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July 14th-15th, 2015
7:30am-16:00pm
National University of Management
Main Conference Hall, Building B, 1st floor

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the
Maritime and Inland Waterways Observatory of Cambodia
HEQCIP / NUM / SGA 009

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT

July 14th 2015
7:30am-16:00pm
National University of Management
Main Conference Hall, Building B, 1st floor

Day 1: Seaborne Trade Issues
ASEAN Maritime Connectivity: Implications for Cambodia
Pr. Ruth Banomyong, Thammasat Business School, Thailand

ASEAN Single Shipping Market (ASSM) – challenges and opportunities for ASEAN countries
Dr. Nguyen Thanh Thuy, School of Education, Viet Nam

The trade-reducing effects of countries’ remoteness from international shipping
Pr. Gabriel Figueierdo de Oliveira, University of Toulon, France

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT

Lecturers

Pr. Ruth Banomyong

Dr. Nguyen Thanh Thuy

Director, Center for Logistics
Research, Thammasat Business
School, Thailand

Dean, International School
of Education, Vietnam
Maritime University

Dr. Gabriel Figueiredo de Oliveira
Associate-professor of Economics,
University of Toulon, France

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

International Symposium on Research Outcomes
of the Maritime and Inland Waterways
Observatory of Cambodia
July 14th-15th, 2015
National University of Management

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity & Security:
Implication for Cambodia
Ruth Banomyong (PhD)
Director, Centre for Logistics Research
Thammasat Business School
ruth@Banomyong.com

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT

Agenda

• Introduction
• The Secure Supply Chain
– Public interest in secure supply chain

• ASEAN maritime connectivity & impact on Cambodia
• Financing the security-who should pay?
• Summary

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

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Introduction

• The key role of an integrated logistics system is to assist in the
production, consumption and distribution, or the ‘supply chain’, of
goods and services.
• Integrated and seamless logistics can play an important role in
facilitating global and regional supply chain processes.
• efficient operation of transport modes and nodal points are
dependent on reduced barriers, institutions and simplified legal
regime

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
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Introduction

• Cambodia is the last country in the region to join ASEAN in 1999
• Cambodia still face numerous challenges in its ASEAN integration.
• In order to effectively implement integrated logistics operations it is
necessary to take into account the security dimension that is
prevalent within this global environment.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
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The Secure Supply Chain
• Logistics management is an integrative process that seeks to optimise the
flow of materials and supplies from suppliers throughout the organisation
in order to satisfy the customer.
• Supply chain management extends the principles of logistics
management to customers and suppliers, crossing geographical and
organisational boundaries
• Supply chain management will lead to stricter requirement on service
level combined with the complexity of administrative procedures, and the
increasing number of smaller consignments.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

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The Secure Supply Chain
• The security of the supply chain, like the efficiency of the chain, concerns
both the physical flow and the information flow from origin to customers.
• In a supply chain there is no benefit if certain links or stakeholders are
operating efficiently while other are not.
• Each link in the supply chain is dependent on the previous link in order to
achieve continuity, synchronization and enhanced final customer service
level.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

The Secure Supply Chain
• It is the total performance of the supply chain from origin to final
consumption that is relevant
• The security issue is directly related to the performance measurement of
any supply chain.
• This means that all security conditions must be met and guaranteed in
order for goods to move unhindered within supply chains.
• The “supply chain” of maritime transportation has experienced important
changes during the last 25 years and several ports have specialised in the
concentration of transhipment activities

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT








The Secure Supply Chain
Economic growth and development have restructured
the nature and pattern of maritime supply chains with
new demands within the main trading region.
Maritime supply chains are structured by an integration
of maritime services and transhipment functions to
maritime distribution functions at hub centres.
The security of these hub centres as nodal links in the
maritime supply chain is of critical importance.
The world has become a system of maritime links in
which individual ports are linked into intricate patterns
of dependency in hub/feeder relationships

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

The Secure Supply Chain
• This trade dependency is conducted within a broader
competitive regional environment, with the
development of maritime supply chain underlining the
need for efficiency as well as security.
• Cambodia is well integrated in this regional network
as a dependent feeder but more needs to be done in
order to improve is position within the regional
maritime network.
• Since the event of 9/11, security is now considered
one of the necessary pre-conditions for a high
performance maritime supply chain
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT








The Secure Supply Chain
Security has a cost.
Supply chain security is leading to an increase in
logistics costs and may even exert a negative pressure
on economic growth for all countries involved.
The short-term effect will be negative but the medium
to long-term impact is likely to be beneficial to
certified and recognised operators.
This will permit the creation of dedicated secure
supply chains where supply chain processes are
considered more efficient.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

The Secure Supply Chain
• More security could therefore mean greater
facilitation with a possible expansion of trade.
• It must not be forgotten that the cost of delays and
procedures linked to the trade of goods is estimated
between 5 and 13% of the value of goods traded
• Security issues, if not dealt with properly can also
become the main cause of delays

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

The Secure Supply Chain
Players in the Security Supply Chain
 The governments

 The traders
 The ports
 The service providers

Customs have the duty to protect the
national economy and society instead of
merely focusing on goods control at the
border.
Reliable, secure and efficient supply chain
will theoretically contribute to global trade
expansion.
Security will represent a critical variable in
terms of competitiveness.
Key player in terms of security as they
move goods and information.

 The insurance providers Increase security less insurance premium.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Public Interest in Secure Supply Chain
• It is important to guarantee the protection of global
and regional supply chains and its capacity to serve
international markets.
• If a port is considered secure, it is likely to benefit
from increased traffic of goods but in reality only a
uniform level of security in all ports will reduce the
risk of disruption to global supply chains.
• It is not enough just to have a number of selected
secure ports if other ports in the vicinity are not
assessed by the same criteria, except if non-secure
ports are withdrawn from the main maritime
networks.
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Public Interest in Secure Supply Chain
• Global economic integration relies upon efficient
global supply chains but integration can only succeed
if security is guaranteed.
• Certain trade routes are served by relatively fewer
transport operators; with less favourable operational
conditions; and where risks are higher, etc.
• For these countries, this situation results in failure to
develop their international trade potential, in higher
price for imports, in lower foreign exchange earnings
from exports, thus, in limited economic growth.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Public Interest in Secure Supply Chain
• The competitiveness of internationally traded
products is greatly influenced by various factors,
which build up the overall logistics cost within global
supply chains.
• The main ones are:






Cost
Transit Time
Safety
Risk
Security

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Stakeholders’ benefits
• Traders can expect the economic and financial
benefits from the use of secure supply chains in the
forms of the following factors:
– Reduced transit-time; increased time reliability; and
increased security of cargo, particularly at interface points.
– Reduced transport costs (resulting from the use of modern
transport related technologies: ocean going containers, EDI,
etc.).
– Closer commercial relationships with services providers.
– Greater awareness and understanding of supply chain &
logistics related issues influencing their trade.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Stakeholders’ benefits
• Service providers can expect the following benefits:
– The importance of their profession as international logistics service
providers. This is particularly important in the development of their
relationship and their recognition with governmental agencies.
– Commercial incentives to adopt new technologies such as the Internet
and EDI.
– A need to reconsider their marketing strategies, for example, for
logistics service providers to concentrate their activities in “niche”
operations to serve specific commodities on specific trade routes.
• Governments will theoretically benefit from secure supply chains since it
offers an opportunity to update trade and transport related administrative
procedures and regulations. A secure national supply chain will facilitate
commerce with other trading partners.
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Stakeholders’ benefits
• Governments will theoretically benefit from secure
supply chains
• Secure supply chains offers an opportunity to update
trade and transport related administrative procedures
and regulations.
• A secure national supply chain will facilitate
commerce with other “secure” trading partners.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

ASTP in the ASEAN Economic Community Building

ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint

Overall Vision

Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity
Physical, institutional, and people-to-people connectivity

Umbrella Master
Plan to Integrate
Sectoral Initiatives

Infrastructure

Trade facilitation

Transport

ICT

Energy

ASEAN
Strategic
Transport
Plan

ASEAN
ICT
Master Plan

ASEAN Plan
of Action for
Energy
Cooperation

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

People’s mobility

Tourism

ASEAN
Tourism
Strategic Plan

Key Elements of
Connectivity

Key Sectors

Sectoral
Master Plans

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

2

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity and its impact on Cambodia

