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Nom original: pawan.pdf
Titre: The Genetics of Slow Disease Development: The Puccinia-Triticum System
Auteur: Cimmyt, Int.

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Leaf and Head Blight Diseases of
Wheat
Pawan K. Singh and Xinyao He
Head-Wheat
Wheat Pathology, Global Wheat Program,
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
Apdo. Postal 6-641,
641, 06600 Mexico DF, MEXICO

Wheat Facts
• Worldwide: Most important food grain, grown over 220 m hectares
• Uses: Human food: bread, noodle, pasta, cookies
Fermented products: beer, alcohol, ethanol
Construction material: roof thatch
Livestock feed: grain, straw

• Nutritional: carbohydrates, protein, minerals, vitamins
• 20% of food calorie for the world

• Classes: Ploidy level: tetraploid/hexaploid
Growth habit: winter/spring/facultative
Kernel Hardness: soft/hard
Kernel Color: red/white

Wheat Facts
Worldwide production in million metric ton
Country Group

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

1
China
2
India
3
USA
4
Russia
5
France
6
Canada
7
Australia
World Production
World Use

115.1
80.7
60.4
61.7
38.3
26.8
21.6
687.4
655.5

115.2
80.8
60.1
41.5
38.2
23.2
22.1
649.5
658.7

117.4
86.9
54.4
56.2
36.0
25.3
27.4
699.4
699.2

120.6
94.9
61.8
37.7
40.3
27.0
29.9
670.8
687.4

122.0
93.5
58.0
52.1
38.6
37.5
22.9
713.2
687.9

Source: FAOSTAT/USDA

Regional Priorities for Wheat Diseases
Biotic stress

East South West M-East+
East+ C-Asia+ S-Saharan L-Americ. Developed
Asia Asia Asia N-Africa Caucasus Africa
+ Mexico countries

Yellow rust
Stem rust
Leaf rust

+++ +++
+++ +++
++
+++

+++
+++
+++

+++
+++
+++

+++
+++
+++

+++
+++
++

+
+++
+++

+++
+++
++

FHB
Septoria
Spot blotch
Tan spot

+++
+
+
0

0
0
+++
+

+
++
0
+

+
+++
0
+

0
++
0
+++

0
++
+
0

++
++
++
++

+++
+++
+
+++

Nematodes
Root diseases
Smuts/bunts
Wheat blast

++
++
+
0
++

++
+
+
0
+

+++
++
++
0
0

++
++
++
0
0

0
+
+
0
0

+
+
+
0
0

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
0
++

Powdery mildew

Blight Diseases of Wheat
• Head Blight Diseases
• Fusarium head blight or Scab
• Wheat blast

• Leaf Blight Diseases
• Septoria diseases
 Septoria tritici blotch (STB)
 Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB)

• Helminthosporium leaf blights
 Tan spot (TS)
 Spot blotch (SB)

Wheat Diseases at CIMMYT, MEXICO
Mexicali 22msl
Cd. Obregón 39msl
KB, SR, LR

El Batán 2249msl
FHB, TS, SNB, LR
Mexico
City
Toluca 2640msl
STB, FHB, SR
Oaxaca 2350msl
TS

Agua Fría 60msl
SB

Fusarium Head Blight
• FHB is a major disease worldwide,
causing not only yield loss, but food and
feed contamination
• 17 Fusarium species are known to cause
FHB with Fusarium graminearum being
predominant species in many countries
• Increase in FHB expected due to climate
change, conservation agriculture and
increasing maize-wheat rotations

Global Wheat Production and FHB Occurrence

Canada
USA
Mexico

UK
Russia
Poland
France
Japan
Iran
China
Ethiopia
Tunisia
S. Africa

Brazil
Uruguay
Argentina

Fusarium Head Blight
• Identification of Fusarium graminearum isolates for
screening based on:
• Morphological and molecular identification
• Chemotyping for DON production
• Pathogenicity test in greenhouse

• Enhanced FHB field screening





Move fields from Toluca to El Batan
Enhanced capacity (2 h land & 10,000 plots)
Using of precision spray inoculation technique
Automated programmable misting system

Workflow of FHB Research at CIMMYT
F. graminearum
strain collection
& characterization

Advanced lines, genbank collections
and mapping populations
Field screening

Information to
Breeders

FHB investigation
DON, FDK and Haplotyping
Distribution of
FHBSN

FHBSN development

Field FHB investigation

FHB Index = Incidence x Severity /100

DON and FDK evaluations
ELISA :Ridascreen Fast DON

BABAX/LR42//BABAX*2/3/PAVON 7S3, +LR47
SHA3/CBRD
KAUZ/SW91-12331
MURGA
80456/YANGMAI 5//METSO

FDK: % of scabby grains

FHB
2.75
2.70
5.84
67.60
4.46

DON
0.49
0.78
0.87
1.70
2.4

FDK
20
8
15
40
45

Strategy for Development of FHBSN

Development and characterization of 15th FHBSN
GID
6000931
6000970
6001180
6001555
6340649
6340765
6340845
6340862
6340966
6342075
6342187
6342266
6342353
6342383
6342460
6343369
6343684
6343743
10004
5536

