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Maysaxxaga / Annonces

16 haytô gali

Qasa dirrik 19lah (19 juin) carra Samarâ magaalak baddal taybullik
2haytô saqalah suge ADAM QALI,
baabur qawwalaylat rabbaasite.
Tamah elle tekkem Sifra kee millê
fanih gita.
Ganat geyok inki gubnaa kee inki
say baxa raqte. Kaay rabeh addunyak tayse akheera yacaay, kaak
raaqe buxâ marah iimaan kee sabri
yacaay.
Yalli kaah racmatay ADAM QALI
yaaxigen xaagi waraakit mixigik
ten. Usuk Qafar Rakaakayih addal
aytî gexxoh qunxaaneytak muxxo
luk suge. Gabuutil qafar afih fanteynak aadoytah suge.
Rabi seemat taysixxigem Gabuutik
Qafar Afih Fanteynà. INNA LILLAH WA INNA ILEYHI RAAJIQUNE.

Le monde des médias en langue
Afar en deuil

C’est avec consternation et le cœur
lourd de douleur que nous avons
appris le 19 juin, dans l’après-midi,
la mort subite de Mr ADAM ALI
suite à un accident de voiture, survenu en Ethiopie sur l’axe routier
Samara-Sifra.
Diplômé en Journalisme et communication, Ali Adam avait vite intégré le département de la chaine
Radio Ethiopienne grâce à son aisance oratoire. Très vite, il gravit
tous les échelons en occupant plusieurs postes de responsabilités au
sein de la Radio-télévision Ethiopienne et plus précisément la chaine
EBC de la Région Afar. Le défunt
Gifta Adam ALI devient naturellement une célébrité dans le monde
de médias en s’imposant comme le
journaliste vedette de la Télévision
Éthiopienne de langue Afar. Enfin,
il obtient le poste prestigieux de directeur-adjoint du département
Communication du Cabinet de la
Présidence de la Région AFAR .
Cette consécration lui permet aussi
de devenir un acteur aux multiples
rôles au niveau de la région Afar
tant au niveau de la société civile et
que dans le monde politique. Passion et détermination tels sont les
mots clés qui caractérisent la personnalité de ce journaliste; commu-

YafYinti

nicateur auréolé d’un sens organisationnel hors pair, il était la voix
mais aussi le porte-parole des doléances de la population civile et rurale qui se devait de rattraper son
retard médiatique. Conscient de
cela, il prend très tôt le taureau par
les cornes en innovant le paysage
médiatique de la région Afar en misant sur l’aspect qualitatif de la
langue Afar. Raison pour laquelle il
était aussi un membre éminent du
Pen Afar à Djibouti et un fervent
défenseur de la promotion de la
langue Afar.
Avec ADAM ALI s’éteint la voix
des sans-voix et l’esprit du Journalisme engagé. Le Triangle Afar
pleure la disparition d’un être affable et un formidable père qui laisse
derrière lui une veuve et une fille.
Le Comité du Pen Afar et l’ensemble de ses membres adressentleurs
condoléances les plus attristées à la
famille et aux proches du défunt.
Que son âme repose en PAIX. Que
le Seigneur l’accueille dans son paradis éternel. Inna lillaahi wa inna
ileyhi raajiquun.

GEXSIS MARO / EQUIPE DE DIRECTION

Fayyata Gexsis Maro / Comite de rédaction

Massoysa saqal/ Chef Maquettiste

Qabdulkadir Macammad Qali / Abdoulkader Mohamed Ali

Yayyaaqe Saqal / Impression

Maybalaalaqâ Saqal / Directeur de Publication

Ali Chehem Mohamed (Ali Aref)

Cigiila Maybalaalaqâ saqal / Directeur de Publication Adjoint

Mohamed Youssouf Gaddaaqay/ Macammad Yuusuf Gaddaaqay

Feeraysô saqal / Redacteur en Chef:

Saqid Kaamil Acmed/ Said kamil Ahmed

Ciggiila Feeraysô saqal / Redacteur en Chef Adjoint:

Qalii Macammad Amiin / Ali Mohamed Amin

Ali Mahamoud Ahmadini

Resp. Administratif et Financier:
Mohamed Obakar Bililis

Sécrétariat/ Distribution / Archives :

Assia Mohamed Ali
Omar Seik Daoud

FEERASSA MARO / EQUIPE DE REDACTION

Casan Macammad Casan (Casan Pilot)

Casan Qali Robbaahe
Mansuur

Macammad Qusmaan Darsa

Kako Ibrahim Kako
Qali Buha

Nombre de tirage: 1000 exemplaires

Mensuel N° 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Qafar Afih Fanteyna

Afar Pen Center

ADDATINO / SOMMAIRE
Ammunta / Editorial
1 haytô gali / page 1
Maxco / Parole
3 haytô gali / page 3

Madduru / Economie
04 haytô gali / page4
Diini / Religion
5 haytô gali / page 5

Aydaadu / Histoire
6 haytô gali / page 6

Madqa / Constitution
7 haytô gali / page 7

Qafar Sultaana/sultanat Afar
12 haytô gali / page 12
Missilitte/Proverbes
15 haytô gali / page 15

Qadara /Poèsie
16 haytô gali / page 16
Qasiiri / Leçon
18 haytô gali / page 18

Maysaxxaga / Annonces
20 haytô gali / page 20
WARÂ XONGOLO

QAFAR AFIH
WARA

SOOMAALIH
AFIH WARA

Q
C
C X
U
U
X
DH
Q. QARI
CARI
C. CAXXA
XADHA
U. UMMATTA UMMATTA
X. XAAGU
DHAAGU
Djibouti, Bd. Bonhour,
Tél.: 21 35 38 14
Mail: yafyinti@yahoo.fr
Web: www.afarpen.org
Facebook.com/yafyinti

Melleb/Prix:100

Inti waanam dite, ayti waanam dibu, af bayam baati

La myopie est une obscurité, la surdité est une solitude, la perte de la langue est une assimilation.

Ammunta / Editorial

Diini kee Qaadâ gexso.
Yalli muxxuseeh barkattoyse, ramadan
alsi nel bileeh, Ramadan alsi islaam diini
elle soola ruknittek ferey hayto rukni
kinni.
Amri kak fayyaya Rabbi Saytun kitab
(Qhuraan kinnuk) ni Nabii (SQW) Mucammadal elle oobise alsa kinni.
Kaxxa Rabbi kulli muslimtul soomam
(xayyitam) fardi abe alsay Soomaanam
ni Nabii Mucammadak duma rubsumte
Farmoytitteh ummatal fardi abeh yenem
tamixxigeh. «Yeemeneh yan maraw
Ramadaan Alsih Soom Siinil yunku
ttubeeh fardi Siinil yekke, Siinik dumi
ummatal kah yunkuttube innah sinni
Rabbik meesittaanam keh». 2tô Maka
ddama Suurat Al-Baqhara.
Ramadaanak naharsi madma Yallih
qibaada yaymageenimiiy toh axcih
Salaatal diggoowaanama.
To ‘nna kinnuk, Kaxxa Rabbi nee kasiisah isi kitaabih addal, Salat amo gexaway, Ramadan alsat aban qibaada ixxu
maliiy mangoh: «Yallih xaqul kayri
dibuk Salaatah Ayró mawqa-le gambii
kee Ayró korma-le gambil tafkuneenim
hinna, kinnih immay Cagalah kayri
Yallaa kee ellecaboh Ayrooy malaykaa
kee Ambiyal obsimte kitoobaa kee
Ambiya inkih Nummayse numih Abina
kayri, maalu isih kaa kicinuk Ramad-le
maraa kee Qayxiixaay tu-dagoytit kee
gexsô numuy(gexentu kinnuk) Sakyi
elle yiggiriqqee kee ceyte maray tu-essera kee Naqoosâ currusiyyah maalu
yacee numih Abina kayri, Salat Soolisaah Zaká yaceeh xagana haan waqdi
sinni xagana duudusaah tuddagnaa
kee Biyaakaay jihaadal Qebti waqdi
Qebti gibdaabinal yasbire marih Abina
kayri, woo maray tama weeloolat weeloysime Nummahm. iimaanah teemenem,woo mari usun Yallih digaalak
meesita mara kinnon». Ayyunti addal
saay kee qadaalat taysubukem muuminti

Quand culture rime avec foi
Nous sommes en plein ramadan de l’an
1436 du calendrier hégirien, un mois
béni qui fait partie des cinq piliers de
l’Islam. Un mois dans lequel le Coran a
été révélé à notre bien aimé prophète
Muhammed (SAW). Le Très Haut a
prescrit le jeûne aux croyants et ce, bien
avant l’avènement de l’Islam : «Ô
croyants! Nous vous avons prescrit le
jeûne (Al-Siyam) comme nous l’avons
prescrit à ceux d’avant vous...» (Sourate 2 verset183).
L’objectif principal du Ramadan est
bien sûr l’adoration d’Allah par la
prière. Toutefois, Le Créateur nous
Rappelle, toujours dans la Sourate AlBaqhara (verset 177), que la piété ne
consiste pas « en ce que vous tourniez
vos visages vers le Levant ou le Couchant. Vertueux sont ceux qui croient en
Dieu et au jour dernier, aux Anges, au
Livre et aux prophètes, qui donnent
pour l’amour de Dieu des secours à
leurs proches, aux orphelins, aux nécessiteux, aux voyageurs indigents et à
ceux qui demandent l’aide […]. Ceuxlà sont justes et craignent le Seigneur».
C’est la crainte de Dieu qui encourage
le croyant à rechercher partout la justice
et à préserve la paix dans la société.
Combien même le sens premier du
terme Islam serait soumission à Allah,
le premier salut du musulman est de
souhaiter la paix à son prochain - Assalaamu aleikum! Aussi, dire que l’Islam
est une religion de paix est un euphémisme. Non, l’Islam ne s’est pas imposé par l’épée chez la plupart des
peuples qui l’ont adopté comme religion mais plutôt par la persuasion. Les
Afar furent le premier peuple non arabe
à avoir été en contact avec les compagnons du Prophète – sws – qui ont fui
vers l’Abyssinie.1 L’amarrage de
l’Islam au droit coutumier afar se fut en

