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The relationship between lower-limb strength
and match-related muscle damage in elite level
professional European soccer players
ab

a

c

d

e

Adam Owen , Gordon Dunlop , Mehdi Rouissi , Moktar Chtara , Darren Paul , Hassane
f

g

Zouhal & Del P. Wong
a

Servette FC, Centre for Football Research, Geneva, Switzerland

b

Centre de Recherch et d’Innovation sur le Sport, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon.1, Lyon,
France

Click for updates

c

CNMSS, El Menzah, Tunisia

d

CNMSS, Tunis, Tunisia

e

ASPETAR, Research dept, ASPETAR research in sport, Doha, Qatar

f

Universitie Rennes2, Sport Science, Avenue Charles Tillon, Rennes, France

g

Human Performance Laboratory, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong
Kong, Hong Kong, China
Published online: 09 Jul 2015.

To cite this article: Adam Owen, Gordon Dunlop, Mehdi Rouissi, Moktar Chtara, Darren Paul, Hassane Zouhal & Del P. Wong
(2015): The relationship between lower-limb strength and match-related muscle damage in elite level professional European
soccer players, Journal of Sports Sciences
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1064155

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Journal of Sports Sciences, 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1064155

The relationship between lower-limb strength and match-related
muscle damage in elite level professional European soccer players

ADAM OWEN1,2, GORDON DUNLOP1, MEHDI ROUISSI3, MOKTAR CHTARA4,
DARREN PAUL5, HASSANE ZOUHAL6 & DEL P. WONG7
1

Servette FC, Centre for Football Research, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Centre de Recherch et d’Innovation sur le Sport, Universite
Claude Bernard Lyon.1, Lyon, France, 3CNMSS, El Menzah, Tunisia, 4CNMSS, Tunis, Tunisia, 5ASPETAR, Research
dept, ASPETAR research in sport, Doha, Qatar, 6Universitie Rennes2, Sport Science, Avenue Charles Tillon, Rennes, France
and 7Human Performance Laboratory, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Downloaded by [FU Berlin] at 08:22 09 July 2015

(Accepted 7 June 2015)

Abstract
In professional soccer, the benefits of lower limb strength training have been advocated. However, from an aspect of
performance development, specifically with respect to expression of fatigue and injury prevention, the advantages of
increased lower body strength have received limited attention at the elite level of the game. The primary aim of this
cross-sectional investigation was to examine the association between lower body strength and the expression of markers of
fatigue as evaluated through muscle damage assessment following match play in professional soccer players. Ten male
professional soccer players participated in this investigation (mean ± SD age 26.2 ± 4.3 years, height 181.6 ± 4.8 cm and
body mass 78.7 ± 6.1 kg); creatine kinase (CK) was collected 2-days post-match for a 5-month period and at three different
time points (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3); muscular strength (e.g. 4 repetition half-squat) was measured 3-day post-match.
No significant change in CK and muscular force across three time points was found (F = 0.60, P = 0.56, η2 = 0.06 and
F = 2.65, P = 0.10, η2 = 0.23, respectively). Muscular force was negatively correlated (moderate to very large) with CK. It
can be concluded that players who produce greater lower body force as a result of being stronger in the lower limbs show
reduced levels of CK 48 h post-match.
Keywords: strength, muscle damage, recovery, soccer, creatine kinase

Introduction
Professional soccer players are placed under continual domestic and often European and international
competition demands (Carling & Dupont, 2011).
Insufficient recovery between matches coupled with
the prolonged increased physicality at the elite level
puts players under a significant stress (Carling, Le
Gall, & Dupont, 2012). Therefore, practitioners
need a good understanding of the fatigue response
to both training and match in addition to an awareness of how to effectively manage subsequent training loads. Achieving this will likely facilitate optimal
preparation for subsequent performance in addition
to reducing the risk of injury.
Following match performance, a window of 72 h
is considered sufficient to achieve restoration in
pre-match values of physical performance benchmarks (Anderson et al., 2008; Carling et al., 2012;
Mohr, Krustrup, & Bangsbo, 2003; Nedelec et al.,
2012). This time period, however, may not be

afforded during a congested period of fixtures, commonplace in those teams also competing in
European club competitions. The resultant effect is
insufficient recovery and/or possible underperformance (Ra, Maeda, Higashino, Imai, & Miyakawa,
2014; Rollo, Impellizzeri, Zago, & Iaia, 2014). It
would therefore seem important within a periodised
training structure that estimates of match-related
fatigue are determined, particularly between matches
where alleviating post-match fatigue, regaining performance levels and minimise injury risk are deemed
crucial (Nedelec et al., 2013; Ra et al., 2014).
Repeatedly performing intense running actions
have shown to impose high mechanical strain and
induce muscle damage (Raastad et al., 2010; Silva
et al., 2014; Young, Hepner, & Robbins, 2012). In
terms of soccer, the seasonal effects of match-play
have resulted in significant adjustments to biomarkers of physiological strain during the season whilst a
return to normal has been documented during the