Cross Name

2010

2011

2012

2013

Wuhan Front Sumai Wuhan Sumai Front Sumai Dicoc

FHB FHB DON FHB DON FHB DON FDK
SOKOLL//PBW343*2/KUKUNA/3/ATTILA/PASTOR
1.6 2.1
1.0
1.7
1.1 27.4 5.4
4.0
SOKOLL*2/ROLF07
0.6 0.6
0.4
2.3
1.9 28.0 7.8
3.0
SOKOLL//FRTL/2*PIFED
2.8 2.9
1.1
3.1
3.1 39.8 5.9
3.0
GOUBARA-1/2*SOKOLL
1.1 0.5
2.2
2.1
1.5 25.4 6.2
3.0
FRET2/KUKUNA//FRET2/3/HEILO/4/BLOUK #1 1.1
3.6
2.3
1.9
0.7 17.4 1.9
2.0
PBW343/WBLL1//PANDION/3/HEILO/4/PAURA
Q

MUNAL//SHA3/CBRD/3/PAURAQ
WAXWING*2/TUKURU*2//HEILO
FRNCLN/HEILO//FRNCLN
ATTILA/3*BCN*2//BAV92/3/HEILO
FRET2/KUKUNA//FRET2/3/HEILO
OASIS/SKAUZ//4*BCN*2/3/PASTOR/4/HEILO

TAM200/PASTOR//TOBA97/3/HEILO
TOBA97/PASTOR//HEILO
WBLL1*2/KIRITATI//HEILO
WBLL1*2/BRAMBLING*2//GONDO/TNMU

THELIN/2*WBLL1//HEILO
WBLL1*2/KUKUNA//HEILO
SUMAI #3 (Resistant check)
GAMENYA (Susceptible check)

2.1

2.9

1.5

2.6

0.7

21.8

3.8

3.0

2.6 4.3
1.3 4.2
0.5 4.4
2.1 5.2
1.9 3.7
1.2 3.8
2.5 3.3
1.2 3.7
1.8 4.1
1.1 3.8
1.8 4.5
2.1 4.3
0.3 1.4
12.2 78.7

1.3
0.7
0.7
2.8
1.6
0.2
0.6
2.0
2.0
1.3
1.0
0.6
0.1
3.9

1.8
1.7
3.3
1.4
1.4
2.5
1.1
1.8
1.5
2.7
3.0
0.6
1.0
72.0

0.4
0.5
0.5
1.2
0.6
0.5
0.5
1.1
1.1
3.1
0.7
0.7
0.0
7.5

10.9
11.3
4.3
10.9
28.6
8.5
11.8
24.7
20.5
15.9
5.8
12.9
1.0
60.4

2.7
2.6
2.4
5.0
3.0
2.3
1.3
4.4
3.6
5.9
1.6
2.4
0.3
6.1

1.5
1.5
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
1.5
2.5
2.5
1.0
8.5

2D
?
-

3A
-

3B
-

4B
?
+
?
?
+

5A
-

5A
?
?

6B
-

7A
?
+
?
?

+
?
?

-

+
-

?
?
?
+
?
+
+
+
?
+
?
+
+
?

+
-

?
?
?
+
?
?
?
?
?
?
-

NA
+
-

+
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
+
-

• The 15thFHBSN (as partly shown above) was developed in 2012 and distributed to 66
institutions (37 countries) in 2013
• The lines showed consistent resistance over years in El Batan
• Haplotyping results exhibited non-Sumai
Sumai 3 resistance

Spot Blotch of Wheat
Occurrence:
• South Asia
• India, Nepal, Bangladesh & Pakistan

• South America
• Bolivia, Brazil & Paraguay

• North America
• USA, Canada, Mexico

• Europe
Distribution of Bipolaris sorokiniana cause of spot blotch and seed,
root, foot rot of wheat. Acharya et al. 2011. AJCS 5:1064-1071

Frias
CIMMYT Screening: In Aguas Frias,
with hot and humid climate similar to
South Asia

Spot Blotch Research
Selection Criteria's:
• Multiple scoring: At least three at weekly interval
• Double Digit (00-99)- AUDPC calculated

• Plant phenology:
• Heading and height notes

• Visual grain grading:
• Black point score (1-5)

