Ms Gamba .pdf



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INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SEPTORIA
WHEAT CRP-Septoria Precision Phenotyping PlatformTraining and
Consultation Workshop
April 20-28, 2015 CRRGCB- Beja , Tunisia

Fernanda Gamba
23 April 2015

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
SUSTENTABLE COMBINATION OF BIOLOGICAL, CULTURAL
AND CHEMICAL MEASURES TO MINIMIZE ECONOMIC,
SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENT IMPACTS.

CAUSAL COMPLEX TRIANGLE

PATHOGEN

PREVAILING VIRULENCE RACES
INOCULUM PRESSURE

DISEASE

ENVIRONMENT

HOST

WHEATHER

SUSCEPTIBLE

Cycle of the Host – Pathogen Relationships
Inoculation

Germination

Inoculation

Penetration
Dissemination

Dissemination

Colonization

Inoculum
source

Reproduction

Inoculum
source

INTEGRATED CONTROL PROCESS
IDENTIFICATION
ASSESSMENT
POSSIBLE ACTIONS
DECISIONS

ABIOTIC STRESSES

BIOTIC STRESSES

WHEAT DISEASES:
LEAF AND HEAD BLIGHTS
TAN SPOT (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis)
LEAF BLOTCH (Septoria tritici)
SPOT BLOTCH (Cochliobolus sativus)

FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT (Fusarium
graminearum)

TAN SPOT (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis)

SPOT BLOTCH (Cochliobolus sativus)

SPOT BLOTCH (Cochliobolus sativus)

LEAF BLOTCH (Septoria tritici)

sign

Nodorum blotch (Septoria nodorum)

FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT (Fusarium graminearum)

INTEGRATED CONTROL PROCESS
IDENTIFICATION
ASSESSMENT
POSSIBLE ACTIONS
DECISIONS

DISEASE ASSESSMENT
INCIDENCE: COUNTING
Number of diseased leaves /total
SEVERITY: ESTIMATIING
Percentage of foliar diseased tissue

SCALE OF SAARI and PRESCOTT (0 - 9) TO
ASSESS INTENSITY OF CEREALS LEAF BLIGHTS

10% coverage = 1
20% coverage = 2
30% coverage = 3
40% coverage = 4
50% coverage = 5
60% coverage = 6
70% coverage = 7
80% coverage = 8
90% coverage ~ 9

* DISTRAIN
FOR EACH DISEASE INDIVIDUALLY
30 ESTIMATIONS OF LOW SEVERITY
30 ESTIMATIONS OF HIGH SEVERITY
30 ESTIMATIONS OF MEDIUM SEVERITY
30 ESTIMATIONS OF RANDOM SEVERITY

FIELD ASSESSMENT

SYSTEMATIC

Eyal, Z., A.L. Scharen, J.M . Prescott, and M.
van Ginkel. 1987. The Septoria Diseases of
Wheat: Concepts and methods of disease
management. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.

INTEGRATED CONTROL PROCESS
IDENTIFICATION
ASSESSMENT
POSSIBLE ACTIONS
DECISIONS

CHEMICAL CONTROL
TO BE USED IN AN IPM STRATEGY ONLY

NEVER TO RELY 100%

Cycle of the Host – Pathogen Relationships
Inoculation

Germination

Inoculation

Penetration
Dissemination

Dissemination

Colonization

Inoculum
source

Reproduction

Inoculum
source

EFICIENCY OF SEVERAL FUNGICIDES TO CONTROL SEPTORIA 1984-2008 IN URUGUAY

Díaz, 2012

CHEMICAL CONTROL

* VERY VARIABLE
* COSTLY
* RESISTANT STRAINS: 2005 strobilurin
2008 triazoles
* NO ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY

GENETIC RESISTANCE IS
THE NUMBER ONE BARRIER

CAUSAL COMPLEX TRIANGLE

PATHOGEN

PREVAILING VIRULENCE RACES
INOCULUM PRESSURE

DISEASE

ENVIRONMENT

HOST

WHEATHER

SUSCEPTIBLE

GENETIC RESISTANCE
Interference with the normal growth
and development of the pathogen.

ABSENCE OF DISEASE

RESISTANCE

SUSCEPTIBILITY

PHENOTYPE INFECTION
HOST-PATHOGEN RELATIONSHIPS

CULTIVAR-RACE INTERACTION

GENES FOR
RESISTANCE

EFECTIVE ?

GENES FOR
VIRULENCE

“For each gene conditionig host reaction
there is a specific gene in the pathogen
conditioning virulence”.
Flor, 1956

HOST
P
A
T
H
O
G
E
N

R_

rr

A_

R

S

aa

S

S

TWO SPECIFIC AND CORRESPONDANT LOCI

R 1 _ R2 _

R 1 _ r2 r 2

r 1r 1 r 2r 2

A 1 _ A 2_

R

R

S

A1_ a2a2

R

R

S

a1a1 a2a2

S

S

S

RESISTANT CULTIVARS
ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY

MAXIMICES IPM MEASURES

DECISION FACTOR

CONSEQUENCE OF PLANTING HIGHLY
SUSCEPTIBL VARIETIES

SELECTION PRESSURE

NEW VIRULENCES
AFFECT OTHER VARIETIES

LEAF BLOTCH CYCLE (Septoria tritici)

SUSCEPTIBLE
VARIETY

STUBBLE INOCULUM POTENTIAL

TAN SPOT SUCCESS STORY

TAN SPOT SUCCESS STORY
METHODOLOGY:
INOCULUM PRODUCTION AND CONCENTRATION/mL
INOCULATION AT SEEDELNG STAGE
TEMPERATURE AND PHOTOPERIOD CONDITIONS
RATING SYSTEM

AND THE KEY ISSUE IS
“The ability to easily and objectively
characterize races on a qualitative system
should be of direct benefit to breeding
programs wanting to develop wheat cultivars
resistant to P. tritici-repentis.” Lamari, 2002.

The long-term success of breeding for disease
resistance is influenced by the following factors:







the nature of the pathogen and diversity of virulence
in the population;

availability, diversity and type of genetic resistance;
screening methodology and selection environment for
tracking resistance.

INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SEPTORIA=
MANAGEMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETIES
1. DIVERSIFICATION OF VARIETIES WITH
DIFFERENT RESISTANT GENES
2. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
 CROP/VARIETY ROTATION
 STUBBLE MANAGEMENT
 NITROGEN

3. CHEMICAL CONTROL

TEAM WORK



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