏﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺼﺪ ﺹﺎﺡﺒﻪ‪ ،‬إذا أﺙﺒﺖ أﻧﻪ ﻋﻮل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪا ﻣﻄﺎﺏﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻹرادة‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ أن‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﺵﺄن ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل أن ﺕﺜﻴﺮ اﻟﺸﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺕﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺏﻘﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮد )‪*(Glossary‬‬
‫‪ARABIC TERM NOTES‬‬
‫اﻹرادة اﻟﻈﺎهﺮة‬
‫اﻹرادة اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫أهﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻧﻌﺪام اﻷهﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺹﺮ‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫‪ENGLISH TERM‬‬
‫‪In French: la volonté‬‬
‫‪déclarée‬‬
‫‪In French: la volonté‬‬
‫‪interne‬‬
‫‪Capacity‬‬
‫‪Incapacity‬‬
‫‪Minor‬‬

Domicile
Circumstantial silence
(In French: silence
circonstancié)
Contract inter absentes
Latin: bona fide

‫ ﺏﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺨﻄﺎب ﻗﺪ‬،‫ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻳﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬:‫ﻣﻮﻃﻦ‬
.‫ و ذﻟﻚ ﺏﻐﺾ ﺕﻴﺴﻴﺮ اﻻﺕﺼﺎل ﺏﻪ‬،‫وﺹﻞ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ و ﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮدا ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻼ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺏﺲ‬

‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺏﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺡﺴﻦ اﻟﻨﻴﺔ‬
* Terms indicated in the Glossary are primarily in English. Italicized terms are in French or Latin, unless
otherwise specified.

(Reference Materials) ‫ﺏﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬
:‫ ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺏﻴﺔ‬.7
.(1998 ،‫ ﻣﺆﺱﺴﺔ دار اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬:‫ )اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬2 ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻻرادﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام‬،‫ اﺏﺮاهﻴﻢ اﻟﺪﺱﻮﻗﻲ أﺏﻮ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬.18
.(2004 ،‫ اﻟﻤﺆﺱﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺱﺎت و اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬:‫ ﺕﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺏﻴﺮوت‬،‫ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ أﻻن ﺏﻴﻨﺎﺏﻨﺖ‬.19
‫ اﻟﻤﺆﺱﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺱﺎت‬:‫ ﺕﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺏﻴﺮوت‬،‫ اﻟﻤﻄﻮل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ ﺟﺎك ﻏﺴﺘﺎن و ﺁﺥﺮﻳﻦ‬.20
.( 1982 ،‫ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬،‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻹرادﻳﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬:‫ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول‬،‫ اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺤﻲ ﺡﺠﺎزي‬.21
،‫ دار اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺏﻴﺔ‬:‫ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬3 ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻷول‬،‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬:1،‫ اﻟﻮﺱﻴﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺵﺮح اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺮزاق اﻟﺴﻨﻬﻮري‬.22
.( 1981
.(1984 ،.‫ ن‬.‫ د‬:‫ دراﺱﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻘﺔ و ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺏﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻻﺱﻼﻣﻲ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬:‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻔﺘﺎح ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬.23

:‫ ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬.8
1. Barry Nicholas, The French Law of Contract, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
2. Contract Law Today: Anglo-French Comparison ,ed. by Donald Harris and Denis Tallon (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1991).
3. John Bell et al, Principles of French Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
24. The French Civil Code: Revised Edition as Amended to 1 July 1994 ,trans. by John H Crabb (Littleton:
Rothman & Co/Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1995).
25. F H Lawson et al, Amos and Walton's Introduction to French Law, 3rd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1979).
26. Reinhard Zimmermann, The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (Cape
Town: Juta & Co Ltd, 1990).

:‫ ﺏﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬.9
1. Christian Larromet, Droit Civil, 3rd edn (Paris: Economica, 1996).
2. François Terré, Philippe Simler and Yves Lequette, Droit Civil: Les Obligation, 7th edn (Paris:
Dalloz, 1999).
3. Henri and Léon Mazeaud, Jean Mazeaud and Franois Chabas, Intoduction à l’étude du droit, 10th
edn (Paris: Montchrestien, 1991).
4. Philippe Malaurie and Aynès Laurent, Cours de Droit Civil: Les Obligations, 11th edn, 3 vols
(Paris: Éditions Cujas, 2001).

28

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # 5
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait University

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

LECTURE HANDOUT # 5

(Offer) ‫اﻹﻳـﺠــــﺎب‬
‫ ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬.‫د‬
mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬
2 ....................................................................................................................... (‫ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ارادﺗﻴﻦ )أو أآﺜﺮ‬/ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ = ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ‬
2 ..................................................................................................................................................... ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
2 ...................................................................................................................................................... ‫ﺷﺮوط اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
2 ......................................................................................................................................... ‫ اﻟﺪﻋﻮة ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬X ‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
3 ....................................................................................................................................................... ‫أﺣﻜﺎم اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
3 ..................................................................................................................................................... ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
4 ........................................................................................................................................ ‫ﻣﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺎً؟‬
4 ................................................................................................................................... ‫ﻣﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم؟‬
4 ...................................................................................................................................................... ‫ﻣﺼﻴﺮ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
5 ................................................................................................................................................ (Glossary) ‫ﻣﺴﺮد‬
5 ....................................................................................................................... (Reference Materials) ‫ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬

© Mashael A. Alhajeri, 2004

1

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 5‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ = ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ‪ /‬ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ارادﺗﻴﻦ )أو أآﺜﺮ(‬
‫•‬

‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻹﺑﺮام اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ إرادة اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﺪى اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‪ ،‬آﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ إﻋﻼن هﺬﻩ اﻹرادة و اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ إرادﺗﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮان آﻞ ﻣﻦ هﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‪:‬‬

‫أ‪ .‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎب )‪(Offer‬‬
‫ب‪ .‬اﻟﻘﺒﻮل )‪(Acceptance‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫ﻋﺮض ﻳﺼﺪر ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﻰ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﺰﻣﻪ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺑﺮام ﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ إذا ﻗﺒﻞ اﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬
‫آﻤﺎ هﻮ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺮوط اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫ﻲ ‪) la fermeté de l’offre‬أي ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻤﺠﺮد ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺟﺎزم ‪ /‬ﻧﻬﺎﺋ ً‬
‫ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮط ﺻﺮﻳﺢ أو ﺿﻤﻨﻲ )ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻻ إذا ﺗﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﺸﺮط(‪.‬‬
‫ اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ‪ x‬اﻟﺪﻋﻮة إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻣﺤﺪد‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﺠﻮهﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ )و هﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و ﺷﺮوﻃﻪ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ(‪:‬‬
‫ اﻟﺒﻴﻊ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻊ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨًﺎ آﺎﻓﻴًﺎ ‪ +‬ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺜﻤﻦ )و إﻻ آﺎن دﻋﻮة ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ(‬
‫ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪ :‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻮﺟﻬًﺎ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ‪ /‬ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮر‪.‬‬

‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ‪ X‬اﻟﺪﻋﻮة ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬
‫•‬