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
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ASEAN Strategy 3. Accomplish efficient and competitive
maritime transport system.
Rationales:
 In terms of the traffic volume in international trade, maritime transport is the most important mode of
transportation.
 In order to enhance intra-ASEAN connectivity, an efficient and competitive shipping routes to connect
archipelagic regions needs to be established. This will also contribute to narrow development gaps in the
archipelagic ASEAN.
Key actions:
 Accelerate the formulation of the strategy for ASEAN Single Shipping Market.
 Enhance the capacity of 47 designated ports, with the priority set in the studies done and being done under the
cooperation with Japan and Korea (under MTWG).
 Establish efficient and reliable shipping
routes (including RORO) in consistence with
“Ring” Shipping Route
the related subregional initiatives such as
BIMP-EAGA and IMT-GT.
 Emerging and/or potentially important
international routes: Penang – Belawan,
Malacca – Dumai, Davao – Bitung,
Zamboanga - Sandakan, Muara – nearby
ports.
 Linkages with global and regional trunk
routes and domestic shipping routes.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

2

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity and its impact on Cambodia

• Finalize the development of strategies for an ASEAN
Single Shipping Market by 2012.
• Translation of this Strategy into an Agreement on the
ASEAN Single Shipping Market.
• Enhance the capacity of the 47 designated ports
• Establish efficient and reliable shipping routes
• Strengthen linkages with global and regional trunk
routes and domestic shipping routes

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity and its impact on Cambodia

• These 47 ports are the result of a compromise made
in 2001
• If ASEAN is serious in enhancing the capacity of these
47 designated ports, then security issues need to be
considered
• ASEAN do not need to establish a new standard for
security but it is important for ASEAN’s maritime
connectivity that ASEAN ports should be at a similar
level with mutual recognition of security standards.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity and its impact on Cambodia

• In order to implement secure maritime supply chains,
ASEAN Customs are required to facilitate the
container flows, through minimisation of
import/export documents and to permit the
movement of cargo to and from ports under bond or
in a sealed container.
• A proactive stance by ASEAN Customs in screening the
ocean going containers before they reach the
importing country will significantly contribute to
ASEAN Customs overall efforts to secure borders
against dangers that might be introduced through
commercial traffic.
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

ASEAN Maritime Connectivity and its impact on Cambodia

• Cambodia has two main ports…
– Sihanoukville port
– Phnom Penh port

• Sihanoukville deepsea port is well connected in the
regional feeder network
• Phnom Penh port river has now increased its links
with Cai Mep port in southern Vietnam.
• However, because of a lack of clearly defined security
policy from ASEAN, Cambodian ports can be at a
disadvantage when connecting to international
market due to differing security standards
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Financing the security-who should pay?

• Maritime transportation and logistics activities
traditionally have been among the largest costs in
international trade
• The longer the average distance of movement, the
greater is the total cost of transportation.
• The distances involved and the specialised nature of
international requirements have created a
dependence by shippers on 3PLs, capable of providing
a broad range of value-added services to assure
logistical continuity.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Financing the security-who should pay?

• There are 2 possible sources for financing security
– Payment by user
• A tax or a fee can be levied by the relevant authorities.
This fee or tax can be either ad-valorem or specific but it
seems that a specific fee might be the most appropriate.
• The use of appropriate INCOTERMS will become critical
in deciding whether the exporter or the importer should
pay this specific fee.
– Public sources
• Financing can be national where each government is
responsible for all security initiatives within its border
• The present trend is for exporters to fund these security
initiatives thus increasing their financial burden.
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
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Summary
• In order to benefit from efficient and effective global supply
chains, the security related activities incurred must be
completely synchronized with the requirement of the said
global supply chain management.
• Security initiatives are now being considered part of the key
logistical activities but it is at the same time one of the most
problematic activity, especially in an international context.
• If the security activity fails to perform, this will surely impact on
the competitiveness of global supply chains.
• These security initiatives will theoretically facilitate access to
major international markets through the use of secure hub
centres and interface points.

International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

Summary


As markets are becoming “globalised”, trading opportunities
can be improved by implementing security initiative in global
supply chains.
• An efficient and secure maritime supply chain can help build
and sustain the competitiveness of internationally traded
products by reducing transit-time, reducing transport costs,
increasing reliability and cargo security.
• This may create a two-tier system where priority of access will
be given to recognised secure maritime supply chain and nonsecure hub centres or interface point will lose out in term of
competitiveness.
• The advent of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) pose
more challenges to Cambodian ports and the security
dimension is an important aspect that must not be ignored.
International Symposium on Research Outcomes of the MIWO
14th-15th July, 2015
National University of Management, Phnom Penh

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT

International Symposium on Research Outcomes
of the Maritime and Inland Waterways
Observatory of Cambodia
July 14th-15th, 2015
National University of Management

ASEAN Single Shipping Market – Challenges and
Opportunities for ASEAN Countries
Nguyen Thanh Thuy, D.Sc
Asso. Prof, Vietnam Maritime University

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.

Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology
Projects related to ASEAN Single
shipping Market (ASSM)
5. Opportunities when formulating ASSM
6. Challenges when formulating ASSM
7. Conclusions

MARITIME TRANSPORT RELATED
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) covers four Modes of Delivery of
services in Cross border trade .Typical Example of Trade in Maritime Transport
Services in four Modes of Supply are as under:
Cross Border Services
(Mode 1)

Cross Border Supply of Shipping Services using Technological Means.
Usage of Maritime Transport Services in the territory of another country.

Consumption abroad
(Mode 2)

Commercial Presence
(Mode 3)
Movement of natural
persons (Mode 4)

For Example –An American Client visits India and uses the Maritime Transport Related
Services from an Indian Firm dealing in these Services.
Expansion of a local Maritime Transport Firm into a foreign country.
For Example- An India Shipping firm establishes an office in USA.
Maritime professionals enter into a foreign territory to provide Shipping services.

1. Introduction
 ASEAN known for Association of South East Asian Nations

 End of 2015: the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)
 AEC will create a single market and production base and new
opportunities for prosperity for the region
 The objective of AEC is to create "one vision, one identity, one
community" among people in the region;
 The AEC may not translate into benefits for everyone and could
increase existing inequalities

37

1. Introduction (continued…)
 Maritime shipping is an essential part of national economics of ASEAN
countries generally
 Maritime shipping also is the most important mode of transport in ASEAN
countries which covers about 80-90% of nation imported and exported
cargo volumes
 To promote greater volumes of trade among ASEAN member countries:
o “Roadmap Towards an Integrated and Competitive Maritime Transport
in ASEAN”
o “Outline Plan for the Implementation of ASEAN Single Shipping Market
(ASSM)”

this single shipping market refers to the region within ASEAN member countries where free
flow of shipping services can be secured

1. Introduction (continued…)
The following were agreed by the ASEAN countries to be the guiding principles in
their process of implementing a single shipping market (ASEAN Secretariat 2011):
1) Foster free and fair competition in international shipping market.
2) Adhere to the principle of free competition on a commercial basis for cargo
movements between ASEAN member countries.

3) Remove or eliminate substantially all existing discriminatory measures to market
access among ASEAN member countries.
4) Exclusion of shipping activities reserved by each of the Contracting Parties for their
national flag vessels and/or shipping companies operating in their respective
domestic waters (cabotage).
5) Prohibit new or more discriminatory measures and market access limitations.
6) Liberalize trade in maritime transport services by expanding the depth and scope
of liberalization beyond those undertaken by member countries under the GATS
with the aim to realize a free trade area in services.

2. Literature Review
 Tongzon (2011): assessing the progress of liberalization of their
logistics services and identifying the underlying factors
affecting their implementation

 Balestreri et al. (2009) and Andersson and Banomyong (2010):
analyzed the implications of deregulation and liberalization on
the logistics service industry in Laos and Kenya, respectively
 Tongzon (2012): focused on implementation barriers and
economic implications on the logistics industry in Indonesia
 Tongzon and Lee (2015): focused on the challenges of economic
integration for the case of shipping in ASEAN countries.
However, this paper used too backward data from 2010 so far
the analysis was not corrected

3. Methodology

Figure 1. Research Methodology
Source: Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis, and
Adrian Thornhill (2008)

3. Methodology (continued…)
The research orientates to
focus on four main layers:
+ Inductive method in
‘Approaches’ layer,
+ Survey and case studies in
‘Strategies’ layer,
+ Mixed method in ‘Choices’
layer,
+ Data collection and data
analysis in ‘Techniques and
procedures’ layer

Inductive
Method
Survey &
Case
studies
Mixed
Method
Data
Collectio
n&
Analysis

42

3. Methodology (continued…)
(Data collection and data analysis)
 Published sources such as UNCTAD and EQUASIS;
 ASEAN Secretariat website in relation to the agreed ASEAN
initiative to establish a single shipping market and shipping market
developments in the ASEAN countries;
 Inherited the government agencies’ interview results as well as
interview results with freight forwarders and shipowners associations
presented in Tanzon and Lee (2015)