Correspondence: Adam Owen, Servette FC, Centre for Football Research, Geneva, Switzerland. E-mail: adamowen@outlook.com
© 2015 Taylor & Francis

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2

A. Owen et al.

off-season (Silva et al., 2014). The requirement to
continually perform high force eccentric actions such
as changes in direction, accelerations and decelerations seem particularly damaging to the muscle
(Raastad et al., 2010; Silva et al., 2014; Young
et al., 2012).
Creatine kinase (CK) is often used as a marker of
the stress imposed on skeletal muscles during exercise (Brancaccio, Maffulli, & Limongelli, 2007;
Mougios, 2007) and also for the monitoring of
training load (Heisterberg et al., 2013). It (CK)
has been used in several studies to measure the
response to training and competition with values
typically peaking 24–48 h after exercise cessation
(Brancaccio et al., 2007; Meister, Der Funten, &
Meyer, 2014; Young et al., 2012). The expression
of serum CK is a highly individual response and
thus baseline values are necessary to allow for an
accurate interpretation (Lazarim et al., 2009). As
previously recognised, the type of muscular action,
intensity and duration of exercise imposed, in addition to training state (return to training from deconditioned state) influence the expression of serum
CK (Magal et al., 2010).
Strength and/or power qualities are commonly
acknowledged as being important factors in many
team sports (McGuigan, Wright, & Fleck, 2012).
The rationale often being that it allows for athletes
to be more explosive in actions and stronger in
duals. Regardless, the focus has tended to be on
developing strength capacities in preparation of
forthcoming events. However, some studies have
also alluded to strength playing a role in terms of
recovery, or more appropriately influencing the
response to fatigue (Johnston et al., 2013). It is
well known that the demand of match-play in soccer induces a large proportion of eccentric work.
Anecdotally, it has been offered that players who
possess greater muscular strength and eccentric
strength in particular may be more suited to dealing with the forces associated with these movements (Byrne, Twist, & Eston, 2004; Miyaguchi
& Demura, 2008). Indeed, enhancing the
stretch-shortening cycle capabilities of the muscle
in combination with the repeated bout effect of
undertaking regular strength training may attenuate the effects of muscle damage (Nosaka & Aoki,
2011). Therefore, greater muscular strength may
reduce muscle damage following match-play and
thus provide plausible justification to advocate regular undertaking of lower limb strength training
throughout the soccer season.
The purpose of this study is to examine the
association between lower body strength capacities
and the expression of post-match markers of muscle damage in elite level soccer players. Such information would allow coaches to better manage

post-game recovery practices and reduce disruption to training. It is hypothesised that greater
muscular strength is associated with reductions in
post-game markers of muscle damage.
Methods
Participants
Ten male professional soccer players participated in
this investigation. Players participating within this
study were at the time competing at the elite level
of European soccer within the UEFA Champions
League, and were recognised as the most successful
domestic team in their league. At the initiation of the
study, players involved had a mean ± SD age of
26.2 ± 3.9 (range: 18–36) years, stature of
181.9 ± 4.3 (170–192) cm and body mass of
77.9 ± 6.3 (62.5–93.6) kg. Percentage body fat was
10.1 ± 2.4 (5.1–16.3)%, and mean VO2max
52.8 ± 4.1 (52.1–68.6) ml · kg−1 · min−1. All participants had been playing soccer for 8 years or more
and all but three of them were competing at international level. Participants were informed that they
were free to withdraw from the study at any time.
Procedures were in accordance with the Helsinki
Declaration and approved by the local University
ethical committee.
Procedures
To examine the association between lower limb
strength levels of elite European soccer players, the
expression of recovery markers post match-play, CK
data and measurement of lower limb strength were
collected over a 5-month competitive seasonal period (August–December) which included 26 matches
(Figure 1). To correspond with the periodised training structure implemented, data collection was subsequently organised into three phases of 8-week
blocks (Phase 1, 2, 3). CK data was always recorded
2-days post-match (between 10am and 10.30am)
following a 1-day inactive period. As previous
research has suggested, this particular sampling
time point (i.e. 48 h post competitive match play)
has been demonstrated to coincide with peak expression in serum CK (Coelho, Morandi, De Melo, &
Silami-Garcia, 2011). Reflecting the number of
matches played, 26 CK samples in total were collected per player, equating to 8 samples collected
across Phase 1 and 9 during phases 2 and 3, respectively. For each player, CK samples were averaged
across each phase to allow for comparative analysis
across the investigation period. Assessment of lower
limb strength capacities was performed at the end of
each respective phase and always conducted 72 h
following completion of the final match. This helped

