Fichier PDF

Partage, hébergement, conversion et archivage facile de documents au format PDF

Partager un fichier Mes fichiers Convertir un fichier Boite à outils PDF Recherche PDF Aide Contact



Lamia aouini 21 .pdf



Nom original: Lamia aouini 21.pdf
Titre: PowerPoint-presentatie
Auteur: Martin Brinkman

Ce document au format PDF 1.7 a été généré par Foxit Software Inc. / Foxit Reader Printer Version 7.0.1.831, et a été envoyé sur fichier-pdf.fr le 23/04/2015 à 20:47, depuis l'adresse IP 197.9.x.x. La présente page de téléchargement du fichier a été vue 469 fois.
Taille du document: 5.5 Mo (26 pages).
Confidentialité: fichier public




Télécharger le fichier (PDF)









Aperçu du document


Breeding for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici.

April 21st, 2015

Lamia Aouini

Outline

 Wheat and Zymoseptoria tritici
 Breeding for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici
● State of the art.
● An insight into Durum Wheat – Zymoseptoria tritici
interaction.

Wheat
 Fundamental crop to human civilization

 Origin : Fertile crescent

 Widely cultivated cereal in the world: ≥ 220 million
ha planted annually
Source: Shiferaw et al. , Food Sec. (2013) 5:291–317.

World wheat production (2010/2011)

Source : World Wheat Production 2010/11. ChartsBin.com<http://chartsbin.com/view/3666>.

Average annual calorie and protein intake share of cereal (%)
between 2005-2009

Source: Shiferaw et al. 2013 based on FAOSTAT online database, 30 Dec. 2012

Major biotic stresses on wheat
Biotic stress

East Asia

South Asia

West Asia

Central
Asia/Cauc
asus

Middle East
North Africa

Sub-Saharan Latin Amer.
Africa
incl. Mex

Vulnerable
areas with
Developed
significant
countries
loss (million
ha)
50
++

Leaf rust

++

+++

+++

+++

+++

++

+++

Stem rust

+++

+++

+++

+++

+++

+++

+++

50

+++

++

+++

+++

+++

+++

+

40

+++

0

+

0

0

0

++

10

+++

0

++

+++

++

++

++

11

+++

Spot blotch +

++

0

0

0

+

+

11

0

Nematodes ++

++

+++

++

0

+

+

10

+

Tan spot
Smuts and
bunts

0

+

0

+

+++

0

++

7

++

+

+

++

++

+

+

+

5

0

Wheat blast 0

0

0

0

0

0

+

1

0

++

+

0

0

0

0

+

6

++

++

+

++

++

+

+

+

9

+

Sunn pest

0

0

+++

+

++

0

0

10

+

Hessian fly

0

0

0

+++

+

0

0

2

+

Russian
0
wheat aphid

0

+

+

+

++

+

2

+

++

0

++

+

+

+

10

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Yellow rust +++
Fusarium
+++
head blight
Septoria
+

Powdery
mildew
Root
diseases

Insects

Green bug
and other
common
aphids

++

BYDV and
+
other viruses

Source: Shiferaw et al. , Food Sec. (2013) 5:291–317.

Septoria tritici blotch



fungal leaf disease.

Causal agent:

Zymoseptoria tritici (Z.tritici)
(Mycosphaerella graminicola)
(anamorphe: Septoria tritici)



Yield lost : 30-50%

Symptoms of STB (Ponomarenko et al., 2011)

Active sexual reproduction during disease epidemiology

The Septoria conflict: a new front opening up? Trends in Plant Science, Volume 19, Issue 9, 2014, 602 – 610

 Hemibiotrophic life style

1

(Keon et al., 2006 ; Ponomarenko et al.,2011)

Box plots of comparative genome hybridizations (CGH) of DNA from five isolates of Mycosphaerella
graminicola to a whole-genome tiling array made from the finished sequence of isolate IPO323.

Goodwin SB, Ben M'Barek S, Dhillon B, Wittenberg AHJ, et al. (2011) Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella
graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome Plasticity, and Stealth Pathogenesis. PLoS Genet 7(6): e1002070.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070

Disease management


Since the advent of QoI
resistance in 2002, control
of Septoria relies on azole
fungicides



Emergence of reduced
sensitivity to azole
fungicides

Boukef et al., 2013
An alternative control strategy is required

Breeding for resistance to septoria tritici Blotch: State of the art



Resistance to Z. tritici can be qualitative or quantitative (Ponomarenko
et al., 2011)



Up-to date : 18 qualitative Stb genes have been identified/mapped all
of them in bread wheat (Tabib Ghaffary,2011) and 41 QTL conferring
partial resistance were described in the literature (Risser et al., 2011)



Each of these genes are effective against one or a few known Z. tritici
isolates
(Arriano et al. (2009) , Plant Pathology 58, 910–922)

Stb genes

Cultivars
source

Stb1

Bulgarai 881

5BL

Xgwm33

Stb2
Stb3

Veranopolis1
Israel 4931

3Bs
7As

Xgwm389
Not published yet

IPO98028, IPO98078,
IPO99018 (a)
IPO323

(Adhikari et al. 2004c)
(Goodwin 2007)

Stb4

Tadinia1
Cs Synthetic
6X (7D)1

7Ds

Xgwm111

IPO98034, IPO98001 (a)

(Adhikari et al. 2004b)

7Ds

Xgwm44

(Arraiano et al. 2001)

3As

Xgwm369

Stb7

Shafir
Estanzuela
Federal

IPO92067; IPO93014 (b)
IPO323, IPO94269,
IPO98021 (a)