2 haytô gali

2

Ammunta / Editorial

Yallak Aba meesi. Tohuk sumaq elle geytam ”Islaama” itta qangarak maqna axcih Yallah rammitaanamaay, lakal kaadu islamti isi toobokoytah aba
Salaamaqle “wagari” tascasse. Tamah ne taybullem,
Islaam wagri diiniiy; tohuk gexak Islaaminna maggom
elle soltem wagarikkal qeebi kee gaadu hinna. Qafar
qaada kee Islaamaninna cixi taqabi m’allinnaay.
Islaam diini, Qarabak kalih marak aakamal adda kak
tabem Qafara, axich Islaamak naharsi Muhaajiriiniy,
Abysiiniya eleelitte qasa badih caraatal tan Qafar
baaxol obteeh, gita Qafarat faxxe. Toh elle diggowtam,
Qafar gar kee madqaay hinnay kaadu caalootay,
Islaam diini baahe madqooqii kee caalootat nabam
tangale isih luk sugte.
Qafar ayyunti caylah itta ‘lluk xiine mara hinnay, gar
siitah abak itta ‘llih xiine mara.
Ni qaada kee Islaam diinih fanat baxsi ma mangooy,
kah innam, Diini addal Yalli Amrisem kinni waqdi,
Qafar qaadah addat tohul saduh tanim ma tanaay,
tenek nabam dago.
Qafar isi qaadak exxak teynat axci Horrat nabi saare
abtam geytimta. Kalah Qafar luk sugte qaaday islaam
diinil saduh tanim kak tunbulle cabeenim qaddowta.
Axcih, baddi-kubur, alsitteey, cutuukaay, tannah tanim
tuk-kaloot kee tu-xiq le axcuk yassakaxxeenimih
innah tanim bayteh. Too caben exxaaxi, Qafar luk
sugte qikuu kee xintok bayissem mali. Tohuk gexak,
Islaam diini Qafar luk sugte qikuu kee xintoh kulsa
yekke. Ceelalloh, Yallak meesi, Qafar madqa luk
sugte digaala gabluseh ikkal ma qakkoysinna. Qafar
missilah ittah «Yab Yallah abaanaah, orba dabqah
abaana”
Kinni-way, numtin-amô manoo kee maali hangih
edde maggo wargi inkih-liino qakkoysaah, kalah
kaadu muumintuk iimaan boolaysah. Qafar missilah
ittah, «Qilmi boolaatek, diini maraaqa, diini boolaatek,
xinto ma raqta». Wohuk Yalli ne catam qaagitna.
Ramadaan alsi kaxxa saami kinni, ni manô tu-mabul
kee ni caalat-maqaane edde tamquh: sabriiy, xuwaw
kee gexsit-maqaane nel geytimtam faxximta.
Fayla Yallah dabaqtaah. A Qasa dirrih alsak 21hatoh
ayro (21 Juin)- Yaf-yintih ayyuftal nammay haytô liggidi gaceemih qafaydat geytimna. Namma sanat waktil wagitnek dagom ceela way, abtol wakteenik ma
xabcini.Toh yaanam, dago labhay niya meqeey, isi
qaadah kacanu le kah tece hangi.
Yaf-yintih maro ama qafaydat geytimak, qaku luk
kulsa luk, raqte ayyuftitteh marooy qaada kee abukraqti dadalah macalta toobokoh inkih Unkaq kee aytikumaay berraka le farmo tatrussa: Aybadaay (tagorri),
Qusba maacaay, Temqooy (Ethiopie), Tabboo (Eritrea)
kee Sidiicamoh (diaspora). Ellecaboh, Yafyintih maro
ufuy ruubuuttuh ramaqqah tawqem sin taysixxige. Ramadaan kee Curriyyat qafayda siinil tamqem siinih
qaagita.
Kawsi siinil yamqay.

19 haytô gali

Yaf Yinti

douceur. Loi divine et madqa se sont rejoints dans un système de valeurs basé sur la justice sociale et sur le partage. Plus que la force, l’outil de coercition le plus
efficace a toujours été et reste la parole chez les Afar. Une
réalité sociale corroborée par le proverbe suivant :
«Qafar ayyunti caylah itta xiinise mara hinnay yaabah
itta xiinise mara »2. In fine, mince est le fil qui sépare la
religion de la culture. Toutes deux établissent le même
rapport étroit au temps, celui de la religion se distinguant
par son aspect «sacralisé»3. Certaines pratiques culturelles comme le Horra se greffèrent aisément au culte
musulman en y intégrant les chants à la gloire du Prophète – sws. Tandis que d’autres, contraires au culte musulman, sont abandonnées. Il s’agit des pratiques occultes
tel que l’art divinatoire (géomancie, lecture des étoiles…
etc.) et des rituels d’exorcisme tels que le baddi kubur ou
le daar. Malgré tout, ces interdits n’affectaient en rien la
solidarité sociale. Nous pouvons même dire que l’Islam
a renforcé l’humanisme de bon aloi qui prévalait dans la
culture nomade. Aux sanctions du droit coutumier
s’ajoute la crainte de Dieu qui conditionne toute action
ou parole du nouveau croyant ; «Yab Yallah aban, orba
dabqah aban» (toute parole est prononcée pour plaire à
Allah).

Malheureusement, force est de constater que notre époque, dominée par l’individualisme et l’amour du profit matériel, érode
avec célérité l’importance de l’intérêt collectif tout en corrompant le cœur du croyant. Qu’Allah nous Préserve des conséquences désastreuses de cet vieil adage prémonitoire : «Qilmi
boolatek, diini maraaqa, diini boolatek, xinto ma raqta» ( là
où la science (coranique) faiblit, la croyance s’amenuise et par
conséquent, la loi, c’est-à-dire l’ordre établi et la paix disparaissent).
Le Ramadan est l’occasion propice pour faire une pause afin
de méditer sur le sens de la vie et sur la manière
d’améliorer nos qualités humaines telles que la patience,
la compassion et l’humilité.
AlhamdullilAh, le 21 juin 2005, YafYinti a soufflé sa 2ième bougie, un détail certes sur l’échelle d’une vie mais quelle
prouesse quand même de la part d’une petite équipe de bénévoles amoureux de leur culture et leur patrimoine culturel.
Aussi, saisissons-nous cette opportunité afin de féliciter et encourager nos confrères des mensuels tels que, Aybad (Tadjourah), Qusba maacaa, Temqoo (Éthiopie), tabbo (Éritrea),
Sidiicamo (diaspora)…etc. qui se débattent, non sans difficultés, pour la sauvegarde de notre identité culturelle.
L’équipe de YafYinti fait un halte estival bien mérité et vous
donne rendez-vous à la rentrée. Ramadan karim, bonne fête
nationale et profitez bien de vos vacances et congés.
Gamal A Shami (father) and Hashim A Shami(son), Al-Manhal fi
tarikh wa akhbar al Afar (Al-Danakil), 1997, (744p), Cairo-Egypt.
2
À ce propos, retrouvez dans ce présent numéro le très bel article
sur le droit coutumier Afar intitulé Qefer le madqay Qafar luk sugte.
3
Giovanni Filoramo, Qu’est-ce que la religion ? Thèmes, méthodes,
problèmes, Paris, Cerf, 2007, p. 187-201
1

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Qasiiri / Leçon

teyna betneh, Ceelalloh: /ă,ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ/ axcuk nuktubeh
xer yangayyi nek takkayiiy giitak xongolisnay innek
koona yangayyita ux xongoloytaa (phoneme) kee xer
xongoloytah (phoneme) baxisnem deqsitta.

Toh elle diggowtam namma qangara siita celta xongoloolak xissiimak afeyti (maqna) baxsa siitak elle
tallem duddam ken fanat xongoloytak teyni (phoneme)
baxsa siitak yalle waqdi kinniimiy dumaak cedne kinni.
Toysa Qafar afat ux yangayyii kee xer yangayyi siitak
leh tan baxsa, qangarah addal agaaradnek,
/dara/

/dăra/,

/sela/

/sĕla/,

/sola/

/sŏla/

/dida/
/gura/

kaadu inkih to ceelo le yaanama.

Toysa taway namma warah badik bahneh sugne asta
cabba hayneh, ninni feerah addal naaxige xer yangayyih uduurru inneh yangayyi giitimi cogdal xongolsimak qangarak afeyta korsee kee afkan make elle
yakke gurra nagay cednuh qangooruk meqeh gide siita
‘llih ceelalloh xayyosnam gabbatenno.
Qanbima:

/Sara /

Tama ‘nnal Qafar afih qangoorih afeytisiinook gexak,
ahaak dagal abaluk sugne qangor siita ceelak inki
afeyta(maqna) alle waam tamixxigeh tan tiya.