The relationship between lower-limb strength and match-related muscle damage

3

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Figure 1. Testing timeline of CK and strength assessment across phases 1, 2 and 3.

to ensure a reduced fatigue effect in order to maintain consistency of testing and sample collection
(Coelho et al., 2011).
Creatine kinase assessment. Data from players who
met the following inclusion criteria similar to
Cohelo et al. (2011) participated in the study
(n = 14). Inclusion criteria were that players had
to have a minimum participation of 75 min per
game, and played in a minimum of 12 games
across the investigation phase. The mean number
of games played per player was 15.6 ± 5.3. All
blood sample collections were performed within
the lab facilities of the club pre-training session.
For the enzymatic measurement of plasma CK
concentration, 32 µL capillary blood samples
were obtained from the fingertip of the index finger of the selected players. The fingertip was
cleaned with 95% ethanol and dried with cotton
wool to remove excess liquid; an automatic lancet
device was used to draw blood before a heparinised capillary tube (Reflotron Plus, Roche
Diagnostics, Almere, The Netherlands) was used
to collect the sample. The capillary blood sample
was then immediately placed onto a CK test strip
(Reflotron Plus, Roche Diagnostics) through the
use of a pipette and analysed via the Boehringer
Mannheim Reflotron Analyzer®. The individual
CK samples taken 48 h post-match were then
averaged and used for statistical assessment to
show the relationship with force across the specified phases.
Strength assessment (force). Force was tested by using
the Keiser Air-300 Squat Machine (Keiser,
Fresno, CA, USA) which is a pneumatic strength
and power measurement machine. Players were
familiarised with the testing equipment and
regarded as being technically proficient as it had

been a part of their structured strength and conditioning programmes throughout the previous
season (12 months) and pre-season phase
pre-study. Prior to initiating the strength assessment, players were required to complete a 5-min
bike warm up, followed by the performance of two
submaximal warm up repetitions, at fixed resistances of 60 kg and 80 kg, respectively. After
2 min rest, participants performed four maximalvelocity repetitions, set at a fixed resistance of
120 kg. The fixed force (120 kg) testing protocol
was similar to the method used by Andre et al.
(2013). Players initiated the movement from an
upright position, lowering into the half-squat position (i.e. 90-degree angle in the knee joint between
femur and tibia) with the load distributed across
their shoulders before initiating the upward phase
which involved driving as fast as possible back to
the upright position. The greatest output (force)
generated within the four repetitions was used for
the individuals comparison assessment.
Statistical analysis
The results are expressed as mean ± standard
deviation (SD) and 95% confidence intervals
(95% CIs). Normality assumption was verified
using the Shapiro–Wilk W-test and visual inspection. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for
repeated measures was used to examine the mean
difference between the three strength testing
phases in force and CK, respectively. Post-hoc
analyses were performed using Least Significant
Difference (LSD) test. The effect size was calculated for all ANOVAs with the use of a partial
eta-squared (η2). Values of 0.01, 0.06 and above
0.15 were considered as small, medium and large,
respectively (Cohen, 1988). Relationships between
variables (Force and CK) were assessed using

4

A. Owen et al.

Pearson’s product–moment correlation. According
to Hopkins, Marshall, Batterham, and Hanin
(2009), the magnitude of correlation coefficients
was considered as trivial (r < 0.1), small
(0.1 < r < 0.3), moderate (0.3 < r < 0.5), large
(0.5 < r < 0.7), very large (0.7 < r < 0.9), nearly
perfect (r > 0.9) and perfect (r = 1). Additionally,
linear regressions were used to identify and determine the variance explained and coefficient of
determination between force and CK. Statistical
analyses were performed using SPSS software statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version.
18.0). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Table II. Correlations among the muscular force and CK during
the three periods.
CK
Phase 1
Force Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3

Phase 2

−0.46
(Moderate)
−0.58
(Large)
−0.44
(Moderate)

−0.41
(Moderate)
−0.51
(Large)
−0.33
(Moderate)

A

Force (N)

2100
1900
1700
1500
100

200

300

400

500

B

700

y = –0,37x + 2065
R2 = 0,26

2300

Discussion

600

(U.L–1)

CK

The aim of the present study was to examine the
relationship between lower-limb strength and
match-related CK levels in professional European
soccer players. Results from the investigation have
revealed that there is a significant relationship
between high force production capabilities of soccer
players and the expression of reduced post-match
markers of muscle damage as determined via the
measurement of serum CK. Findings from the present study concur with other recent literature covering this research topic. Johnston, Gabbett, Jenkins,

Force (N)

2100
1900
1700
1500
100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

CK (U.L–1)
C
y = –0,62x + 2133,6
R2 = 0,44

2300
2100

Table I. Data in this table illustrate the muscular force and
Creatine Kinase (CK).