4AL

(McCartney et al. 2003)

Stb8
Stb9

W7984
Courtot

7BL
2B

IPO99015 (b)
IPO98050, IPO98032,
IPO99048 (a)
IPO89011
IPO323

(Chartrain et al. 2005a)

Stb5
Stb6

Chromosomal Closet (Flanking)
position
market

Corresponding isolate

Reference
(Adhikari et al. 2004c)

(Brading et al. 2002)

Stb10

KK4500

2

1D

Xwmc313; Xwmc219
Xgwm146;
Xgwm577
XksuF1; Xfbb226
Xgwm603;
Xgwm458

Stb11

TE9111

2

1Bs

Xbarc008

IPO99015, IPO92034 (b)

(Chartrain et al. 2005c)

Stb12

KK4500

2

4AL

Xwmc313; Xwmc219

IPO90015 (b)

Stb13

Salamouni

7BL

Xwmc396

Stb14

Salamouni

3Bs

Xwmc500

(Chartrain et al. 2005a)
USDA-Annual wheat
newsletter volume 53
USDA-Annual wheat
newsletter volume 53

Stb15

6As

Xpsr904

IPO88004, IPO92006 (b)

(Arraiano et al. 2007)

Stb16

Arina 1
M3
(Synthetic)

3DL

Xbarc125, Xbarc128

IPO88018 (a)

Ghaffary et al., 2012

Stb17

M3
(Synthetic)

5AL

Xgwm617; Xhbg247

IPO88018 (a)

Ghaffary et al., 2012

Stb18

Balance (1)

6DS

Xgpw3087;
Xgpw5176

IPO89011, IPO323,
IPO89022, IPO98022 (a)

Ghaffary et al., 2012

(Adhikari et al. 2003)
(Chartrain et al. 2009)

Efficacy of septoria tritici blotch resistance



Apart from the adult plant specific gene Stb17, all Stb genes were
shown to assign resistance in the seedling and adult plant stage
(Kosellek, 2013).



Stb5 was shown to be effective against European Z.tritici isolates
(Ghaffary, 2011).



Stb15 was shown to be more effective against a global set of isolates
(Ghaffary, 2011).



In the field, some stb genes have been more durable than others:

• Stb1 : effective in Indiana for more than 25 years
• Stb4 : effective in California for 14 years, only lasted two years
in Oregon (Jackson et al.,2000).



Stb6 and Stb15 are the genes most commonly present in current
European wheat germplasm (Arraiano & Brown, 2006)



A gene-for-gene relationship was demonstrated for Stb6 (Brading et al.,
2002), which is widespread in sources of resistance to STB worldwide
(Chartrain et al., 2005c)

(Kema et al.,2000)

TA19/ND495

3D Genetic Map and QTLs of pre-screening using 3 isolates

3D Physical Map
Xgwm183
Xcfd64
Xgwm2
Xgwm183

3DS-6

22.0

3DS-3

5.4
5.3
7.7
2.7
16.4

Xcfd4

3DL-2
Xgdm8
Xgwm52
Xcfd201
Xbarc42
Xgwm383
Xcfd152

5.0
0.0
13.7
0.8
2.5
0.0
4.2
4.2
7.6
15.5

Xcfd64
Xbarc6
Xgwm2
Xwmc529
Xcfd72
Xbarc125
Xcfd4
Xgdm8
Xgwm52
Xcfd201
Xbarc42
Xgwm644
Xwmc656
Xgwm383
Xcfd152
Xcfd19_3
Xgwm3

7.6

Xcnl2_1_1

12.0
Xcfd9_1
17.4

3DL-3

4.2

Xcfd9
Xbarc71

Xbarc71
Xgwm114

0

5

10

88018_N
88018_P
95036_N
95036_P
02159_N
02159_P

15

20

25

30

35

LOD

(Tabib Ghaffary,2011)

 Often

wheat cultivars reported to be resistant in one region
have been found to be susceptible in another

High genome plasticity on Z. tritici.

Stukenbrock EH, Jørgensen FG, Zala M, Hansen TT, et al. (2010) Whole-Genome and Chromosome Evolution Associated with Host Adaptation
and Speciation of the Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. PLoS Genet 6(12): e1001189. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001189
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001189

An insight into Durum Wheat – Z. tritici interaction

 All 18 aforementioned Stb genes and QTLs were mapped /identified in
bread wheat.

 Our recent study showed the presence of known and unknown Stb
genes in durum wheat (unpublished data).

 Characterized bread wheat Z. tritici isolates cannot be used to
postulate Stb genes in durum wheat as these isolates are nonpathogenic

Species specificity

Ware , 2006.

Breeding for STB resistance in Durum wheat

Our strategy:

identification and
characterization of
Stb genes in
durum wheat
mapping
populations and
in related
germplasm

identification and
analysis of
candidate effector
genes in durum
wheat
associated Z. tritici
isolates

An effective and sustainable STB resistance breeding
strategy

 A better understanding of Z. tritici- Wheat interaction
 Combination of qualitative and quantitative resistance
 gene pyramiding : limited arsenal compared with other disease
• yellow rust (88)
• leaf rust (96)
• powdery mildew (104)...


Documents similaires


Fichier PDF lamia aouini 21
Fichier PDF rym bs
Fichier PDF dr yahyaoui tuntap screening for disease resistance
Fichier PDF production de ble synthetique article
Fichier PDF field training day 1
Fichier PDF heterodera tunisie


Sur le même sujet..