‫اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب و اﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ و اﻟﻤﻤﻬﺪة ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫أﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻋﻮة إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪ :‬ﻃﻠﺐ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ‪ /‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﻌﺮوض )أﻋﻠﻰ ‪ /‬أدﻧﻰ ﺳﻌﺮ( ‪ /‬اﻹﻋﻼن ﻋﻦ اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ هﻮ دﻋﻮة‬
‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )اﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ هﻮ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب(‪.‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 5‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (40‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻳﺼﺢ أن ﻳﻮﺟﻪ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إﻟﻰ أﺷﺨﺎص ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪدﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮاد‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ذات اﻋﺘﺒﺎر أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪ ،‬و ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬و ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻳﺠﺎﺑﺎً‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ وﺟﻪ اﻟﺨﺼﻮص‪ ،‬ﻋﺮض اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﺎن أﺛﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ‪ ،‬و ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺪم اﻹﺧﻼل ﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة ﻣﻦ أوﺿﺎع‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬أﻣﺎ اﻟﻨﺸﺮ و اﻹﻋﻼن و إرﺳﺎل أو ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ﻗﻮاﺋﻢ اﻷﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﺠﺎري اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬و آﻞ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎن أﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻌﺮوض أو ﻃﻠﺒﺎت ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮر أو ﻷﻓﺮاد ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺎ اﻳﺠﺎﺑﺎً‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل‪.‬‬

‫أﺣﻜﺎم اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫•‬

‫ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﺑﺎﻹﻳﺠﺎب )اﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﻤﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب(‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة‪ :‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻗﺘﺮان اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻠﺰم ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ و ﻟﻮ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺮن اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ إذا ﺣﺪد اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮاﺣ ًﺔ أو ﺿﻤﻨﺎً‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪًا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (41‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻲ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺮن ﺑﻪ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬و ﻣﻊ ذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬إذا ﺣﺪد اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﻴﻌﺎدًا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل‪ ،‬أو اﻗﺘﻀﺖ هﺬا اﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎد ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل أو‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻲ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻗﺎﺋﻤًﺎ ﻃﻮال هﺬا اﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎد‪ ،‬و ﺳﻘﻂ ﺑﻔﻮاﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻨـﻬﺎﻳــﺔ‬

‫اﻟـﺒﺪاﻳــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬

‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ وﺻﻮﻟﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ وﺻﻮل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ اﻧﺘﻬﺎء اﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﻤﺤﺪد ﻟﺒﺖ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻪ‪،‬‬

‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ أن ﻳﺒﺖ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻻ أو رﻓﻀًﺎ( ﺧﻼل اﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ‬
‫)ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪد ﺻﺮاﺣﺔ أو ﺿﻤﻨًﺎ‪.‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ ‪ Å‬ﺑﺮﻓﺾ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫ﻓﻴﺴﻘﻂ‪،‬‬
‫أو ‪ Å‬ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫اﻟﺤـﻜــﻢ‬
‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻗﺎﺋﻢ و ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ‬
‫)ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﻌﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻠﺰﻣًﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻊ وﺻﻮﻟﻪ‬
‫اﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ إﻻ إذا آﺎن ﻣﺤﺪدًا‬
‫ﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﻋﺪا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل‪ ،‬و إﻻ ﻇﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم‪.‬‬
‫اذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﺪر ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺒﻮل أو‬
‫رﻓﺾ ﺳﻘﻂ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 5‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺎً؟‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‪ :‬إذا اﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬اذا آﺎن ﻣﺤﺪدًا ﻟﻪ ﻣﻴﻌﺎدًا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل أو اﻟﺮﻓﺾ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎد اﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ‪ Å‬ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺘﺮة ﻟﻠﺮد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎد اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ ‪ Å‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ‪ Å‬ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل )اﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ(‬
‫‪ Å‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ )اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ(‪:mail box theory :‬‬
‫‪Zweigert, Konrad, and Hein Kotz, An Introduction to Comparative Law, trans. by Tony Weir, 3rd edn‬‬
‫‪(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), p. 358.‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم؟‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟــﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻮﺻــﻒ‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺤـﻜــﻢ‬

‫إذا ﺻﺪر اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ أن ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻴﻌﺎدًا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ وﺻﻮﻟﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬إذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬إذا وﺻﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬و ﻟﻜﻦ آﺎن ﻗﺪ وﺻﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫ذاﺗﻪ أو ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻋﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻲ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﻪ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻧﻔﻀﺎض اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻲ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﻴﺮ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫•‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ‪ Å‬ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب وﺟﻮد ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ و ﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‪ .‬إذا ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ اﻟﻌﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد اﺗﺼﺎل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ‪ Å‬ﻳﺒﺪأ اﻟﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺻﺎﻟﺤًﺎ ﻻﻗﺘﺮان اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻻ ﻳﺨﺮج ﻣﺼﻴﺮ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻋﻦ واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ هﺬﻩ اﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻت‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﻌﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ Å‬هﻮ ﺳﺤﺒﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ اﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ )إذًا ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب و ﺟﻮد ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻴﻪ ‪Å‬‬

‫هﻮ ﺳﺤﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ اآﺘﻤﺎل وﺟﻮدﻩ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺗﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ )اذًا ﻻ ﻳﺘﺼﻮر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع إﻻ إذا آﺎن‬
‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪ ،‬و إﻻ ﺗﻘﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ و اﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﺤﺒﻪ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ‪ /‬رﻓﻀﻪ ‪ Å‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ )ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﺿﻤﻨﻴًﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب ‪ /‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎب اﻟﻤﻌﺎرض‬
‫‪ /‬اﻧﻔﻀﺎض اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ دون ﻗﺒﻮل(‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 5‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻪ ﻻﻧﻘﻀﺎء ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ‪ Å‬إذا ﺣﺪد ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻴﻌﺎدًا ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل )ﺻﺮاﺣﺔ ‪ /‬ﺿﻤﻨًﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺑﻤﺠﺮد اﻧﻘﻀﺎء اﻟﻤﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﻤﺤﺪد‬
‫دون ﻗﺒﻮل ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮت ‪ /‬ﻓﻘﺪ اﻷهﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ أو اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ‪ Å‬م ‪ 42‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻪ ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ اﻟﺸﺮط اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮد )‪*(Glossary‬‬
‫‪ARABIC TERM NOTES‬‬
‫إﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎب اﻟﺪاﺋﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺪﻋﻮة إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬
‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬هﻮ اﺟﺘﻤﺎع اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻜﺎن و اﻟﺰﻣﺎن ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ أﺣﺪهﻤﺎ‬
‫آﻼم اﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ آﻮﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻓﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺷﺎﻏﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪ENGLISH TERM‬‬
‫)‪Offer (in French: offre‬‬
‫‪Permanent offer (in‬‬
‫)‪French: offer permanent‬‬
‫‪Invitation to treat‬‬
‫‪In Latin: intuitu personae‬‬

‫‪* Terms indicated in the Glossary are primarily in English. Italicized terms are in French or Latin, unless‬‬
‫‪otherwise specified.‬‬