Toysa /e/ kee /ĕ/ inki xongoloyta (phoneme) akke waytam neh qaddowtam yot celtaah, raqqaye yangayyi

/ Saara /

/ Daara /

/Dala /

/ Daala /

/Gada /

/gŭra/.

Giitima:

/Dara /

/Baxa /

/dĭda/

Yaf Yinti

/ Baaxa /

/ Gaada /

/Dora /

/ Doora /

/Dula /

/ Duula /

/Bodo /

/ Boodo /

Qanbima:

/ Sela /

/ Fera /

Giitima:

/ Seela /

/ Feera /

/ Kela /

/ Keela /

/ Fila /

/ Fiila /

/ Qida /

/Kora /

/ Fule /

/ Gura /

/ Qiida /

/ Koora /

/ Fuule /

/ Guura /.

Tama ‘nnal Qafar afat yangayyi giitimak xongolsima
waqdi baxsa le xongoloytay qangarak xisot issi maglab
yassagalle yakkem noyboodeh cabna.

Message de félicitation

Qafar afah mangom xiquwaa
mixig kinni.

S

Y

uite à la soutenance de la
thèse de doctorat par Mohamed
Hassan Kamil à Paris le
mercredi 27 mai 2015, l’équipe
YafYinti exprime ses vives félicitations au Président de l’UDC.

Conscients du défi auquel est
confronté le développement de la
af Yintih maro Dr. Macammad Casan Kaamiliiy, langue Afar, cette thèse portant sur la description gramUDC saqalah yani warraye caxah-alsak 27 Baa- maticale de la Langue Afar contribuera à coup sûr à son
essor.
riisil fayla luk afti doktoora orbiseh unkaq tatrussa.
Qafar ayyuntih addal naharsi dokter kinni
Enfin, la soutenance étant un moment inoubliable qui
yabti-rakiiboh gurantoh caddabnal.
couronne de longues années d’études, nous réitérons au
Dr. Macammad Casan Kaamil Qafar afih guranat docteur Mohamed Hassan nos vœux de réussite
mangacinuk ugte, tokkeey takke wadir kak maxaccooy professionnelle et nos amicales pensées.
edde yan.

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

19

18 haytô gali

Qasiiri / Leçon

2: GIITIMI COGDA.

Yaf Yinti

3 haytô gali

C’est avec une immense tristesse que j’ai appris le décès d’Adam Ali, survenu
le 19 juin dernier à Samara. Directeur adjoint de la télévision en langue Afar
de l’Éthiopie, le défunt était surtout un ami et un collègue qui collaborait
régulièrement avec l’Afar Speaking Pen.
«L’immuable harmonie de ce monde est constitué de pleurs aussi bien que
de chants» disait Victor Hugo. Chacune de nos rencontres - dont la dernière
remonte à avril lors de la célébration du 40ième anniversaire de la transcription de la langue Afar – était des occasions riches d’échanges et de partage
où nous évoquions divers sujets sur la culture et la langue Afar en particulier.
Sa disparition qui nous bouleverse laissera un grand vide. Imaginant la peine
que ressent la famille éplorée, je lui adresse mes plus affectueuses
condoléances.

Ta mabla iro kak xagga heeh cabam faxa mari <a
namma weelo ma baxsa lee?> iyyam bictah immay, a
nammam siita ‘ffan tamaate nammam hinna.

Fiiruuk Giitima kak innam giitimta xongolooy, giitimta
xongolo kak innam kaadu sissikuk awqe wayta xongoloy awaquk raagga ittam kak tantabbe kinni.

Tamah inna waqdi tamah abtam ufuy currik kah yawqe
xongoloolay ginnimta waqdi adfoo kee cikiikimok
qunxiim edde garye wayta hiyya ‘kkal aki xongoloola
edde xongolsimtu dudda cogda hinna.

Toh kah kinnim aggiggiriqqe kal, xongolo elle tawqe
‘nnal antaabbuk udurruttuh aggiggiriqqe waa ufuyih
qokol faxxaamih sabbata.

Toysa tama ‘nnal currik yawqe ufuyih qokol lemiy
mawqa kak dudda lem yangayyi koona (5) xongolo
kinniimih sabbatah, giitimi cogdal xongolsimtu duddam yangayyi xongoloola kinnim ma qellitta.

Toysa giitimtam yangayyi koona xongolo kinnim nismitek wadir, ta cogda qangarah addal faxxiiminnaan
yangayyiitat qokolsimak qangarak afeyta (maqna) korisiiy, afkan maki takkem dudda cogda kinni.

Tamah yangayyi konoyuk xongolooy waqdi elle xongolsimta caalat kinni waqdi feera wagsiisak xongolo
awlissah tan warah caddol elle tankuttube gurra waginnek, giitiminnaan yangayyiitah wara nammey abak
naktube.

Toh Qafar afih feerah addal xer yangayyil naaxige
koona xongolo kinnuk /aa/ /ee/ /ii/ /oo/ /uu/ axcuk xongolo kak giitak xongolisna kinni.

18

Toysa ta ‘kkel cubbih tanim, xer yangayyi kak inna

Yaf Yinti

Le mot de la Présidente .

xongoloola namma namma warah tankuttubem tanbulleh tanik, ta xongolo inki xongoloy ginnimta waqdi
mawqal udurruttah giitimak xongolsimta hiyya ‘nnaa,
hinnay nammeynitte xongoloy siitak lakal ginniimak
xongolta waqdi ginoo kee caalat baxsa alle waytaamih
sabbatah siitat xakbimak giito bathe hiyyaay? iyyaanama.

Kawsi cogdak nammey hayto Giitima abak ahaak
gubal tet kusaaqisenno.

Maxco / Mot de la Présidente

Kah lem inki qangarah addat qanbimah sugte yangayyiita aki qangarah addat giitimah temeetek, Ceelalloh: / bada/ itta qangaraa kee /baada/ itta qangarak
baxsi /b/ xongoloh lakat tan /a/ xongolo naharsi qangarah addal qanbimtaah, nammey haan qangarah addal
giitimtaamak sat u hinna.

L’année 2015 fut un bon cru, si je peux m’exprimer ainsi, en termes d’évènements culturels avec la double
célébration du quarantième anniversaire de la transcription de la langue Afar.

Toysa a namma qangarak /baada/ itta qangara elle baxsimtam /b/ xongoloh lakat tan /a/ xongolo, ux yangayyiita akke waytaah, xer yangayyiita tekkeemi ‘nnaa,
hinnay sugteh tan ux yangayyiitah /a/ bagul nammey
haak ux yangayyiitah /a/ ossimtaamaay?

À Djibouti d’abord où l’alphabet a vu le jour puis à Samara où elle a pris son envol. Des moments forts pour la
pérennité de notre langue maternelle où Afar Pen a répondu présent afin d’en assurer le succès. Un bon cru
aussi car 2015 a été témoin d’un évènement historique avec l’intronisation du Sultan de Gobaad en mai dernier.
D’autre part, il me fait honneur ici de célébrer le deuxième anniversaire du lancement de notre mensuel culturel
Yaf Yinti. Mes félicitations en premier à l’équipe de bénévoles qui a porté sur ses épaules ce projet culturel. Mes
remerciements ensuite à nos lecteurs et à nos généreux donateurs sans qui ce mensuel n’aurait jamais atteint le
cap de mille lecteurs.

Ta namma qangara afeyti (maqna) caddol waginnek
huniin baxsa siitak lem kaadu,num igma tiya hinna.

Tamahat baxsah naybullem fannam, a namma qangara
siitak elle baxsimtam /a/ xongoloh bagut nammey haan
/a/ xongolo ossee kee kale nakkeemi innek, Qafar afat
xer yangayyi deqsitta xongoloolay xongoloyti loowot
gactam dudda tanim diraaba.

Xer yangayyi Qafar afat xongoloyti loowot yanim dirabboote kalta rakiiboh nablem, kulli yangayyiita
taxxuuxe waqdii kee taxxeere waqdi akkuk qangarah
addat wayaay faxot gacta ‘kkal, ux tiya ‘dde sugte ‘kket
xer tiya gactam dude waytam kee gactek qangara kah
sugte qangarah raaqe waytaama.
Tama ‘nnal xer yangayyih wara nammey abak yaktubeenim,

Feera caddol namma xongoloyti siitak elle baxsimam
gidih abeenimi ‘kkal inki xongolo nammeynitteh
yaanam hinna.

En cette période de piété et de jeûne par la pratique renouvelée et intensive de la prière, l’occasion nous est
donnés de réaffirmer notre solidarité envers les plus démunis afin de préserver leur dignité humaine. Au-delà
de sa mission de sauvegarde de la langue Afar, Afar Pen chérit aussi la paix et la compréhension entre nos différentes communautés culturelles.
Aussi, au nom du comité exécutif du Pen Afar, de ses membres actifs et en mon nom personnel, permettez-moi
de vous présenter nos meilleurs vœux du mois sacré du Ramadan.
Que l’Eid-el-fitr qui clôture ce mois béni de Ramadan 2015 soit une fête où se concrétise pour chacune et chacun
La Récompense promise par ALLAH, le Tout Puissant, dans la joie familiale, communautaire et citoyenne.
In sha Allah, la rentrée s’annonce sous de bons auspices avec le lancement d’activités culturels qui s’étaleront
jusqu’à la fin de l’année. Bien sûr, toutes ces célébrations portent le sceau indélébile d’une culture séculaire et
intrinsèquement liée à des valeurs humanistes puisque qu’elle forme l’idéal du citoyen honnête.
Ramadan Moubaarak !