CK (U/L)

Muscular
force (W)

1700
1500
100

S.D.

Lower
bound

Upper
bound

Phase 1 (n = 8) 372
Phase 2 (n = 9) 382
Phase 3 (n = 9) 351
Phase 1
1888
Phase 2
1925
Phase 3
1916

177
166
158
148
120
147

245
263
238
1782
1839
1811

498
501
464
1994
2011
2022

Note: n = number of games within the phase.

1900

95% Confidence
Interval

Mean

Phase

Force (N)

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Repeated-measure ANOVA results (Table I)
revealed no significant change in CK across all
testing time points (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3)
(F = 0.60, P = 0.56, η2 = 0.06). Also, no significant
main effect of muscular force was shown (F = 2.65,
P = 0.10, η2 = 0.23). The relationship between
muscular force and CK is provided in Table II.
Muscular force was negatively correlated (moderate
to very large) with CK during the three testing
phases. The coefficients of determination (r2) are
observed in the Figure 2.

−0.58
(Large)
−0.73
(Very large)
−0.66
(Large)

y = –0,38x + 2030,6
R2 = 0,21

2300

Results

Phase 3

200

300

400

500

600

700

CK (U.L–1)
Figure 2. Linear regression between muscular force and CK in (A)
Phase 1, (B) Phase 2 and (C) Phase 3.

and Hulin (2014) have confirmed that post-match
fatigue was lower in players with well-developed
physical qualities (i.e. high-intensity running ability

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The relationship between lower-limb strength and match-related muscle damage
and lower body strength) in elite level rugby league
players. Further positive confirmation of the link
between the lower body strength and power production of soccer players and its influence on fatigue or recovery markers proliferate justification for
technical, physical and medical professionals to
advocate regular lower limb strength training
throughout the soccer season.
As Raastad et al. (2010) explain, muscle damage is
ascribed to mechanical disruption of the fibre,
including membrane damage, myofibrillar disruptions characterised by myofillament disorganisation
and loss of Z-disc integrity. The resulting structural
changes may induce a temporal decline in muscle
function as exhibited through a reduction in
maximal force-generating capacity and imperatively
impair physical performance. In this respect,
monitoring the expression of muscle damage markers is important in understanding and managing
post-match fatigue.
It is inferred that CK and its relationship with muscle damage is a developing area for research in order
to determine individual recovery strategies. A study
by Young et al. (2012) revealed significant correlations between CK and running speeds >4 m · s−1 and
accelerations and decelerations over a certain magnitude (moderate to high). Furthermore, it was suggested that may be a certain volume of movement at
those speeds is required for that movement to be
strongly associated with CK levels. In addition,
when leaked into circulation in response to the manifestation of microtrauma (muscle damage) to structural and contractile components within the muscle
fibre, CK serum activity has been proposed to mirror
the high mechanical muscular stress experienced during intensive exercise performance (Meister et al.,
2014). Within the literature there is body of evidence
to suggest the existence of an indirect relationship
between serum CK activity and the percentage of
Type II muscle fibre (Magal et al., 2010). It has
been suggested that these fibre types present a heightened susceptibility to damage and subsequently,
more pronounced expressions in serum CK concentrations following eccentric mechanical stress
(Jansson & Sylvén, 1985; Magal et al., 2010).
Limitations
Ensuring large participant participation within elite
level soccer research is extremely difficult. The ability to meet participant inclusion criteria is often
challenging due to numerous external influences
such as suspensions, team selections, injury and illness. Throughout the investigation period, the
inability to meet the inclusion criteria (i.e. a minimum participation of 75 min per game, and played

5

in a minimum of 12 games across the investigation
phase) resulted in only 10 completed sets of data
being obtained. Therefore, with respect to this investigation, future research should look to draw from
baseline data for the variables measured, a larger
participant pool in addition to increasing the sampling period in order to add greater strength to the
association demonstrated between lower limb
strength capacities and match-related muscle
damage expression. In line with developing a clear
relationship between lower limb strength capacities
and muscle damage markers, future research would
benefit from the implementation of an interventionbased study incorporating a control group.
Conclusion
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the
association between lower body strength and the
expression of markers of muscle damage as evaluated
through CK responses following match play in professional soccer. Results of the present study support
the suggested hypothesis in revealing an association
between lower limb strength and CK assessment
during the post-match recovery period. The potential for an improved recovery state post-match via
integrated lower limb strength training may promote
a positive performance effect and reduced injury risk.
Further research is however required to confirm the
duel response. Results from this particular investigation heightens the need for continued research
within the elite level of the game for the incorporation of lower limb strength training throughout the
season, with the focus of enhancing physical recovery
and performance.
Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the
authors.
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