‫ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ )‪(Reference Materials‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫اﺑﺮاهﻴﻢ اﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ أﺑﻮ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻻرادﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‪ ،‬ط ‪) 2‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ دار اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪.(1998 ،‬‬
‫أﻻن ﺑﻴﻨﺎﺑﻨﺖ‪ ،‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺑﻴﺮوت‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺳﺎت و اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.(2004 ،‬‬
‫ﺟﺎك ﻏﺴﺘﺎن و ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﻄﻮل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺑﻴﺮوت‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺳﺎت‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺤﻲ ﺣﺠﺎزي‪ ،‬اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪ ،‬اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻹرادﻳﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ ،‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪،‬‬
‫‪.(1982‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺮزاق اﻟﺴﻨﻬﻮري‪ ،‬اﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮح اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪ :1،‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻷول‪ :‬اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ط ‪) 3‬اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‪ :‬دار اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.( 1981 ،‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻔﺘﺎح ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‪ :‬دراﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻘﺔ و ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻻﺳﻼﻣﻲ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‪ :‬د‪ .‬ن‪.(1984 ،.‬‬

‫‪.5‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # 5
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait University

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬



1. Barry Nicholas, The French Law of Contract, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
2. Contract Law Today: Anglo-French Comparison ،ed. by Donald Harris and Denis Tallon (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1991).
3. John Bell et al, Principles of French Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
1. The French Civil Code: Revised Edition as Amended to 1 July 1994 ،trans. by John H Crabb (Littleton:
Rothman & Co/Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1995).
2. F H Lawson et al, Amos and Walton's Introduction to French Law, 3rd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1979).
3. Reinhard Zimmermann, The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (Cape
Town: Juta & Co Ltd, 1990).

:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬



1. Christian Larromet, Droit Civil, 3rd edn (Paris: Economica, 1996).
2. François Terré, Philippe Simler and Yves Lequette, Droit Civil: Les Obligation, 7th edn (Paris:
Dalloz, 1999).
3. Henri and Léon Mazeaud, Jean Mazeaud and Franois Chabas, Intoduction à l’étude du droit, 10th
edn (Paris: Montchrestien, 1991).
4. Philippe Malaurie and Aynès Laurent, Cours de Droit Civil: Les Obligations, 11th edn, 3 vols
(Paris: Éditions Cujas, 2001).

6

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # ٦
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥
University

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

LECTURE HANDOUT # ٦

(Acceptance) ‫اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬

‫ ﻣﺸﺎﻋـﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳـﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟـﺮي‬.‫د‬
mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw

١

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٦‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻘﺪ = ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ‪ /‬ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ارادﺗﻴﻦ )أو أآﺜﺮ(‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻹﺑﺮام اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ إرادة اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﺪى اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‪ ،‬آﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ إﻋﻼن هﺬﻩ اﻹرادة و اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬
‫ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ إرادﺗﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺮان آﻞ ﻣﻦ هﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ‪:‬‬

‫أ‪ .‬اﻹﻳﺠﺎب )‪(Offer‬‬
‫ب‪ .‬اﻟﻘﺒﻮل )‪(Acceptance‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬
‫هﻮ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ إرادة ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﻤﻮاﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ آﻤﺎ هﻮ‪ ،‬دون ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‪ ،‬و ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ إذا ﻣﺎ اﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ و اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﺎزال ﻗﺎﺋﻤ ًﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺮوط اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل )ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ(‪:‬‬
‫ ﺳﻮاء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮوط اﻟﺠﻮهﺮﻳﺔ )‪ / (les éléments essentiels du contrat‬اﻟﺸﺮوط ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﺠﻮهﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب )ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻳﺎدة ‪ /‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺ ‪ /‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ /‬اﻟﺦ( ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ رﻓﻀًﺎ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨًﺎ إﻳﺠﺎﺑًﺎ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪًا )ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ إﻻ إذا ﻗﺒﻠﻪ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ اﻷول(‪.‬‬
‫ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮط ‪ /‬اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮن ﻳﺄﺟﻞ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ رﻓﻀ ًﺎ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺻﺪور اﻟﻘﺒﻮل و اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﺎزال ﻗﺎﺋﻤ ًﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺼﺪر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺧﻼل ﻣﺪة ﻗﻴﺎم اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪ ،‬و إﻻ اﻋﺘﺒﺮ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪًا‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺼﺪر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ اﻟﺬي وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب )إﻻ إذا آﺎن ﻣﻮﺣﻬ ًﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮر‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻮز أي ﻳﺼﺪر ﻣﻦ أي ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺒﻴﻦ(‬
‫ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ أن ﻳﺼﺪر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل و اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﺎزال ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎً‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ أن ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺳﻘﻮط اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺣﺘﻰ و ﻟﻮ ﺻﺪر ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻓﻲ وﻗﺘﻪ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫أ‪.‬‬

‫إذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺪدهﺎ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻺﺑﻘﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ب‪ .‬إذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫أﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬

‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻤ‬

‫ﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎ ﺎﺫﻩ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺪ‬

‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﺸ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟ ﺍﻟﻘﺒـﻮﻝ ﻭﳌـﺎ‬
‫ﺮﻭﻑ ﺍ ﺎﻝ ﹰ‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٦‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫ﺻﻮر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬
‫‪ o‬آﻤﺎ هﻮ اﻟﺤﺎل ﻣﻊ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﻜﻮن‪:‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ﻻ ﺻﺮﻳﺤًﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻻ ﺿﻤﻨﻴًﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬

‫ﻣﺪى اﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮًا ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل )اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ(‬

‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫"ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺮ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺎﺫ ﺃ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﺗﺪ ﺮﻭﻑ ﺍ ﺎﻝ ﺷﻜﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻗﺒﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺮﻭﻑ ﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄ ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟ ﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟ ﻭﺍﻛﺒﺖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺟ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺮ ﺑﺮﻓ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻏﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﻜﻮﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻓﻀﻪ ﻞ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺮآﺰ ﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻗﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﻜﻤ ﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴ ﺰ ﻓ ﻲ دوﻟ ﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳ ﺖ ‪ ،١٩٩٦ -١٩٩٢‬اﻟﻘ ﺴﻢ ‪ ،٣‬ﻣﺠﻠ ﺪ ‪ ،٣‬ﻗﺎﻋ ﺪة ‪،٥‬‬
‫ص ‪) ٢١٥‬اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪ :‬وزارة اﻟﻌﺪل‪.[CD] .( ٢٠٠١ ،‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻗﻮل"(‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة‪" :‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻋﺪم‪ ،‬و اﻟﻌﺪم ﻻ ﻳﺪل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء" )ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﻌﺪﻟﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﺴﺎآ ٍ‬
‫ﻻ إذا ﻻﺑﺴﺘﻪ )ﺧﺎﻟﻄﺘﻪ( ﻇﺮوف و ﻣﻼﺑﺴﺎت ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫‪ o‬اذًا‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﺠﺮد ‪ X‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ )اﻟﺪال ‪ /‬اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻤﺸﺮع اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ‪:‬‬
‫‪٣‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٦‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫ﻻ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﻮل‪ ،‬و ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮض اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫ƒ م‪ " :١/٤٤ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﺴﺎآ ٍ‬
‫‪Å‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺑﻴﺎن‪ :‬إذا آﺎﻧﺖ ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ‪ /‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺮﻓﺾ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إذا آﺎن اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )اذًا اﻟﺮد ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﻓﻘﻂ (‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫إﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎر ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮورة اﺗﺼﺎل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ‪ +‬ﺳﻜﻮﺗﻪ ﻟﻔﺘﺮة ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬

‫ƒ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻮﻻ )وﺟﻮد هﺬﻩ اﻟﻈﺮوف ﻳﺤﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﺎﻹﻳﺠﺎب اﻹﻓﺼﺎح ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫إذا آﺎن راﻏﺒًﺎ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ(‪:‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬

‫‪Å‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﺮف اﻟﺠﺎري‬

‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ ﻣﻌﻴﺎر ﺗﺤﻜﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﺘﺮض ﻣﻌﻪ اﻟﻤﺸﺮع اﻟﻘﺒﻮل )اﺳﺘﻨﺎدًا إﻟﻰ اﻟﻮﺿﻊ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد ‪ /‬اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ‪ /‬اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ )ذآﺮت ﻋﻞ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﻻ اﻟﺤﺼﺮ(‪:‬‬
‫ƒ ﺧﺺ اﻟﻤﺸﺮع ﺑﺎﻟﺬآﺮ ﺛﻼث ﺣﺎﻻت ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫‪ .١‬اﺗﺼﺎل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ )‪(relations d’affaires antérieures‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺗﺴﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮي اﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ و ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻷﺳﻌﺎر دون اﻋﺘﺮاض‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺗﻤﺤﺾ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻟﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‬

‫‪(l’offre est faite dans g’intrêt exclusive de son‬‬

‫)‪.destinataire‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٤٤‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻻ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .١‬اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮض اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫‪ .٢‬و ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺴﻜﻮت ﻗﺒﻮﻻً‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎص‪ ،‬إذا آﺎن هﻨﺎك ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬و‬
‫اﺗﺼﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬أو إذا آﺎن اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻟﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‪ .‬و‬
‫ﻻ ﻟﻤﺎ ورد ﻓﻲ‬
‫آﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺳﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮي‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺴﻠﻤﻪ اﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ و ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻟﺜﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬
‫هﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮوط‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل )‪(Liberté de l’acceptation‬‬

‫‪ ١‬آﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن رﻗﻢ ‪ ١٥‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٩٦‬ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ أﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻮم ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮن رﻗﻢ ‪ ٦٧‬ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٨٠‬ﺑﺎﺻﺪار اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٦‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة‬

‫‪ Õ‬اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺧﻴﺎر ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪ :‬اذًا هﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻴﺎر ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ و رﻓﻀﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ o‬اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ‪ Õ‬إذا آﺎن اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ هﻮ اﻟﺬي دﻋﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ )أي اﺳﺘﺤﺚ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب( ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻴﺎر رﻓﺾ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ إﻻ اﺳﺘﻨﺎدًا إﻟﻰ أﺳﺒﺎب‬
‫ﻣﺸﺮوﻋﺔ ﺗﺒﺮر اﻟﺮﻓﺾ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Å‬ﻣﺒﺮر اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬اﻻﺧﻼل ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﻋﺔ‬
‫‪ Å‬ﺗﻈﻬﺮ اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﺎد ًة ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻت اﻟﺪﻋﻮة إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻴﺎن اﻷﺳﻌﺎر‬
‫إﻋﻼن أرﺑﺎب اﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻬﻢ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﻔﻨﺎدق ‪ /‬اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼء‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٤٣‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬و ﻳﻠﺰم ﻻﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ أن ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘًﺎ ﻟﻺﻳﺠﺎب‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬و إذا ﺟﺎء اﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ أو ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ أو ﻳﻌﺪل ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫أﺧﺮىـ اﻋﺘﺒﺮ رﻓﻀ ًﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨًﺎ إﻳﺠﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪًا‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻘﻮط اﻟﻘﺒﻮل‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٤٥‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻔﻂ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل اذا ﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ أو ﻓﻘﺪ أهﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ أن ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٦‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫‪٢‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻔﺎت اﻟﻘﻀﺎء اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ‪ ١٩٨٠‬اﻟﺘﺤﻖ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺪي ﺷﺮآﺔ ﻟﻘﺎء أﺟﺮ ﺷﻬﺮي ﻗﺪرﻩ ‪ ٤٥٠‬دﻳﻨﺎر‪ ،‬و ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ ﻳﺘﺨﻔ ﻴﺾ‬
‫راﺗﺒﻪ اﻟﻰ ‪ ٣٧٥‬دﻳﻨﺎر‪ .‬و ﻗﺪ اﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ و اﺳﺘﻼم اﻟﺮاﺗﺐ ﺑﺼﻮرة ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ هﺬا اﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻟﻤﺪة ‪ ٥٣‬ﺷﻬﺮا‪ .‬و ﺑﻌ ﺪ اﻟﻐ ﺰو‬
‫اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻰ اﻟﺬي اﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻋﺎم ‪ ،١٩٩١‬رﻓﻀﺖ اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ اﻋﺎدﺗﻪ اﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎم ﺑﺮﻓﻊ دﻋﻮ ً‬
‫ى ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒًﺎ اﻳﺎه ﺎ ﺑﺤﻘﻮﻗ ﻪ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴ ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﻓ ﻲ ذﻟ ﻚ ﻓﺮوﻗ ﺎت اﻷﺟ ﺮ اﻟﻤﺨﻔ ﺾ )‪ ٧٥‬دﻳﻨ ﺎر ﺷ ﻬﺮﻳ ًﺎ(‪ ،‬ﻣ ﺴﺘﻨﺪًأ ﻓ ﻲ دﻋ ﻮاﻩ اﻟ ﻰ ﻋ ﺪم ﺣ ﺼﻮل اﺗﻔ ﺎق ﺑﻴﻨ ﻪ و ﺑ ﻴﻦ اﻟ ﺸﺮآﺔ ﻋﻠ ﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ أﺟﺮﻩ‪ .‬و ﻗﺪ آﺎن ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻘﻀﺎء ﺑﺪرﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨ ًﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻵﺗﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ƒ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ أول درﺟﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺛﻤﺔ اﺗﻔﺎق ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ و اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻷﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻋﺪم اﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎق اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻔﺮوﻗﺎت اﻷﺟﺮ اﻟﻤﺨﻔﺾ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﻳﺠﻴﺰ أن ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟ ﺮادة ﺿ ﻤﻨﻴ ًﺎ ﺑﺤﻴ ﺚ ﻳﻜ ﻮن اﻟ ﺴﻜﻮت ﻗﺒ ﻮﻻً‪ ،‬و ذﻟ ﻚ اذا آ ﺎن هﻨ ﺎك ﺗﻌﺎﻣ ﻞ ﺳ ﺎﺑﻖ ﺑ ﻴﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ و اﺗﺼﻞ اﻻﻳﺠﺎب )أي ﻋﺮض اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻷﺟﺮ( ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ƒ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻻﺳﺘﺌﻨﺎف‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺛﻤﺔ اﺗﻔﺎق ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ و اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻷﺟﺮ ﻟﺨﻠﻮ أوراق اﻟﺪﻋﻮى ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺪل ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻳﻠﺰم ﻟﻠﻘﻮل ﺑﺮﺿﺎء اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ أﺟﺮﻩ أن ﻳﺼﺪر ﻣﻨﻪ رﺿﺎء ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ‪ ،‬و ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻣﺠﺮد ﺳﻜﻮﺗﻪ و اﺳ ﺘﻤﺮارﻩ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻌﻤ ﻞ‬
‫ﻻ اﻻ اذا ﺗﻤﺨ ﺾ ﻋ ﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴ ﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺎ دام ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟ ﺪ ﻓ ﻲ اﻷوراق ﻣ ﺎ ﻳ ﺪل ﻋﻠ ﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻟ ﻪ ﺑﻬ ﺬا اﻟﺘﺨﻔ ﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻷن اﻟ ﺴﻜﻮت ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﺒ ﺮ ﻗﺒ ﻮ ً‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق و ﻣﺰاﻳﺎ أآﺜﺮ و ﻟﻴﺲ اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ƒ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻧﺼﻮص اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ ﺗﺠﻴﺰ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ ﻋﻦ اﻻرادة ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﺗﺨﺎذ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﺗﺪع ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل ﺷﻜ ًﺎ ﻓﻲ دﻻﻟﺘﻪ‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ اﻷﺟﺮ ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﺮة و هﻲ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .a‬اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻩ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ .b‬اﺳﺘﻼﻣﻪ ﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرة ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ هﺬا اﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﻟﻤﺪة ‪ ٥٣‬ﺷﻬﺮا‪.‬‬
‫‪ .c‬ﺧﻠﻮ اﻷوراق ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻴﺮ اﻟﻰ اﻋﺘﺮاﺿﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ أﺟﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻪ ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﻣﻊ اﻳﺠﺎب اﻟﺸﺮآﺔ و ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻪ اﻻﺗﻔﺎق ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﺾ‬
‫وهﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻮاﻓﻘﺔ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﺒﻮ ً‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮد )‪*(Glossary‬‬
‫‪ARABIC TERM NOTES‬‬
‫إﻳﺠﺎب‬
‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬

‫‪ENGLISH TERM‬‬
‫)‪Offer (in French: offre‬‬
‫‪Acceptance‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫‪Offerer‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ‬

‫‪Offeree‬‬
‫‪Exclusive interest‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﺾ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬

‫)‪Circumstantial silence (or‬‬
‫‪acceptance by silence (In‬‬
‫‪French: silence‬‬
‫)‪circonstancié‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮت اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ‬

‫‪* Terms indicated in the Glossary are primarily in English. Italicized terms are in French or Latin, unless‬‬
‫‪otherwise specified.‬‬
‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﻃﻌﻦ ﺗﺠﺎري رﻗﻢ ‪ ،١٩٩٤ / ٢٦‬ﺟﻠﺴﺔ ‪ ،١٩٩٤/١١/٢٨‬ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﻘ ﻀﺎء و اﻟﻘ ﺎﻧﻮن ﻟﻠﻔﺘ ﺮة ﻣ ﻦ ‪ ١٩٩٤/٦/١‬اﻟ ﻰ ‪ ،١٩٩٤/١٢/٣١‬ﻋ ﺪد ﻳﻮﻟﻴ ﻮ ‪ ،١٩٩٩‬اﻟ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،٢٢‬اﻟﺠ ﺰء‬
‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ص ‪.٤٨٦ -٤٨٤‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # ٦
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥
University

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2
(Reference Materials) ‫ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬
:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬



(١٩٩٨ ،‫ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ دار اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬:‫ )اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬٢ ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻻرادﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام‬،‫اﺑﺮاهﻴﻢ اﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ أﺑﻮ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬
.( ١٩٨٢ ،‫ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬،‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻹرادﻳﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬:‫ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول‬،‫ اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬،‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺤﻲ ﺣﺠﺎزي‬
،‫ دار اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬:‫ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬٣ ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻷول‬،‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬:١،‫ اﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮح اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺮزاق اﻟﺴﻨﻬﻮري‬
.( ١٩٨١
.(١٩٨٤ ،.‫ ن‬.‫ د‬:‫ دراﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻘﺔ و ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻻﺳﻼﻣﻲ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬:‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬،‫ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻔﺘﺎح ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬

:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬








١. Barry Nicholas, The French Law of Contract, ٢nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, ١٩٩٢).
٢. Contract Law Today: Anglo-French Comparison ،ed. by Donald Harris and Denis Tallon (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, ١٩٩١).
٣. John Bell et al, Principles of French Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ١٩٩٨).
٥. The French Civil Code: Revised Edition as Amended to ١ July ١٩٩٤ ،trans. by John H Crabb (Littleton:
Rothman & Co/Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, ١٩٩٥).
٦. F H Lawson et al, Amos and Walton's Introduction to French Law, ٣rd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
١٩٧٩).
٧. Reinhard Zimmermann, The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (Cape
Town: Juta & Co Ltd, ١٩٩٠).

:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬



١. Christian Larromet, Droit Civil, ٣rd edn (Paris: Economica, ١٩٩٦).
٢. François Terré, Philippe Simler and Yves Lequette, Droit Civil: Les Obligation, ٧th edn (Paris:
Dalloz, ١٩٩٩).
٣. Henri and Léon Mazeaud, Jean Mazeaud and Franois Chabas, Intoduction à l’étude du droit, ١٠th
edn (Paris: Montchrestien, ١٩٩١).
٤. Philippe Malaurie and Aynès Laurent, Cours de Droit Civil: Les Obligations, ١١th edn, ٣ vols
(Paris: Éditions Cujas, ٢٠٠١).

٧

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # 7
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait University

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

LECTURE HANDOUT # 7

‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒــﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻴﺠــﺎﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒــﻭل‬

‫ ﻣﺸﺎﻋــﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳــﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟــﺮي‬.‫د‬
mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw
‫ﻗﺴـﻢ اﻟﻘﺎﻧـﻮن اﻟﺨـﺎص‬
‫آﻠﻴـﺔ اﻟﺤﻘـﻮق – ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳـﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬
2 .................................................................................................................(‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ )اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
3 ................................................................................................................................................... ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‬
4 ............................................................................................................. ‫ ﻧﻤﺎذج ﻟﻮاﺋﺢ‬/ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ اﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻧﻤﺎذج ﻋﻘﻮد‬
5 ...................................................................................................................... ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ اﻻﺗﻔﺎق ﻋﻠﻰ أﻣﻮر ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬
6 ................................................................................................................................................ (Glossary) ‫ﻣﺴﺮد‬
6 ....................................................................................................................... (Reference Materials) ‫ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬

© Mashael A. Alhajeri, 2004

1

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 7‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫أو ًﻻ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ )اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ(‬
‫•‬

‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫‪ o‬هﻮ اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ و ﻟﻴﺲ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎن ﻳﺠﺘﻤﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪان ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻜﺎن و اﻟﺰﻣﺎن‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ اﺗﺼﺎل ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺄن ﻳﺴﻤﻊ )ﻳﻘﺮأ؟( آﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ آﻼم اﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ذات اﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﺪر ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة‪ ،‬و هﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻓﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻏﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻟﻬﺪف ﻣﻦ ﻓﻜﺮة ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺢ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﺘﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺑﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫•‬