Tah inna waqdi /a, e, i, o, u/ ux yangayyi innek, sarra
ta xongoloolak kulli tiya xer xongolo tekkeemih ascossah, namma wara yaktubeenim cabba hayneh, astak
Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

3

4 haytô gali

Madduru / Economie

Yaf Yinti

Lac kee buqre

Goyti dunyal mango ginoy hadlek muxxo akah yeceem
seehadaytuuy, alaay lacak kaa elle fulsem fiiruk
weelooy, Tohuuk lakal kasaay, cubbiiy, qakliiy, fayxi.
Wohuk kalah currih yaniih, issi fayxi, issi cubbiiy, kasaay qaklil kusaaqisaah, kibbaasitam yallih amrih
gubal cagalah seehadaytuh oggolsinte.
Tahak kalah seehadayti baxsa elle lem macaay innek,
raqte ginoh acee weemik seehadaytuh yalli taamah
amri yecee.

Tah qaddossam, yalli Aadam jannat addak eyyeeqqi
heeh, baaxo fan oobise waqdi, mano inkih kaat milaggoyteeh jannat addal luk sugeh yan manok tu kaat korarraqteh.

Tohuk wadir, naharsi amrih yallih kabuk kaah temeetem taamitaanaah, gaqamboyta isi xooqul orbisaanaah
yakmeenimi.

Tah maa taamay innek kollay, Aadàm xaylok sarri gino,
issi cawal taamitti teh orbisitteh tattakammuh, afurs’addah yalli Aadam elle amriseeh Aadam abem
buqre’taama. Buqre dunyal seehadaytuk firsi taamay
gaqamboyta kak orbise kinnim inkih tohuk gexaak neh
qaddoytaah giddi mali.

Aadam buqre edde abem macaay innek, wo saakuuna
buqre edde aban makiina’kken ma suginnay, Aadam
buqre edde abem laca. Lac seehadaytuh yalli nafqih
ruube ginooy, seehadayti nabsih xagam kee sartanaay,
wohuk kalah merraytuu kee buqre’taama edde abitah
yan midiri.
Tonna kinnuk, Lac kee Buqre, sitta’fanah bahna waqdi,
ah nammaamay, sitta kibtaah, seehadayti mano’bagul
yookome tu’xiqih edde yintifiqeh uxih edde yantifiqem
neh tambulle.
Toh elle innam, qaalam bisoh nee fan elle yamaateemil,
horaay horak biso ‘maxcoh aysuk elle tamaateemil,
seehadayti edde yantifiqem lac kee buqre ‘kkalah
amagguk temeggem faxeemi’mmay, dadal faxe caddo
gufah, taama gersi fooca taallem celta way’aa, seehadayti katlah xagam kee xagarah saritti haam akak tawqem lac kee buqrek takke taamà kinnim nable.

4

Hay takkayik, lac kee buqre’fanat cixuh tanim macaa?
Sehadaytuh lac kee buqrek tiya raqtek mano takkee?
Qafar addal lac kee buqre maa tu’xiq leeh maa caddol
tan?
Lac kee buqret seehadaytuk tu’xagoot kee tu’xiq yanim
geyneek lakal woo tu’xiq kee tu’xagootuk naharsitto

manni tiyaay inneh kusaaqissi haynek, Rooci leh yan
seehadayti manô bagul akah yanim leek-maaqo xagek
sarraay, lac kee buqret seehadayti le tu’xiqik naharsitto
quusi. Seehadayti quusi a nammayat inkih le’kkal
dibuk tiyat mali
Toh kah kinnim, mano’bagul goyti hadleh yan ginoonay rooci edde hee, nabsih xagaanamih caddol xeflih namma gexoh tani. Cado yakamiiy caxa yakamih
kurruumaanaah, cado takmem caxa ma takmaay caxa
takmem cado ma takma.

Seehadaytuy Yalli muxxo akah yecee, caxa yakamiy
cado yakamih inkih yaniih, lac kee buqre inkih tu kaah
xiqtam tohul neh tambulleeh, a nammayak tiya sinni
mano dudda kaak malim kaadu geynah. Lac kee buqre,
baday barril seehadaytuk mano elle solta rakiibo kinnim digga.

Away edde nan wakatil, dadalte baaxooxah addal lac
kee buqre gufte caddo nable waqdi, Qafar baaxol ma
gid takke caddo maadde itta essero raq nek mali.
Immay Qafar uxih yaanam sidiicaamol dacarsittô maral
kulsiih, mandaral kak tan ummatta lac kee buqrek
tawqeh tanim dadal caddo gufussamih dudda maliiy
wokke aydumah ma maadinna. Takkay immay dacarsittoh xiinah caddol qafar lac kee buqrek bicissaamat
gersi adda yaabak raaqe’nno.

Ellecaboh, amo gexaak wagga haynek lac kee buqre,
mano hadleeh, manô bagul tanim inkih gineh meklah
goytay nabaamak nabna leh daga raaqa, seehadayti
yanim fanah manol edde yantifiquh kaah gineemiiy,
kaah yeceeh yan misinkacal issi moyya tamsissi heeh
fooca fanah dadlisaanam sehadaytul akak raqte.

Tohuk wadir seehadayti kay rabbi kaah yecee muxxol
misinkaca kah tamsiiseeh, ayrooy tu kaah kak amballuk, qusbam baahak, lacti tu’xiq can kee cadot aadee
waah, buqre’tu’xiq dibuk maaqiddat aade waam aysaballuk yuysubulleh a saaku woh omboyro nek maliy
qaduk neh tambulle.
Meqe kawsa

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

17 haytô gali

Qadara / Poésie

Madqa cakki dacayrih ittalih hayte
Inkim elle itte madqal itta ma wayta
Madqa num ma xagurtaay, num ma cokmiyta
Num maqaane abeeh, umaane yeyxeerek
Arrabak meqem iyyeeh abni kaak yemqek
Baahe wayteemih madqa koo ma digaalta
Abbiyan maraay, abbah inki gar kurta
Xinto tiita xagurtu madqa kattasse
Sidiica makkaabal solta madqa lino
Fiqmat’abbottiy xintoh amri gabat le
Caxal cakki madqa mudda makaabana
Qafarrek abba dardaray to’ddecabta
Qagitak Qafarre kah heenim essere
Barituh qafarre xiqtam kak essere
Qafar Qafarre kah haytem desso yok ye
Qaybik ukta qaduwwi naqbi bahsiisi
Naqbi dadho lakal leeh, dadho qeb xalta
Abba kak qasa baatiliiy qabal ceela
Balaa kee baatil biili maysabaka
Madqa kah qafar haytem baatil aftabu
Makoo kee mukno kak tanim makari
Diyyitinna le makri xukko dokkoysa
Xukko dulmik uguttaah, makri kattassa
A madqa kah qafar haytem makri desso
Qafarre baatil kee dulmi tayxeere
Qafarre cakkii kee qadli xayyossah
Qiloo kee qaadil kah linom qaadá
Qaadá kak yeenim qaadáy ittah abaana
Qaadá qaadák uguttaah, madma kak madqá
Wil ma kattattay madqa wagri kataata
Umaane taymaaqeeh, temqo taysubukeh
Saayah elle silaalitak sugen madqa
Numuuy, lacaay, baaxok inkih aamaana
Qafarre kinnaanet kahtanim qeferi
Gexe wargu to’lle sugtennat yabba’nek
Doolatah ma suginnaay, xisne luk sugte
Qilmi luk ma suginnaay, qakli luk sugte
Akrayuk ma suginnaay, aaxaguk sugte
Fiirisak ma suginnaay, raaqisak sugte
Daktarah ma suginnaay, daylisak sugte
Banki luk ma suginnaay, maalu luk sugte
Gaddaliino faxeemiiy xaaqo maabinna
Itta catte’kkal tet sinam ma catinna
Gab-qasuk ma suginnaay, tikya luk sugte
Qaskarah ma suginnaay, amrisak sugte
Conxitak ma suginnaay, koositak sugte
Ittalih rabak ittalih qidak sugte
Madqakaay kore wayta madqa luk sugte
Xintokuuy baye wayta xinto luk sugte
Abbahaay kale wayta misli luk sugte
Baraay rike orbisan reeda way ma ballo
Xintoh abbottik yab cinak ma suginna