• Kernel weight and Pedigree information
CIMMYT developing and distributing Spot Blotch Nurseries

1st Year Screening
• One Replicate
• Artificial Inoculation
• Multi-trait Evaluation

Selections

Pre-Mexicali Block

• Fungicide Treated
*Tan Spot Screening*
Replicated Greenhouse and
Field Artificial Inoculated Tests
SEED

2nd Year Screening
• Three Replicates
• Artificial Inoculation
• Multi-trait
Multi
Evaluation

CSISA-SB/
HLBSN

Mexicali Block
SEED

• Fungicide Treated

CSISA-Spot
Spot Blotch International Nursery
Year

Nursery

# of Entries Locations S-Asia

2009

1st CSISA-SB

258

15

9

2010

2nd CSISA-SB

52

15

12

2011

3rd CSISA-SB

52

16

14

2012

4th CSISA-SB

52

15

13

2013

5th CSISA-SB

52

20

17

2014

6th CSISA-SB

52

44

26

2015

7th HLBSN

50-55 Locations Expected

Performance of 4th CSISA-SB
CSISA
Spot Blotch Nursery
Mexico

AF2012
AF2013
India
Varanasi
Dharwad
Bangladesh Jessore
Jamalpur
Dinajpur

Mexico
India
AF2012 AF2013 Varanasi Dharwad
1
0.872**
1
0.424** 0.526**
1
0.248
0.312*
0.043
1
0.315*
0.212
0.346*
-0.180
0.929** 0.856** 0.498**
0.255
0.533** 0.599** 0.450**
0.123

Bangladesh
Jessore Jamalpur Dinajpur

1
0.322*
-0.009

1
0.576**

1

** P<0.01, * P<0.05

• 2013 data of 4th CSISA-SB
SB showed significant correlations between Mexican and S. Asia
• Resistant level of lines differ markedly in those locations, exhibiting significant GxE effects
• Lines with good performance across locations were identified, e.g.
BABAX/LR39//BABAX/3/VORB/4/SUNCO/2*PASTOR
BABAX/LR39//BABAX/3/VORB/4/SUNCO/2*PASTOR (rank ranged from 1-11)
CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/URES/JUN//KAUZ/5/HUITES/6/YANAC
CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/URES/JUN//KAUZ/5/HUITES/6/YANAC--- (1-12)
KACHU
KACHU #1/4/CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (205)//KAUZ/3/SASIA/5/KACHU (1-15)
VORB/4/D67.2/PARANA
VORB/4/D67.2/PARANA 66.270//AE.SQUARROSA (320)/3/CUNNINGHAM/5/D67.2/PARANA---(1-22)
(320)/3/CUNNINGHAM/5/D67.2/PARANA

Spot Blotch Resistance Mapping
Mapping done through GBS markers
Phenotyping: Replicated multi-location
multi
& multi-year trials
Population CIMMYT- BHUPUSAUBKVBARIAgua Frias Varanasi Samastipur Coochbehar Dinajpur
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
1. SBMP1
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
2. SBMP2
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
3. SBMP3
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
4. SBMP4
SBMP1=BABAX/LR42//BABAX/3/ER2000/4/CNO79
=BABAX/LR42//BABAX/3/ER2000/4/CNO79
SBMP2=SOKOLL//W15.92/WBLL1/3/CNO79
SBMP3=WAXWING*2/CIRCUS//CNO79
SBMP4=WHEAR/KRONSTAD F2004//CNO79

Spot Blotch Resistance Mapping
Preliminary Results:
• Resistance in all four populations was quantitative


A few QTLs with phenotypic effects greater than 20% detected

• QTLs were found across A, B genome (except 4A), but only 1D,
6D from D genome (unassigned linkage groups could also be D genome)
• Both R and S parents contributed resistance genes


QTL on 2B from CIANO significant in 3 Populations (5 Environments)

• Resistance was often negatively correlated with heading


QTL on 5A has been found in all the four populations, responsible for
both SB and heading, implying its role for disease escape

Spot Blotch Resistance Mapping
Preliminary Results:
• QTLs were identified across populations and environments



1B in SBMP2 (2 Env.)
.) and SBMP3 (6 Env.)
4B in SBMP1 (2 Env.),
.), SBMP2 (1 Env.), SBMP3 (2 Env.)