‫أﻧﻮاع ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫‪ o‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ هﻮ ﺣﻀﻮر اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺎدﻳًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎن واﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺤﻜﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﻤﻊ آﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ آﻼم اﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ذات اﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺼﺪر ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة و ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎن واﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫‪ o‬ﺑﺪاﻳﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﺪأ ﺑﺼﺪور اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻳﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻞ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤًﺎ ﻣﺎ دام اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻓﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻏﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬اﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﻟ ) ﺒﻭ ‪/‬ﺭﻓﻀﺎ(‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻨﻔﻀﺎ‬
‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠ‬

‫ﺷﺮوط اﻧﻌﻘﺎد ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫)‪ (1‬وﺟﻮد اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬أن ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻓﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ إﺑﺮام اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻨﻮﻳﺎن إﺑﺮاﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺸﻐﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺎﻏﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬

‫‪ .1‬اﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺨﻴﺎر اﻟﺮﺟﻮع‪ :‬ﻳﻈﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻗﺎﺋﻤًﺎ ﻃﻮال ﻣﺪة اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪ ،‬و ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰم )ﻳﺠﻮز اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻴﻪ(‪ ،‬و ذﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﺘﺮن ﺑﻤﻴﻌﺎد‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﺒﻮل‪ .‬اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﻬﻢ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ اﻟﻰ ﻓﺘﺮة ﺗﺄﻣﻞ و ﺗﺪﺑﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬رﻓﺾ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ )و اﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻔﻜﺮة ﻟﺰوم اﻟﻌﻘﺪ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ .a‬ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻜﺮة ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ‪ :‬ﻳﺠﻮز ﻷي ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺪﻩ ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺪ اﻧﻔﺾ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .b‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻤﺸﺮع اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻷﺻﻞ اﻟﻌﺎم‪ :‬ﻣﺘﻲ أﺑﺮم اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻷي ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻴﻪ )أي رﻓﺾ ﻓﻜﺮة ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬إذا ﻧﺺ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن ‪ /‬ﺟﺮى اﻟﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ذﻟﻚ )ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻻزم‪ ،‬و ﻳﺠﻮز اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻓﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 7‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (74‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫دﻓﻊ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻮن‪ ،‬وﻗﺖ إﺑﺮام اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻴﺪ أن ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻪ ﺧﻴﺎر اﻟﻌﺪول ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬
‫أﻧﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺼﺪا ﻏﻴﺮ ذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬أو آﺎن اﻟﻌﺮف ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺑﺨﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫زﻣﺎن‪/‬ﻣﻜﺎن اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬

‫هﻮ زﻣﺎن‪/‬ﻣﻜﺎن ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ )ﻣﻊ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻼت أﺧﺮى ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ ًﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‬
‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ن‪) .‬اذًا ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
‫ن ﺛﺎ ٍ‬
‫هﻮ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻤﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﻋﻘﺪ واﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻜﻮن أﺣﺪهﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎن و اﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎ ٍ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ إذا ﻣﻀﺖ ﻓﺘﺮة زﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﺪور اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻹرادة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ و وﺻﻮل هﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻪ إﻟﻴﻪ(‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﺒﺭﺯ ﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﻴﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﺴﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬ﺻﻮر اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬م‪ 49 .‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ آﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪" :‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ أﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺰﻣﺎن و اﻟﻤﻜﺎن اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ذﻟﻚ أو ﻳﻘﻀﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن أو اﻟﻌﺮف ﺑﺨﻼﻓﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬أﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ )م‪ 48 .‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ آﻮﻳﺘﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﻴﺎم اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪ :‬ﻳﺒﻘﻰ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ ﻃﻮال اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺪدهﺎ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ‪ /‬اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺳﻘﻮط اﻹﻳﺠﺎب‪ :‬ﻳﺴﻘﻂ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل‬
‫)اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ = ﻣﺪة وﺻﻮل اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ‪ +‬ﻣﺪة ﺻﺪور اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ‪ +‬ﻣﺪة وﺻﻮل اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ(‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (48‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬إذا ﺣﺼﻞ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻘﻲ ﻗﺎﺋﻤًﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮال اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺪدهﺎ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺋﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن‬
‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪد اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺪة ‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﺰم ﺑﺎﻹﺑﻘﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮال اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل ﻟﻮﺻﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ وإﺑﺪاء رأﻳﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ووﺻﻮل اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬وﻳﺴﻘﻂ اﻹﻳﺠﺎب إذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻇﺮوف اﻟﺤﺎل ‪ ،‬وﻟﻮ ﺻﺪر ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻲ وﻗﺘﻪ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 7‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (49‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ أﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺰﻣﺎن واﻟﻤﻜﺎن اﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ اﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﺑﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ذﻟﻚ أو ﻳﻘﺾ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن أو اﻟﻌﺮف ﺑﺨﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﺒ ﺭﻴ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺘ ) ﻭ ﺍﻟ ﺴﻠﻜ (‪:‬‬
‫‪ o‬م‪ 50 .‬ﻣﺪﻧﻲ آﻮﻳﺘﻲ‪" :‬ﻳﺴﺮي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ‪ ،‬أو ﺑﺄي ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻪ و زﻣﺎن إﺑﺮاﻣﻪ‪ .‬و ﻳﺴﺮي ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎن ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬أﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ )أو اﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬زﻣﺎن اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺮي ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻜﺎن اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺮي ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ ًﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ اﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻧﻤﺎذج ﻋﻘﻮد ‪ /‬ﻧﻤﺎذج ﻟﻮاﺋﺢ‬
‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(standard form contracts / model contracts/contrat type‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﺎذج اﻟﻌﻘﻮد هﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻌﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎت ﻣﻬﻨﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﻏﺮف ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ ‪ /‬اﺗﺤﺎدات اﻟﺒﻨﻮك( ﺑﻘﺼﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﻤﺪ إﻟﻰ وﺿﻊ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻮاﻋﺪ و اﻷﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‪.‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(Reglement type‬‬

‫‪ o‬اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ و اﻷﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺪًا ﻣﻌﻴﻨًﺎ ﻗﺪ وﺿﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ أو إﺣﺪى هﻴﺌﺎﺗﻬﺎ )ﺷﺨﺺ اﻋﺘﺒﺎري ﻋﺎم(‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺼﺪ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻴﺴﻴﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬
‫اﻷﻓﺮاد ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﺄن ﻧﺸﺘﻂ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﻀﻄﻠﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ o‬هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﻘﻮدًا ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﻨﻲ اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬و ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺠﺮد ﺟﻤﺎع ﻟﺸﺮوط وﺿﻌﺖ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺄ ﻟﻠﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺮم ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﻻﺣﻖ )إذا هﻲ ﻣﺠﺮد ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻧﻤﻮذﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ‪.(formule-type‬‬
‫•‬

‫ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻼﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‪:‬‬