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti

Hayya heen madqat aaqatuk ma suginna
Tet saleeni’kkal is sinam ma salinna
Is-aamoh xin qaalamak nanu nookome
Toh qafarre ten ayro elle sugte’nna
Edde nan wargul edde nan walu warsa
Sugte qaadá bayisnehiiy, salul raqne
Eroppakaay, demokraasi neh temeete
Qad-mariiy qilo celta xukko neh baahe
Away tanim girâ qeebik lafta qeebi
Wagal gaala sinni carbi radah yani
Yaabekal sinam itta tanqibem bahteeh
Wiile kal ramad itta yargiqem baahe
Qansa hinnay a qeebi derre kak yakkem
Kooni sinna siyaasah ayro nee lafte
Migdi kak meemam yakkalen kabu hinna
Eroppa hayta sirrable sinni caxxa
Catnu neexegek migdi too kabuk rada
Qansa neh ma ribaanaay, nee ma kicnoonu
Agle nakkale-way away tanim baxsa
Dayla nakkale-way away tanim dalka
Kulsa nakkale-way a saa linom boola
Woh kah axcu xiqaamak adda warseyyo
Qadaalat elle yen biirol dulmi raaqe
Sifa elle abak yenen mablo fitna tekke
Kuuxe-way kuux elle yen rikel raaqe
Xuwaw elle yen rikel xukko tibbixe
Nummah aftok a saaku ayrá luk raqne
Qaadáh aftok a saaaku qaybi luk raqne
Umaaneh ennitem inkih curri tekke
Maabina iyyeenik umaane qaadi kok yaanaah
Bagullehiiy, away qaybi qaadi yekke
Qaadil migaq le qaybi ummatta yimlikeh
Rihim elle yen rikel cabti tibbixe
Xisneh akkalah abna nee amah diglo
Amah demokraasik ukkuqa iyyeeni
Nafsiyya barrá taaxigi teetih abte
Urru kee say-marih kabu nek gaceenih
Qafarre nikso kak lekkek yibbixeeniih
Agbi nek bisu korseeh, urri cal korsee
Urri umaane maqaane yekkeleeh hirgeh
Fayuh abta yab faduuluh kok orbisan
Eroppa neh meqem ceelak nee biyakteh
Tuk maqaanee kee umaane waktaanah
Maqaaneh ennitam migdah kok taduure
Duma luk nenem gacisnaamat nek tu tan
Qafar ummatey gurak migdal ufkuna
Num maqaane numuk salaah, umam deesah
Bisoh maxcot sinni qaadá luk ufkuna
Qaade kah waa num yedderek buxa baysa
Qaadá kak bayte ummatak hora bayta
Qafar qafarre baysittam tet biyaktah
Fevrier 2015

17

16 haytô gali

Qadara / Poésie

gaddi booxa kee gadow salaamaqle
gad gadaamah aba kalah daban mayyu
anqibeh meqe caalat inti yok tubleh
sarriimaan baatak tibba yoh mabicinnay
yi meelak ableh an boola yoo biyakta.

qaafiyat dorro

16

saymaraw suge saar neh admisak xiinay
qaraari kee canti duyye qaraysitay
qiirta barra biyak matabla kaaduunay
xaleenim kee agbi qir baqalah meqek
kilkilil sara haysa saymaraw qiira.

qafar xayloy sugte qaada mabaysinay
qafar daylay n’aabi neh cabe kassitay
kiniini hinna kah sugnem malcin’aabuy
num gabat le waduk rabam meqem hinnak
diwa kak gabat liton dalkak daylimay
af tabuy diwa luk biyaakak offoofa.

aakamal suge dayla kaslek abnaamay
caxa faaroy caalib agra maburtinay
num anxeexok diimo lem xage waay’xxicay
samud lem kee qeexo bar xage waanamay
maaqo maaqok amot mahiinay eyxeeray
madarrat lek caalibit bagu satqisay
canay leela facse kal xage waanama.

Inki saa gital urri-xaylo yoh sugte
Ittalih walaleenih’iiy ken ankacseh
Qafar qaadat ittalih walalak sugen
Qafarak migaaqak’aay maqnal sitta weeni
Edde yabtaanam urrow ah macaay exce
Ink’awki’iiy ah tuhinna, walallah iyye
Gers’awki Qammow essero kol liyo’yye
Anu kaa maxaggiyô may yoo yeexegeh
Qafar migaaqak’aay maqna ko’ssera’yye
Ko’sseram yi xaleynal essereemi’yye
Yiinál essere saakuuy, yi’iná baaxo’tte
Yabbal essere saa ma gorrisin yok ye
Woo tiyah goranak uxih ma raaqiyyo
Teexegek Qafar itta maqna baaha’yye
Aaxaguk ma suginniyooy, ma gacsiyyo
Gonniseh ma sugiyyooy essereyyo’xce
Awki xer cisab moyyat yok qideh cabe
Aaxaguk suge weem nadaamà yol tekke
Too tiyah goranah kabellá too waq hee
Qafarak tu taaxagooy, kaslel kah gexe
Cubbusayti kusaaqisa elle xaagoyse
Naharsi maqna awki afal elle geyne
Yayse xaagu Yaqam kusaaqisal kak gee

5 haytô gali

neh buxal suge dayla burte waynaamay
xagar daleelak adlaaket ruffu’yyaanah
bunkat ulqi deleelak aaqabuk sugneh
baaxo xagte numuh yaceeni suqsuuqiy
akiyyaytuk olyi xeet xayuk oobisa.

yi meela boolak ayyaaquh dorro baahe
baday barril sahda mango biyooka leh
af tabuy diwa kak dum’aaxaguk sugneh
num gabat le waduk rabam meqem hinnak
qafar daylay cax-dageyna dumaak linok
naaxigem qafar ummatey abinnaama.

xalte barra qafar garil lem ullaaloy
luwaatal elle caysaanam muxxo beytah
agbi nek qululuh fanak xalay baahak
bagulliinoy xalla’ttam fan aroodisa.
madarrat lem xaanu qaagwat abaanamak

Yaf Yinti

30 dec 2009

Casan M. Casan (Casan Pilot)

Qafar le

Dago maxco raaqiseh, maggom hoxsa way
Yoo ma ceelaay Yaqam kusaaqisa’yem leh
Qafar migaq warak yakkem koona carfi
Namma yangayyiiy, sidoc ma yangayyi
Too warak waraay isi maqna tascasse
Q) «-qaa» naharsi waraay, ni qaadá tascasse
A) «-aak» uguttam afaay, afiitisam qaadá
F) «-faa» fanat cixuuy, aggiriqqe nee kalta
A) «-aa» agat bagul afle qaadá le ayyunta
R) «-raa» ramid xeeri ramoodah asgolla
Qaadá afti fan agle leeh ramid xeeri
Hoxse week tamah iyyem akkaluk raaqe
Woo tiyal ma cabiyyoy esserot qakteh
Lakalaay Qafarre kak yaanam essere
Qafarrek ekraaro edde yabne tiya
Edde yabna afaay Qafar migaq quuka
Q) Qaaday ittah abeeniy edde xiineeni
A) Abuk absumay xalak qarsa tangale
F) Fiqmay itta digaalak itta katassa
A) Agat elle nokta xexxaaray waydala
R) Raaguwaa ramaday raruh yani ittah le
R)Reedal itta katattuh abba dooritta
E)Egla elle dadaltuh ittalih hayte

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Diini / Religion
Soomu

Ramadan soomanam ummaan muslimtuy :

qakli leeh baalikeh soomu duudak raqmali , mayangali kee xalay lakih qabalat tan baarra koh raatuh .
Qunxa num soouml amrisimah duudekaa tekkek baritto kah yakke gidah.

Ramadan bilo nammannak innak teenal yaxigen :
1 alsi mabala muslimtuy qadli leeh baalikik yanih sumaqal barraay takke way .
2 soom baaheh alsi soddom ayro duudama . som waajibik yan subci salaatay ayro korra tam fan. Fardi
soomu niya baahanama subci salatak naharal raqmali.
Somm bayissah taniimi :
1 barrat fido faxaanama : woh abek kada kee kaffara
kaal tan , kaffaara naqasu currusaama , geeweek
namma alsa itta kataasak soomaama , woh duude wek
lactam maskintu yaskameemi , wohuk tu duudeweeki
tu kaal matan.
2.dacoyti (miniyyi)kaak oobama : fuguttot takku gabah
xago takku hinnay isih isik oobisu , soonot xagar kak
yinfirigge numul tu matana .
3.axagih yokemeeh yooqobek , hawwenek soom kaak
mabaya .
4.qabal isik yeyyeqek xuru takku hinnay sinamah yacayu , qabalak dagoom daylah takku hinnay kaak yeqwek qanxixeh takku , sanuni takku soom kaak mabaya.
5.gabah isi allisek .

Katalat bullaaqe kaak gexxek , hinnay san kee afat
lee kaak geexek katla guftek hinnay yifikkerek dacoyti
oobek soonot xagar kak yinfirigek , hinnay qabal kaak
yewqek , hinnay alliyo faxe waak kaak tewqek soom
kak mabaya.
Bar yekkeleh yokkeleeh yokmeeh laqok sugtek
kada kaal tan , bar yokmek subci yekkeemih agay
waga luk soom kaak kaak mabaya , laqo yokmek ayro
korteemih agay waaga luk kada kaal tan.