• Usually, different R genes were segregating in the populations:


2B in SBMP1, 2A and 5B in SBMP2, 1A and 7B in SBMP3, and 2B
(from CIANO) in SBMP4

• Pyramiding resistance genes for SB possible and will be attempted
• TO DO: Markers linked SB and Phenology genes will be genotyped in our
populations to see if they are the same or not

Spot Blotch Resistance in South Asia
Testing Locations (5)

Nepal--Bhairahawa, Bangladesh-Dinajpur
India-BHU
BHU-Varanasi, Coochbihar, Pusa-Bihar

500 Lines tested: 32 resistant of which 28 from CIMMYT
Best 5 lines are all from CIMMYT:
192. CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (205)//KAUZ/3/ENEIDA
335. ASTREB/OAX93.10.1//SOKOLL
337. CHIRYA.3
89. SURUTU-CIAT
228. CNDO/R143//ENTE/MEXI_2/3/AE.Sq (TAUS)....

Evaluation at Agua Frias is successful and effective in South Asia

Tan Spot of Wheat
Occurrence:







Australia (loss: 212 million $/year)
USA, Canada, Mexico
Argentina, Brazil
Europe
Middle East and N-Africa
Central and South Asia

Screening:
• In Field- El Batan, Oaxaca
• In Greenhouse- El Batan

Lamari & Strelkov 2010 Can. J. Plant Pathol. 32: 4–10

Tan Spot- Symptoms
Necrotic

Chlorotic
Resistant

Differential Set for PTR Race Identification
Race

Glenlea

6B-365

1

Necrosis

Chlorosis Resistant

Resistant

Necrosis Chlorosis

2

Necrosis

Resistant

Resistant

Resistant

Necrosis

Resistant

3

Resistant Chlorosis Resistant

Resistant

Necrosis

Necrosis

4

Resistant

Resistant

Resistant

Resistant

Resistant Resistant

5

Resistant

Resistant Chlorosis

Resistant

Necrosis

Necrosis

6

Resistant Chlorosis Chlorosis

Resistant

Necrosis

-

7

Necrosis

Resistant Chlorosis

Resistant

Necrosis

-

8

Necrosis

Chlorosis Chlorosis

Resistant

Necrosis

-

Singh et al. 2010 Euphytica 171:1-13

6B-662
662

Salamouni

Coulter

4B-160

Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch/Tan Spot Research
44th International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery:
• Tan Spot: 129R / 167S and SNB: 90R / 206S
• Resistant to both diseases: 51

Association Mapping for Tan Spot Resistance
• Germplasm: 170 lines from 5 ESWYT (1979-2004)
(1979
• Phenotypic data: Seedling tests with PTR race 1, 3
experiments with two replicates, 1-5
1 lesion type scale
• Genotypic data: 813 DArT and 831 other markers
• Association analysis: Linear mixed models used utilizing
the population structure and additive genetic covariance
between relatives
• 89 Entries resistant (2<)
• 81 Entries susceptible (>2)

Association Mapping Study for Tan Spot
Significant Markers Chromosome Tan Spot Genes/QTL Reported
wPt5374, wpt4765

1AS

wPt1328*, wPt1781*, wPt2614,
wPt4434, wPt0974, wPt5801*

1BS

Tsc1 major gene (Effertz et al. 2002)
Race Non-specific
Non
QTL (Faris & Friesen 2005),
Race specific QTL (Singh et al. 2008)

wPt2786

6BS

Race specific QTL (Singh et al. 2008)

wPt4620*

4AL

Race specific QTL (Faris & Friesen 2005)

wPt0959, wPt1642*, wPt4229*

6AL

NO PREVIOUS REPORT

wPt5128

2BL

wPt5769*

3BL

Minor QTL (Faris & Friesen 2005)
Race Non-specific
Non
QTL (Faris & Friesen 2005),
Race specific QTL (Singh et al. 2008)

wPt4418

5BL

Tsn1 major gene (Anderson et al. 1999)
1999

wPt6372*

7BL

NO PREVIOUS REPORT

*Markers associated with rust resistance (Crossa et al. 2007)

Analysis of PBW343/Kenya Nugumi Population for Tan
Spot Resistance
Genetic material: A 204 F6 RILs of the population
were tested three greenhouse experiments conducted
under completely randomized design with two reps.
Disease screening: Spore inoculum of PTR race 1
was used for disease induction and eight DAI, the
seedling were rated on 1 to 5 lesion type scale.

Molecular analysis. The DArT & SSR marker
and disease data were combined to develop
genetic maps. The linkage map was constructed
using 442 informative DArT marker and 8 SSR
loci, grouped in to 22 linkage groups which
were then assigned to 21 chromosomes.

Conclusions
• High level of resistance in CIMMYT germplasm
• Resistance is broad genetic base
Administration







Diverse germplasm
Rigorous breeding efforts
Plant
Pathology
Blight
Multi-location testing
Diseases of
Wheat
Shuttle breeding
Major and minor gene combinations
Molecular
Biology

Multidisciplinary Approach

Agronomy

Plant
Breeding

Mitigate Threat of Blight Diseases

THANK YOU

QUESTIONS ???


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