‫‪ o‬اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ اﻹﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻰ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج هﻮ ﺗﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ و ﻣﻠﺰم ﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ o‬اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‪ :‬ﺗﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم و ﻻ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ إذا ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ ﺷﺮﻃﺎن‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اذا اﺛﺒﺖ أﺣﺪ اﻷﻃﺮاف ﻋﺪم ﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﻤﺤﺎل إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ +‬ﺑﺎﻧﻪ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺢ ﻟﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ .2‬و آﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم ﺟﻮهﺮﻳﺔ )إذا آﺎﻧﺖ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺤًﺎ(‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # 7‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait University‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻨ ﺭ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤ‬

‫"ﻨﻤﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺤﻔﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ" ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍ ﻭل ﻭ ﺍﻟ ﺎﻨ‬

‫ﻤﺎﺭ ‪/‬ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻭ‬

‫‪.1992‬‬
‫‪2. John J A Burke, ‘Reinventing Contract’, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, online:‬‬
‫‪<http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v10n2/burke102.txt> (accessed: 29/10/04).‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (51‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫إذا اﺗﻔﻖ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪان ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﺗﺴﺮي ﻓﻲ ﺷﺆوﻧﻬﻤﺎ أﺣﻜﺎم ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻤﻮذج أو ﻻﺋﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮذﺟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮت هﺬﻩ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ أي ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ أﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺼﻮل اﻻﺗﻔﺎق‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺬﻩ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم ‪ ،‬ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺢ ﻟﻪ اﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ أن ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫وإذا آﺎﻧﺖ أﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج أو اﻟﻼﺋﺤﺔ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذﺟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﻬﺎ‬
‫أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﻞ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈن آﺎﻧﺖ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﻢ اﻟﺨﻼف ﻓﻲ ﺷﺄﻧﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ واﻟﻌﺮف اﻟﺠﺎري وﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت اﻟﻌﺪاﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫راﺑﻌ ًﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ اﻻﺗﻔﺎق ﻋﻠﻰ أﻣﻮر ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (52‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .1‬إذا اﺗﻔﻖ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪان ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺠﻮهﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻘﺎ أﻣﻮرًا ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ أﻣﻞ اﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼً‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ذﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻧﻌﻘﺎد اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ أن‬
‫إرادﺗﻬﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮآﺔ ﻗﺪ اﻧﺼﺮﻓﺖ إﻟﻰ ﻏﻴﺮ ذﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬وإذا ﻟﻢ ﻳﺼﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪان إﻟﻰ اﻻﺗﻔﺎق ﻓﻲ ﺷﺄن ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ اﻷﻣﻮر اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﻢ اﻟﺨﻼف ﻓﻲ ﺷﺄﻧﻬﺎ وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ واﻟﻌﺮف اﻟﺠﺎري وﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻌﺪاﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # 7
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait University

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2
*(Glossary) ‫ﻣﺴﺮد‬
ENGLISH TERM
model contract / standard
form contract (in French:
contrat-type)
in French: Reglement-type
in French: formule-type

ARABIC TERM NOTES
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍ ﻨﻤﻭﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﺌﺤﺔ ﺍ ﻨﻤﻭﺫ‬
‫ﻴ ﺔ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺩ‬

* Terms indicated in the Glossary are primarily in English. Italicized terms are in French or Latin, unless
otherwise specified.

(Reference Materials) ‫ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬
:‫• ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
.(1998 ،‫ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ دار اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬:‫ )اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬2 ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻻرادﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام‬،‫ اﺑﺮاهﻴﻢ اﻟﺪﺳﻮﻗﻲ أﺑﻮ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬.1
.(2004 ،‫ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺳﺎت و اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬:‫ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺑﻴﺮوت‬،‫ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ أﻻن ﺑﻴﻨﺎﺑﻨﺖ‬.2
‫ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪراﺳﺎت‬:‫ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺼﻮر اﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ )ﺑﻴﺮوت‬،‫ اﻟﻤﻄﻮل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ ﺟﺎك ﻏﺴﺘﺎن و ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬.3
،‫ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬،‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر اﻹرادﻳﺔ )ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬:‫ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول‬،‫ اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰام وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺤﻲ ﺣﺠﺎزي‬.4
.(1982
‫ دار اﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬:‫ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬3 ‫ ط‬،‫ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬:‫ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻷول‬،‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام‬:1،‫ اﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮح اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺮزاق اﻟﺴﻨﻬﻮري‬.5
.( 1981 ،‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
.(1984 ،.‫ ن‬.‫ د‬:‫ دراﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻘﺔ و ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ اﻻﺳﻼﻣﻲ )اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬:‫ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ و اﻻرادة اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬،‫ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻔﺘﺎح ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬.6

:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬



1. Barry Nicholas, The French Law of Contract, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
2. Contract Law Today: Anglo-French Comparison ،ed. by Donald Harris and Denis Tallon (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1991).
3. John Bell et al, Principles of French Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
1. The French Civil Code: Revised Edition as Amended to 1 July 1994 ،trans. by John H Crabb (Littleton:
Rothman & Co/Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1995).
2. F H Lawson et al, Amos and Walton's Introduction to French Law, 3rd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1979).
3. Reinhard Zimmermann, The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (Cape
Town: Juta & Co Ltd, 1990).

6

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # 7
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, 2004-5

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait University

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2
:‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬



1. Christian Larromet, Droit Civil, 3rd edn (Paris: Economica, 1996).
2. François Terré, Philippe Simler and Yves Lequette, Droit Civil: Les Obligation, 7th edn (Paris:
Dalloz, 1999).
3. Henri and Léon Mazeaud, Jean Mazeaud and Franois Chabas, Intoduction à l’étude du droit, 10th
edn (Paris: Montchrestien, 1991).
4. Philippe Malaurie and Aynès Laurent, Cours de Droit Civil: Les Obligations, 11th edn, 3 vols
(Paris: Éditions Cujas, 2001).

7

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # ٨
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥
University

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

LECTURE HANDOUT #

(Agency in Contracting) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ‬

‫ ﻣﺸﺎﻋـﻞ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳـﺰ اﻟﻬﺎﺟـﺮي‬.‫د‬
mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw

١

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬

Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw>
Lecture Handout # ٨
Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥
University

Private Law Department
School of Law
Kuwait

2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴـﺎﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺌﺏ‬

‫ ﻤﺭﺤ ﺔ ﺍﺒـﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘــﺩ‬Ç

‫ ﻤﺭﺤ ﺔ ﺘﻨ ﻴـﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻘــﺩ‬Ç

٢

‫ﺍﻷﺼﻴـل‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٨‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٥٦‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﺒ ﺭﻴ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻭﻤ ﺫﻟ‬

‫ﻴل‬

‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍ‬

‫ﻓﻨ‬

‫ﻤﻭﺭﺍ ﻥ ﻴﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ‬

‫ﺍ ﻋﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﺏ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺍ‬

‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴ‬

‫ﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﺭﻭ‬

‫ﻭﺘ ﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﺎ ﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻓ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺘ‬

‫ﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺎ ﻓﻴ‬

‫ﺒﺤﻴ‬

‫•‬
‫•‬

‫ﻥ ﻴﺘﻤﺴ‬

‫ﻥ ﻴﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻨﺩﺌﺫ‬

‫ﻴل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ‪.‬‬

‫)ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ( ﻤﺤل ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺸ‬

‫ﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ‬

‫ﺘﻨ ﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨ‬

‫ﻟ ﺍ‬

‫ﺭ )ﺍ‬

‫ﻴل‪.‬‬

‫ﻴل( ﻓ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭﻓﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫•‬

‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ o‬ﺤﻠﻭل ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺸ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺍ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬

‫ﻭ ﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻬل ﺒﺒﻌ‬

‫ﺫﺍ ﻨﺸ ﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺘﻀ ﺍﺘﻔﺎ‬

‫ﺘﻠﻘﺎ ﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍ‬
‫ﺒﺠﻬل ﻨﺎﺌﺒ‬

‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺭﺓ ﺒﺸ‬

‫ﺒﺸ‬

‫ﺍ‬

‫ﻴل‬

‫ﻓ‬

‫ﻋﺩ ﺍ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺒﻤﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍ ﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ﺍ ﺸ ﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻓ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍ ﺸ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨ‬

‫ﺍ ﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤ ﺴﺴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸ ﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻴﺘﻤﻜﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﻤ ﺎﻟﺤﻬ ﺒ ﻨﻔﺴﻬ‬

‫ﻤ ﺭﻭ ﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫ل ‪Í‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍ ﺴﺘ ﻨﺎ ‪Í‬‬

‫ﺒﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻨ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﺍ ﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺸ‬

‫ﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫)ﺤﻠ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻥ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴ ﺔ ﻭ ﻟﺤ ﺴﺎﺒ‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٨‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ )ﺒﺎﻟﻨ ﺒﺔ ﻟ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺎ(‬
‫ﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﺘﻔﺎ ﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﺩﻴﺔ )ﻤ ﺩﺭ ﺎ ﺍ ﺘﻔﺎ ‪ :(convention‬ﻋﻘﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻭ ﺍ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ )ﻤ ﺩﺭ ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ‪:(la loi‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﻴل‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﻨ ﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‪ :‬ﻴﻘﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ‪ /‬ﻴﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ‪ /‬ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺴﻠ ﺘ ‪..‬‬

‫ﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﻀﺎﺌﻴﺔ )ﻤ ﺩﺭ ﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻀ ‪ :(le juge‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻀ ﻴﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻓﻘ ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ .‬ﺤﻠﻭل ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻤﺤل ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻥ ﻴﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺒﺎﺴ ﺍ‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴل ﻓ‬

‫ﻴل ﻭ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺒ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﺭﻁ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ :‬ﺤ ﻭل ﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻤﺤل ﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل‬
‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‪ :‬ﺍ ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍ ﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﻟ ﺍ‬

‫ﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ )ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﻨ ﻜﻭﻴﺘ (‪:‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺭﺍﺩﺘ‬

‫ﻭ‬

‫ﻋﻥ ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍ‬

‫ﻴل ﻭ ﻟﻜﻥ ﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ‬

‫ﻴل‪.‬‬

‫‪ o‬ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌ ‪ :‬ﻴﻌﺘﺩ ﺒ ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬

‫ﺍ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ‪ /‬ﺴﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺠﻬل ﺒﺒﻌ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫ﻴل ﻓ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﺭﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﺎ ﺔ )ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ(‬

‫ﺴ ﻤﺔ ﺍ ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻭﺏ‬
‫‪ Í‬ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ‬
‫‪ Í‬ﺍ ﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .a‬ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺍ ﺘﻔﺎ ﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻴﺸﺘﺭ ﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺤﺎﺌﺯﺍ‬

‫‪ .b‬ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻴﺸﺘﺭ ﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺤﺎﺌﺯﺍ‬
‫ﺘ ﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻓ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ﺍ ﺘﻔﺎ ﻴﺔ ﺫﺍ ﺘﻠﻘ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‪:‬‬

‫ﻟ ﻋﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﻀﺎ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠ ﺒ ﺭﻭ‬

‫‪o‬‬
‫‪o‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ‪Õ‬‬

‫ﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺒﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺒل ﻴﻜﺘﻔ ﺒﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻤﻤﻴﺯﺍ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻠﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ )ﻟﻜﻭﻥ ﺍ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍ‬

‫ﺫ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍ ﻋﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺒ ﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍ‬

‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ ‪ :‬ﺎﻨﻭﻨ ‪ /‬ﺍ ﻠﻴﺔ ﻤ ﻠﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻭل ‪ Õ‬ﻤﻜﻠ‬

‫ﻴل ﻓﻔ‬

‫ﻴل ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺎ ﺭﺍ ‪ /‬ﻋﺩﻴ ﺍ ﻠﻴﺔ( ‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﻨﻘل ﺍﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴل‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘ ﺭ ‪ :‬ﻤﺎﺩ ‪ /‬ﺍ ﻠﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ ﻠﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫>‪Dr. Mashael A. Alhajeri <mashael@law.kuniv.edu.kw‬‬
‫‪Lecture Handout # ٨‬‬
‫‪Obligations & Evidence, Second Year, First Semester, ٢٠٠٤-٥‬‬
‫‪University‬‬

‫‪Private Law Department‬‬
‫‪School of Law‬‬
‫‪Kuwait‬‬

‫‪2 The Kuwaiti Civil Code on the Internet: <http://www.mandoubco.com/radio.asp> (Arabic version) 2‬‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﺭﻁ ﺍﻟ ﺎﻨ ‪ :‬ﺍﻥ ﻴﺒﺭﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺒﺎ ﻡ ﺍ ﺼﻴل‬

‫ﺒﺎ ﻤ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻨ ﻜﻭﻴﺘ – ﻭ‬

‫ﻭ ) ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ‪ Í‬ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻥ ﻴ ﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﻤﻌ ﻜﻭﻨ ﻴﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺸ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍ ﺴﺘ ﻨﺎ ‪ Í‬ﻟﻭ ﻟ ﻴ ﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﻤﻌ ﺒﻜﻭﻨ ﻴﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺸ‬
‫)‪ (prêt-nom‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺘﻨ ﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬

‫ﺍ‬

‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺘﻁﺒﻴ ﻟ ﻤﺎﺩ‬

‫ﺭ ﻭ ﻟﻭ ﻟ ﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﺴﻤ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭ ﺒﺤﻴ‬

‫ﺍﺴﺘ ﺩ ﺍﺴ ﻤﺎ ﻤ ﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺍ‬

‫ﻴل ﺍ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﻤﻌ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ Õ‬ﻴﻌﻠ ﺒ ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻭﺍ ﻌﻴﺎ‬
‫‪ Õ‬ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭ‬

‫ﻓﻴ ﺍﻥ ﻴﻌﻠ ﺒ ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬

‫‪ Õ‬ﺴﻭﺍ ﻟﺩﻴ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺘﻌﺎ ﺩ ﻤ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﻭ ﺍ‬

‫ﻴل‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٥٨‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺕ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﺒﺎﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﻤﻌﻪ‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﺠﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻌﻠﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﻠﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺼل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻼ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺌﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﺎﺼ ﹰ‬

‫اﻟﻤﺎدة )‪ (٣٨‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫‪ .١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻗﺼﺩ ﺼﺎﺤﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺼﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﻟﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﺩ ﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺒﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺼﺩ ﺼﺎﺤﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻌﺘﻘﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺘﻪ ﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﺃﻥ ﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪:( /‬‬


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