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti

Yaftur marih madqa :

caraamu quzri sinni num ramadaan yafturem. raqmali
mayangali kee xalay lakih qabalat tan barra tafturem,
kaadu qabali calaalik akak ane sinninum finqak cataana gidih yaftureenim raqmali . kacnule safarah yan
num yafturem soom kaal yigbidek , biyaakita num
biyak bisoh kaat axcelemih meysitek yafturem kacanule .Kaah xiqtah aracal sugeh yan num yaftuem soo
kaal yigbidek , biyaakia num biyak bisoh kaat ax celeemih meysitek yafturem kacanule. Kaah xiqtah aracal
sugeh yan num laqo safrek yafturem, bagutle barre akkiiy taysaaxxe baraa akki sinni nabsih meysiteenik
hinnay sinni xalaayah mesiteenik yaftureenim keenih
xiqtah, ta maral inkih dubuk kada tan , bagut le barra
kee taysaaxe barra maskintu yaskameenim edde osisan ummaan ayro kada lih sinni xalaayah meysih yuftureenih sugeenik .soom yefferek kaxxiinah akkiiy
hinnay biyaakay dayla sinnih akki ummaan ayro maskintu yaskameeh kada kaal matan . quzrih kada udurruseh yan num soom soomul uduurru yam fanah
dubuk kada tan, quzri maliino tekkekiiy kada luk ummaan ayro maskintu yaskame ,quzih kada cabeh rabekaa tekkek tu kaal matan, quzri maliino tekkekiiy
ummaan ayro maskintu kaak yaskamen kaal xayih yan
numul sunnal tan soomam ramadaanak kaak gexxem
takku nazri soom takku hinnay ummaan nazriy taaqah
yaniiy kaal suge kaak abanam sunnah tan . quzrih yuftureh yan num woo quzri ramadaanak laqo kaka katek
som yabbixem raq kaak mali. kaadu korositi yuslimek
, hinnay mayangalit tan barra taahirrowtek , biyaakita
num qaffootek , safare num yuduurek , qunxa num yublikek, cabulil kas yuduurek loqo usun inkih fatrih
anuk kada ken tabbixeeh ayrok raqtem sooman way.
ramadaana yafturem akah xiqte num soom alsih addat
gerri soomuy ramadan som akke sinni abam kaah
maxiqta.
(Quraanak elle cabo sidiica juzh tafsiiri...p130)

5

6 haytô gali

Aydaadu / Histoire

Qefer le madqay Qafar luk sugte

Qefer le madqay Qafar luk sugte aham fana leh,
umman kah xinta. Qefer kak yaanam reebu madqa caddol edde faxen maqnal maqaanel koo amrissaah,
umaanek koo digaaltah. Madqa qefer le kah innu xiqnem tohu. Madqa Qafar kah haytem kulli num isi gar
yaalen gida. «Daaddek yamcuggeeniih, daawek baxsimaana» axcuk sugte Qafar missilah. Dadde liino,
daawe naqabu; daawe naqbi yaabak tamaate. Qafar
axcuk sugtem ; yab rukeeniih, naqabu xaleeh, naqabu
rukeeniih, qeb xaleeh, qeb rukeeniih, biilu xaleeh, biili
guuro xale. Nammay’ta missilal «umaane taysarre
buxa le kal asissa buxa mali» axcuk sugen.
Madqa umaaneenah aftabuh abeenimiy qadaalatal arciseenimiy num elle yaddiquyu duude sinni. Qafarre
kak iyyan affara rakiibok sidocahyto mansayya madqa.
Toh Afaay, Qaadaay Madqaay, xexxaara. Qafarre
Qafar kak ittem tama fareyiiy, bagul kak heenim nakkay naaxagay naddaray nandaray iyyaanamay Qafar
umman ittalih haysitteemik dacayri madqa.
Tama madqa sahadaytinnah ibaay, xiroonuuy, amo ittalih kah meqe’nnah is sidiica makkaabal solta : fiqmat
abbottiiy, makaabanaay, dardorti. Tama mari caxal sinaam awlah raaqaah, madqa usun yoysommeenik ken
digaaltaah, sinaamah takkeh gide keenih takke. Qafar
«madqa sinaamal mudna axcuk sinnil mudan» axcuk
sugte.
Madqa mannal num tabbixeeh ? Maabina iyyeemim
abaanam kee aba’yyeenim abe waanamak koo tabbixe,
saahadayti baxih xagarak sidiica’kke bahte umaane digaala takke. Fiiruk sidiica arrabaay, koona feeraay,
sammo.
sinam garak tukteynal titta waagisek Qafar caxal mannal abak sugteh inne nee tekkek, tu sittak waagise
marak numuk teyni wayto yaceeh, too wayto elle
yeceen num malakmisah elle seecaah, usuk caxah abba
yakkeeh mablo tonnal takke. tu sittak waa marak kulli
num isi abba leeh, caxa fakkintaay tu lem tu taxxaccay
iyyan. Naharat yab wayto orbise num yaceeniih, hayye

6

Yaf Yinti

keenih yabbixeeniih, numuuy namma adda keenik
yaabaah, too waqdi hayye keenih abbixak suge num
ciggiila yaabeenih cabeenimil yab ciggilaanah labha
ciggiile waanamal yab wagittam maro kinniimil.
Too waqdi mekla ken afak raddeemil keenih abaanaah,
wadul mekeliiy, walul mekeli yakken Qafar caxal ya
hawi maliiy, «maali caray le’kkal yab caray mali »
axcuk sugen. «Orba dabqah abaanaah, yab Yallah
aban» Qafar missilah itta. Ellecaboh yab faaticat orbisaanaah, faatica ede heen yab maaqka, tohu lakal
bagu maaquk dooqa elle’aban.
Tonna kinnuk madqa addal namma’nnah tan keexoo
kee xinto. Keexo madqeenimik tu tiitah cabe waanamaay, maqda numul madqeenik qunxam cabe kal kaak
beyaanama. Xintoh tu gactek kol madqeenimik garab
koh cabaanama. Xinto lem fiqma siitat le maraay,
keexo lem fiqma iitalih alle wa mara. Xinto madqa
gubak xintaah, Qafar Qafarre gubak xinta. Qafar
ayyunti caylah itta xiinise mara hinnay yaabah itta xiinise mara, too tiyak ariiqo Qafar missila «yaa’ttem
yaabah xintaah, gira gurmuddah xinta»
Qafar madqa boola le num kee kulsa le numuh inkim
ittaah, num ma xagurtaay, num ma biyaktaay, umaane
baahinnaanih num tabbixe, abba takku raaqe mara
takku. Ayyuntah inkih meqeeh, ken manoh meqeeh,
ken midirih meqeeh, ken baaxoh meqeh, Asamaq kee
asallamah inkih meqe. toh inkih kulli num isi
xexxaaral isi gar geyaama. Seehada gar is dacrissaah,
tet kulli num isi qiloh dacrissa. Qefer lem Qafar tamahah haysitteeh, Qafar kinnaanek Qefer Qafarre.
Qafar ayyunti, sayyowoonu labbowoonu, qunxuk
kaxxih elle aninaanih ikkel, sinn’af kee qaadat aban
macalah taqbe waanam keenik qaagitnah. Qafar af elle
yaybeleleqen ayyuftitte Temqooy, Qusba maacaay,
tabbo kee Yafyinti baye kalaanaah, qafar afih mixigwa
isi tummabul edde tasgalleh tacem qaagitna.
Kawsi siinil yamqay !

YA F Y I N T I S I N
M AY B A L A A L A Q A K
K A W I S A A Y, Q I K A

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

15 haytô gali

Qafar Sultaana / Sultanat Afar

yaybulloonu kinni. Baaxo xeeri way ayyunti magooweh,cawal yan way sinni sugeetih kacanu qunxaneyti
yuybulleh,
kulli
caddol
abinat
gaba
yessegelleenih,kasal,malol,mamaatal,coolal.

Iskol barta qunxaneyti kaadu edde yengeleh reeda elle
takkenna baritonu ,sarrak feeraysoonu fokkaaqanak gamadal, away barta qunxaaneyta mangi qafar been xissintek gamadal sinni qaada kee abuk raqtil fokkaaqo
gexsan .A abini ni sugeet faya heeleh baatik dacriselem
raq le tiya hinnam yot celta.
Away dago sanootah addat tekkem wagga haynek .
Amoyta Canfareh reedah n’ayyuntak qafariyyo tunbulleh sugeet kacni yunbulleh mangi qunxaneytak.

Sarrak tagorri dardaral 28eto liggidih gaciyyih qafayda
gexisseh bicissem qunxaneytaay malak makko kak
keeniiy, sarrak wakalih garit soolo geen way. siyasa

15 haytô gali

maraay qaada mari kak raqtem mali.

Away sultan Cabib bookoh reedah qafar ayyunti kulli
kabuk yemeeteh ken bahtem keenit gexa qabal qafariyyo qabal kinnuk, sugeet kacanuuy, kah loonuh yanine fayxiy caddiiy xagra kinni.

Amo gexak n’ayyunti, hinna ni qunxaneyti sinni abbobti kicnonuh, dardar takku, amoyta takku, sultan
takku, abinat ken gabah assgolli ne taybulleh.lee gaba
raaqisse qunxaaneyti faxak maraaqinna a qafaydak,
hinna kaadu gabxe raaqisse mari kaadu.
Ani hay yalli n’ayyunta, mano tanim ni sugeet waray,
yalli nabbobtih qaafiyat yacay qumri yacay kulli
maqaane ken gabal neh bicisay yalli.
Hassan Ali Robahé

Missilitte / Proverbes

Barat tekkeemik maacisaanaah, amanat tekkeemik
aroodaanah.
Barah kok naba num kasah kok nabah.

Barah kok naba num kee buxa xerrikel le num dirab
kol tacee.
Barteenim butak gibdih.

Baruuga yakami baguh meesita.