4. Projects related to ASEAN Single
shipping Market (ASSM)
a. Completed research proposals
 2011: "Completed A Directory of Ship Registration Practices in
ASEAN” had been uploaded onto ASEAN Website
 2012:
 Strategies for an ASEAN single shipping market (ASSM) was developed
through completing a study by the end of 2011 (The 20th Maritime Transport
Working Group (MTWG) meeting);

 A strategy for Implementation of a single labor market for ASEAN seafarers
also discussed;
 Guidelines for structure of port tariffs in ASEAN transport network ports was
developed (24th MTWG Meeting)
 A training program was formulated to enhance capability of port personnel
(27th MTWG Meeting)

4. Projects related to ASSM (continued...)
b. Ongoing projects/proposals from 2015 – 2025
 Realize the ASEAN Single Shipping Market through the implementation of
the agreed strategies and measures;
 Realize the RO-RO shipping network operation in ASEAN;
 Develop an efficient and integrated inland waterway transport (IWT)
network;
 Enhance navigation system and security measures in line with international
standards;
 Intensify regional cooperation in improving transport safety;
 Review ASEAN Near Coastal Voyage (NCV) Limits as per the requirements
of Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping (STCW)
Convention.

45

4. Projects related to ASSM (continued...)
b. Ongoing projects/proposals from 2015 – 2025 (continued..)
 Formulate necessary policy initiatives and recommendations to develop
strategic maritime logistics corridors between ASEAN and Dialogue
Partners;

 Efforts are continued to be exerted in achieving privatization and
simplification in ASEAN ports. Ensure the 47 designated ports to meet
the acceptable performance and capacity levels;
 Develop Port Technology (construction and maintenance of port
facilities);

46

5. Opportunities when formulating ASEAN
Single Shipping Market (ASSM)
 Creating a single shipping market will make a big difference in terms
of encouraging more trade between ASEAN countries.
 ASSM is envisioned to promote free flow of intra-ASEAN shipping
services and substantially reduce restrictions to shipping service
providers in establishing companies across national borders within the
region;

 There will be more free-flowing trade among ASEAN members
 Boosts trade volumes and hence enhance the growth of ASEAN
members’ trade-dependent economies

5. Opportunities when formulating ASSM
(continued…)
 All shipping companies will have opportunities to do business in a
larger market.
 Shipping companies will be able to cooperate with each others to
exchange technologies and management experiences.
 Customers will also have more options of low charges and better
quality offered by foreign shipping lines doing business in the market

48

6. Challenges when formulating ASEAN
Single Shipping Market (ASSM)
 (1) the differences in national shipping capacity,
 (2) different restrictive national shipping policies and regulations
 (3) differences in quality of port and shipping-related infrastructure

 (4) the difference of maritime human resources for shipping industry

6. Challenges when formulating ASSM
(1) The differences in national shipping capacities
Table 1. Ranking of ASEAN countries in terms of merchant shipping fleets (Jan. 2014)
No

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Country

Brunei
Cambodia
Indonesia
Lao
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam

Rank
among
ASEA
N
8
9
3
10
2
7
6
1
5
4

Number
of ships

Dead
weight
(103dwt)

% of
world
total Dwt

9
4
1,598
1
602
36
367
2,120
407
859

23
19
15,551
20
16,797
188
2,962
74,064
6,760
8,000

0.001
0.001
0.925
0.001
1.002
0.011
0.177
4.417
0.403
0.477

National
Foreign
Flag Dead Flag Dead
weight
weight
(103 dwt) (103 dwt)
11.5
11.5
2
17
12,519
2,992
0
20
8,668
8,129
158
30
1,420
1,520
41,080
32,984
4,598
2,162
6,511
1,489

Foreign
Flag as %
total Dwt

Dwt
Growth
over 2013

50%
92%
19%
100%
48.40%
15.78%
52.04%
44.32%
31.98%
18.61 %

12.6%
0.0%
-0,1%
0.0%
0.6%
1.1%
3.1%
12.1%
10.9%
-1.6%

Source: Review of Maritime Transport, UNCTAD (2014)
50


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