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Dr Yahyaoui TUNTAP Screening for disease resistance .pdf



Nom original: Dr Yahyaoui TUNTAP- Screening for disease resistance.pdf
Titre: PowerPoint Presentation
Auteur: Yahyaoui, Amor (CIMMYT)

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WHEAT CRP-Septoria Precision
Phenotyping PlatformTraining and Consultation Workshop

Wheat CRP-Septoria Phenotyping Platform
Amor H.Yahyaoui; PhD
Sr. Scientist-Wheat Training Officer
Coordinator; Tunisia Wheat CRP-Septoria Platform
Global Wheat Program;
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
www.cimmyt.org

Ah.Yahyaoui@cgiar.org
Seeding innovation ... Nourishing hope
Amor Yahyaoui, GWP

Impacts of Pests on Wheat Yields
Levels
Yield
20T

15T

Constraints

Absolute

Genetic potential
Attainable

Environment
Affordable

Economics

8T
5T
2-3T

Actual

Pests; Weeds, Crop Mgt,
Other hazards

The four A’s of wheat productivity

TUNPAT-Septo training

2015 BWIC- A. Yahyaoui

Target Screening Objectives:
Inherent and Expected Disease Problems
Major Diseases in CWANA Wheat Environments
Environments (+: Important; ++: Very important)
Stress

Irrigated
Spring Wheat

Semiarid
Rainfed Spring

Irrigated
W/FWW

Semiarid
Rainfed
WW/FW

Yellow Rust

++

+

++

++

Leaf Rust

++

+

+

Stem Rust

+

+

+

Septoria

+

++

+

BYDV

+

+

Root Rots

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

++

+

+

Effectiveness of different practices for integrated
disease management under low productivity systems

Disease

Clean
seeds

Loose smut
Common
bunt
Septoria
leaf blotch
Tan spot
Leaf rust
Yellow rust
Stem rust

+++
+++

Management practices
Seed
Plowing
Crop
Resistance
Treatment
down
Rotation
straw
+++
+
+++
+

-

-

++

++

++

-

-

++
-

++
-

++
+++
+++
+++

+++ = highly effective, ++ = moderately effective, + = slightly effective,

- = no effect on disease
A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

WHEAT CRP-Septoria Precision
Phenotyping PlatformTraining and Consultation Workshop

Seeding innovation ... Nourishing hope
Amor Yahyaoui, GWP

General Concepts
Fungal Disease Epidemiology
This has to be
Septoria

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

CIMMYT-Global Wheat Program
Borlaug Fellowship: Special training session

Screening for Disease Resistance

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Establishment of disease screening nurseries
Key points
Nursery location
Natural infection (Hot spots)
Artificial inoculation
Nursery design (depends on Goals)
Plot size (rows, hill plots, blocks)
Replications
Agronomic practices (Optimal disease development)
Spreader rows, Susceptible checks
Mist irrigation, sprinkler irrigation
Fertilizer application
Planting time & density—favor max disease development
Susceptible checks; key commercial cultivars
Treated/untreated seed

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Establishment of disease screening nurseries
Key points

 Key hot spot locations—diverse races

 Multi-location testing—pathogen diversity

 Husbandry—irrigation, fertilizer

 Use of naturally infected plants for inoculum

 Spreader rows (mixture of Susceptible Var.)

Creating an epidemic-• Some important tech considerations
– Virulence spectrum--apply as wide as
possible. Collection & inoculation; special
attention
– Collection methods—max variability in
collection from given area; collect from
wide area

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Some key points to remember
Storage:
diverse techs-vacuum; low temperature ;Nitrogen
Inoculation techs:
spreader rows / entire nursery
Spray,
Infected Stubble
Timing of inocs:
generation time of pathogen. How many?
Amount of inoculum:
”excess helps to guarantee success”
(disease pressure needed)
A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Inoculation techniques
Simple and efficient

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Screening for disease resistance
To develop appropriate, practical, and easy to handle
methodologies for effective screening for different
types of resistance; we tested
known resistance genes for yellow rust against various
virulence types and at different hot spots
Commercial cultivars widely grown in the region
Elite breeding lines that could be released
in the region

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Disease Assessment
Leaf blotch disease
Septoria
Tan spot
P.Mildew
Scale (Adult GS)
Level of Infection: 0-9
Severity: 0-9

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Levels of resistance in durum wheat nurseries

Relative resistance frequency in durum wheat breeding
nurseries

Diseases*

YR
SR
LR

DPD

ST

DKL
CB

DACB
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Levels of resistance (%)

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

70

80

90

Resistance in Parental Germplasm: Crossing Block

Frequency (%)

Relative resistance in WACB to single and to disease combination

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
YR

LR

SR

ST

Diseases

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

YR-LR YR-LRSR

LR-ST

Soil biota: Soil borne diseases
Despite the importance of the
SBPs, not much attention has
been attributed to these pests ,
Greater technical difficulty in
investigating them, because they
are
"out of site, so out of mind"

CIMMYT recognizes
The perpetual threat of soil
pests to world's staple food
crops.

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Know your Pathogen
Leaf collection from infected plant (local Isolates)
Lab. Isolation/culturing - SINGLE SPORES
Multiplication for DNA extraction

Disease specimen
isolation
Genotyping

Phenotyping

culturing

DNA extraction

inoculation

AFLP analysis

Disease scoring

AFLP data analysis

Data analysis

Gene, Genotype
diversity

Test
for
association

Virulence
spectrum

Among/within, populations, regions

Steps in screening for disease resistance
Initial screening phase I
“Negative selection-Qualitative”
Early breeding generation F3/F4

30,000 accessions
Year 1 “2Cycles”

75%

30%

23%

5.8%

23,000 accessions
Year 2 “2Cycles”

9,000 acc.
Yr 3 1 Cycles”

7,000 acc
Yr 4
1750 ac
Yr5

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

75%

39%

77%

25%

Initial screening phase II
“Negative selection-Qualitiative”
Early breeding generation F5/F6
Final screening phase III
“Multi-location testing ”
KLDN- Septoria hot spots
Final screening phase III
“Selection Quantitative ”
Fixed breeding lines
Low selection pressure
Selected lines possible release

Wheat Improvement Strategy

Changes in the breeding methodology to address:
 Genotype X Environment X New Management
interactions

 Pest problems associated with microenvironments
created by new management systems

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

Wheat Improvement Strategy
Improvement of wheat productivity and
production thru. Germplasm Enhancement
and Crop Management
will contribute substantially to enhancing food
security

A.Yahyaoui GWP/CIMMYT

THANK YOU


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