Baras baahe numuh umaah, giddi baroodah uma.
Barra koh abaanah ikkal koh ma quukan.

barrak teyna xalah cabaanaah, dorak teynat lee caban.
Barra baqalak yaaxigeeniih, lac loynak yaaxigen.

Barra doore barra ma geyaay, baqala doora baqala ma
geyta.
Barra ma waanaay, baalla ma geyan.

Barraa kee rakuubut cuggaane kok yabtam meqe.
Barra mali buxa maliiy, buxa mali buxuxxo mali
Barraa kee birta aswa mali.

Baacak yadreeniih , babbok yawqeeniih.
Baxi baaxok ugse siisa int caba.

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti

Yaf Yinti

Baxaa kee barrak boola niboonuh.

Baxaa kee barra elle faylisse’kek xayih uguttam meqe.

Baxi qunxam fanah can koh maliiy, yembek duyye koh
mali.
Baxi lem abbah caalaay, abba baxak niqbam isi caala.

Baxa waanam gandi hinnaay, baxah abaanam waanam
gandi.
baxa inki num xalaah inki num mali.

Baxa kah yeceen balluu kee saada caxa ramidik ma
ruuban.
Baraa kee rob faxaanah ikkal edde tanim ma yaaxigan.

Buxah amo guftem buxa guftaah, buxa guftem buxaaxi
guftah.
Buxal abba meqe kuti hawwa meqe.

Buxal sahi barte awki garbol foddat ma koosita.

Buxah amô qaysoo kee wadayti aqhlit rade kal raagaanah.
Buxa mali yab kee afti qabalak yanxuqeenim mango.

MACAMMAD AHMED AL-QANI

15

14 haytô gali

Qafar Sultaana / Sultanat Afar

L’intronisation du nouveau Sultan de Gobaad

La région de Dikhilvaaccueillir le vendredi 22 mai
prochain l’intronisation du 21ème sultan de Gobaaden la personne de Habib Mohamed Loita qui vasuccéder à son frère, Ali Mohamed Loita, rappelé à
Dieu le 25 juin 2013. Chef suprême des Debnés, le
sultan de Gobaadreprésente le garant de la paix et
de la cohabitation pacifiquedanscetterégionsud du
pays.

La cérémonied’intronisation du nouveau sultan de Gobaad Habib Mohamed Loitaestprévue le 22 mai 2015,
dans la ville de Dikhil, chef-lieu de la région. Il s’agit
d’un événementhistoriquetrèsattendudepuis la disparition du sultan Ali Mohamed Loita dit Ali Boko, il y a
bientôtdeux ans.
Le comitéd’organisation présidé par le Ministre de
l’Habitat, de l’urbanisme et de l’environnement, M.
Mohamed Moussa Ibrahim Balalaest à pied d’œuvredepuis déjà quelquessemaines.
Le nouveau sultan, Habib Mohamed Loita, connu sous
le sobriquet de Habib Bôkon’est pas un inconnu dans
la sphèrepolitique de notre pays. Eneffet, Ministre de
la défense de 1978 à 1985, cedernier a égalementexercéplusieursmandats de député.Bas du formulaire
Unecérémoniesolennelle à laquellesontconviées de
nombreusespersonnalités, dont les plus hautesautorités

Yaf Yinti

du pays, les membres du corps diplomatiqueainsique
des invités de tous les coins du pays et mêmeen provenance des pays voisins, estprévue à l’occasion de l’intronisation du 21ème sultan de Gobaad. Ils’agit pour
les organisateurs de donner un éclat particulier à cettecérémonieplacée sous le signe de la renaissance du sultanat de Gobaad qui avaitétéaboli par le système
colonial en 1930, suite à l’opposition de celui-ci à la
pénétrationfrançaisedansl’hinterland du pays.
Le sultan de l’époque LoitaHoumed ainsi que son frère
Hajj Ali avaient été même déportés à Madagascar. Le
statut du Chef coutumier des Debnésréduitdèslors à la
fonctiond’Okalgénéral a retrouvé son titre de Sultan de
Gobaad au moment de l’accession de notre pays à sasouveraineté.
Garant de la paixdanscetterégion cosmopolite etmême
au-delà de nosfrontières, le sultanat de Gobaad a toujoursexercé un rôleprépondérantdans le règlement des
conflits, le renforcement de la cohésionsociale et de la
cohabitation pacifique de différentescommunautés.
HA

Source: http://www.lanationdj.com/lintronisation-dunnouveau-sultan-de-gobaad/

Qafar qunxaaneyta kee dardaarinnu

Yalli ayyunta giineeh,bisul tangalem taniih ,afal tangalem taniih,diinil tangalem taniih, kinnuk kedooda ken
abeh itta yaxagoonuy,taysem faxe bisu yallaye faxe af
yaallay yok meesita numu iyye yayse goyti.

Sinam duma elle sukte’na leeh aluwweh innah isikgaca caylah bukkusak orbisatak sugen, sarrak xintooy
madqaay mirac haysiteenik gamadal tu elle sugtennak
katteh meqe gital gacteh boolale xinto dacrisseh’kal
umaane baaheh digaala abinat assen.

Nanu qafarak baxsa linooh kedoodah geytimak miraacay abbah raaqa linoh, dardaara iyyeenik , sultaana
iyyeenik, amoyta iyyeenik, ken gubal makaaban taniih,
lamma lakli fanih saay dacrissah.

Dardar kalawta leeh kuktal reedah,baxok yackumeh
caddo leeh ,woo baxoh bagul yan mari inkih kay xiintoh xinan. qafar saayah xintek kah xinaanam kah ramittanah haysiten xintok madqa kinni.

14

Amo raqta kalawta le dardaarak gubal wazir yanih,
kalah makaaban tan .Makaaban xintok madqa abinat
asissah lamma lakli fanih sifa meqe afal abtaah,af
yaxxaceh af kalsitah itta qafaray, tu sittak waa marak

yabbenih ellacaboh meklaanah, sarrak yaymaaqeenih.
Waagisaanah yaffareenim dardar miglis gudduysaanah
biilu takke way tekkeemik salafat tokkel gacan. Aadooy qaada bahtek abbay qaada muda ittem abba reedal
anih tuk salafat gacu mekle baxa kinni.

Asaaku tu elle gexxanna waggà haynek ni qaada baatih
gexxa, hinna isi dacrissa xaylo lee innek axcih qunxaneyti maa tummabul kak lee innek ? woh esseriy gacsa
faxa kinni.

Sugtem takkuqeh kulli dacrissah dadlissam tu elle raqta
mari qunxaneyta kinni, ken abini yaymaqem tamqeh,
woh naharak qunxaneyti suget yakcinem faxxinta sarrak ixxiga faxxinta sugeetit coca cule kaloonu.

Dardarinnu kee amoytiini reeda kulli saaku takkem
hinnaay, dardar kee dardar reedah fanat, hinna amoyta
kee amoyti reedah fanat, mango wakti yanu duudah
dago wakti kaadu yanu duudah. Away naharak amoyta
Canfare Qali Mirac reedisen saaku qafar ayyunti kulli
kaliibik mododeh sayuk labih qunxuk kaxxih ken bahtem sugeet kacanuy, tenem dacrisoonuuy, reeda abbak
kayyunti ko leeh, ku xoggal yani iyyonuuy, yayse abba
yakku dooqa kah aboonuy, kibal kay ayyunti kal leem

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

7 haytô gali

Madqa / Constitution

YafYinti

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2013): 4.438

The Revised Constitution of the Afar National
Regional State of Ethiopia: An Overview on Some
of the Key Principles
Mohammed Usman Darasa
PhD Research Scholar in International law at Andhra University, India

Abstract: This article provides brief an overview on the key constitutional principles of the Revised Afar Regional state Constitution of
Ethiopia. Inter alia, it covers the principles of fundamental human rights, constitutional supremacy, and rule of law, judicial independency, and separation of power and so on. However, it does not consider factual situations and only looks into or and descries the
constitutional landscape. Indeed, it attempts to cover a wider spectrum of issues, but and its purpose is not to discuss each principle in
detail, but just to forward an overview and offer some insights on some of the key principles enshrined under the Revised Constitution
of the Afar National Regional State of Ethiopia.
1. Introduction
ularism, the rule of law, separation of power, Judicial independency, good governance and decentralization and so
The Afar people are one the ancient endogenous ethnic
on.
group live in the Horn of Africa “Qafar Afrikah gaysal sugeeti”. The Afar is the considered to be the first cradle home
This article seeks to provide brief an overview on these
of humanity. Archaeological findings like Lucy (Austrolokey principles and silent features of the Constitution of the
pithecusafarensis) and many other human fossils have afAfar National Regional State of Ethiopia. Fundamentally,
firmed and witnessed this scientific and historical truth.
it will help to understand the key and silent features of the
revised constitution of the Afar National Regional state. In
The Afars‟ live in three adjacent states in the horn of
doing so, it uses both descriptive and analytical apAfrica- (Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea). Like in many parts
proaches.
of Africa, the colonial map-making has left its deep-seated
negative mark on the political, and socio cultural unity of
2. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
the Afar people in the horn of Africa. . As the making of
Fundamental rights can be defined as those entitlements
the boundaries was entirely based on the vested interest of
which are due to a human being because he or she is a
European expansionists that absolutely ignored the sociohuman being and these can be divided into civil liberties
cultural and ethno-linguistic make-up of the Afars were cut
as well as social-economic and cultural rights.
up them into three or adjacent states- Ethiopia, Djibouti,
and Eritrea1.
In contemporary democratic constitutions, fundamental
rights are usually provided for under the Bill of Rights. The
The language they speak known as „Afaraf‟ which is catRevised Afar constitution is not an exception and it proegorized with the Cushitic language Family of the Horn of
vides safeguards in the same way under its preamble and
Africa. The Afar National Regional State in Ethiopia is losubstantive articles as well. It enshrines or declares that
cated at the North eastern part of the country- Ethiopia,
respect
for and protection of fundamental rights and freebeing one of the nine founding members of Ethiopian Feddoms
as
one of its founding constitutional objective and
eration. The Regional state has revised its former constivalue.
tution by 2000. And it entered into force since May of the
same year-2000. The Afar State constitution is officially
The Constitution of the Afar Region, under its preamble
known as the „Revised constitution of the Afar National
declares that protection of human and Democratic rights,
Regional State of Ethiopia.
rule of, Justice and equality, ensuring sustainable peace and
development are among its strongly reiterated constituThe writing process of this constitution was led by the
tional commitments. The Declaration of human and Demthree young Afar Law professionals (Ambassador Hassan
ocratic Rights found under Chapter three serves as the Bill
Abdulkadir, Ali Hussein Weissa and Ahmed Hussein). And
of Rights of the Regional constitution. Its recognition
it is composed of preamble, eleven chapters and one hunranges from traditional civil and political rights to sociodred eleven articles.
economic and group or Solidarity rights. It embodies sevIn its preamble, it provides set of fundamental principles,
eral civil and political rights most of which are adopted
which include, the principle of basic human and Demofrom the provisions of the constitution of the Federal Concratic Rights and fundamental freedoms, supremacy of the
stitution which was initially adapted from the Universal
constitution, public sovereignty Constitutionalism and limDeclaration of Human rights2. The list includes the right
to life (Which forbids deprivation of life under its article
ited government, sustainable peace and development, sec-

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

7

8 haytô gali

Madqa / Constitution

The idea of limited government is therefore a constitutional
measure which can be used to check against or prevent
possible arbitrary rule by the government of the day. the
Revised Constitution of the Afar National Regional State
declares itself as the supreme law of the of the Region and
requires all other laws and practices to be consistent with
it and goes as follows : his Constitution is the supreme law
of the land. All laws, customary practices, and decisions
made by state organs or public officials inconsistent therewith, shall be null and void. Article 9(1) of the Constitution
of the Afar reads as follows:

‘All citizens, state organs, political organizations, other
associations and their officials, have the duty to comply
with this Constitution and abide by it..‟

It is therefore, all other laws and practices are required to
be consistent with those values and principle Provides in
the constitution for limited government in the Region, by
requiring that, the powers of all governments and its organs officials are limited to those provided for under the
Constitution as well as the other relevant laws of the Region or the country.
4. Judicial Independence and Impartiality

As it has been mentioned in the introduction part, establishing rule of law, ensuring sustainable peace,development justice and rule of law are among the pillar objectives
mentioned under the preamble of the Afar Regional constitution. Indeed it is almost impossible to achieve these
objectives without having an independent and impartial judicial system in the Region. Judicial independence is a
principle which requires that the judiciary branch of government must be independent and officers of the courts
should be protected from political influence or other pressures and that, the courts must practice fidelity to the law
in their adjudication.15

Judicial impartiality is the principle that the judiciary must
apply the law without fear, favour or prejudice. The Revised Constitution of the Afar National Regional state essentially provides for the independence and impartiality of
the judiciary through its various articles.16 An independent
and impartial judiciary is essential for the task of applying
and upholding the constitution. Essentially this is a sensitive task that involves applying the law to adjudicate disputes. As such, an independent and impartial judiciary is
perhaps the most important check and balance on executive and legislative power, the transgression of fundamental rights and freedoms .The judiciary must be able to
exercise fidelity to the law and therefore must operate in
such a manner that it is independent of influences from
any other Institution or persons but is subject only to the
constitution and the law.

8

A judiciary that is not independent cannot render the
checks and balances implicit in the democratic system ineffectual.17 Thus the independence and impartiality of the
judiciary is essential for the survival and proper functioning of all the other constitutional mechanisms for the protection of democracy such as constitutional supremacy,

Yaf Yinti

separation of powers, the rule of law and fundamental
human rights. Protecting democracy lies in their enforcement. Thus such mechanisms are only able to facilitate the
protection of constitutional democracy as long as the judiciary is independent and impartial enough to apply them
when adjudicating legal disputes. For instance, a comprehensive and extensive bill of rights remains meaningless
unless the judiciary is able to apply it when called upon to
do so by the affected citizens. Equally, a constitution may
declare itself or certain constitutional values supreme but
such supremacy can only facilitate the protection of
democracy against manipulation by the executive if the judiciary is not capable of applying and insisting on the observance of the supremacy of the constitution. Thus the
effectiveness of all the mechanisms that are put in place
through a constitution, to protect human freedom and
democracy is dependent on the strength of the judiciary
and the strength of the judiciary largely depends on its independence and impartiality. This is why some scholars
have described the independence and impartiality of the
judiciary as the anti-thesis of arbitrary rule and a cornerstone of constitutional democracy.18
5. Separation of Powers

Constitutional separation of powers is the idea that the
State must be divided into three arms namely the executive, the judiciary and the legislature.19 these three arms
must operate independent of each other but must have
powers to check and balance against each other.20

Thus separation of powers creates a system of checks and
balances amongst the three branches of government, which
protects democracy by making sure that power is not concentrated in one institution or one person, but is distributed
across the government. The checks and balances system
may lead to greater accountability between the three arms
of government, and such accountability helps check
against abuse of power. Broadly speaking, there are two
types of separation of powers. Separation of powers can
be ‘strict’ whereby the executive and the legislature are
completely separated from each other and there is no
overlap in terms of functions or personnel.21Alternatively, it can also be „partial‟ in which case, some degree
of functional and personnel overlap between the executive
and the legislature is allowed.22 The partial version of
separation of powers is more effective as it allows
smooth coordination of government functions and promotes checks and balances between the three arms. The
„strict‟ version has a tendency of leading to deadlocks
between the executive and the legislature and this prevents
government from taking action especially when faced with
a crisis.23 This is why contemporary democratic constitutions would rather provide for the partial separation of
powers in order to allow government to discharge its duties but in a manner that is accountable and subject to internal checks by other branches of government.
The new Revised Constitution of the Afar Regional State
formally provides for separation of powers24 Article 45
Deals with separation of the power among legislative, excusive and judicial organs of the Regional states. It vests

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

13 haytô gali

Qafar Sultaana / Sultanat Afar
Goobaqad Debneh xinto

Goobaqad debne aydaadi elle warsa’nnal duuma iyyan
saaku caxal maacis raddik rade maraay, tagorri sultanat
isi reedah dacayrih hayte xintoy elle udurrutteemil
cagla le xinto tekke. Takkay immay Dardar wano
gexxitam dacayrih aracat heen mara. Tagorri sultaanah
reedah yakke kuktal dardar wano sabbaaqo daabaay,
Qasal fuuxusa xaa iyyaanâ may, abinal table waqdi
sinam mangooh, baaxo wohuk nabah. Diggaleemih
dardar wanoh dacayrih aben xinto debne kak yaanam.
Debne itta qangara usun ugten saaku kak ukten
daqaarih migaaqa. Affara awdi iyyeenik Carka-meela,
Garaysa, Ankali, Ayrollasso, tama affara kedo kinniway xinto caddol mafia kee mirganto edde tan, Debne
xinto leeh, Adqali boorle axcuk sugen.

Tama xinto aracat heen saaku wakti luk suge foocal
Qafar baaxo mango mari faxak sugeeh, caylah aysinnaanih mari sinam abbiyak suge. Caylah aysinnaanih
num abba isih is abak suge. Elle naabbe’nnal Qafar too
tiyat koositteeh inkih tayse madqaa kee xinto haysitte.
Gabbaaqu akke waytek Kutbe kak ma tana may, sinni
kasat cubbussu heenik mangom woo dabaanih caalatak
gennek diini daguk sugeeh, saahada cayii kee iggimak
gexxaamah kaxxam itta muggudak sugte. Qafar addal
geyna gabbaaquk gennek sidiicam inkih geynah : Caylaay, Cayiiy, iggimaay, Diini boola Inkih sugteh.
Duma faxem sugtâ may tama waktik wadir sinam
cakkil itta’llih elle xiinan innah mango meqem abit bicisseeh, toh xintoo kee madqay Qafar ittin fanal
haysitte. Tonna kinnuk mangom Qafar addal maqar
bahtem ximtoy kulli daqaarih caddol haysiteeni manô
meqem abitih kaxxam xiqte. Qafar ummattah mano
kaxxam kak dadalteeh, Qafar elle ennitta baaxooxak
kulli’kkel kah xintem xinto. Wakti caalak gexxeemih,
Qafar kulli caddol boolatak dumal fiqmâ xinto kaxxa
ayti gexxo luk sugte.

Goobaqad debne xinto fan gacnek, fiqmâ xinto Qafar
inkih elle le’nnak baxsa lem macaay ? Axcuk abne
goranto keenik kalah tan fiqmaami baxsa lem ma
mangô maym, dagoomuy rata le taniih, toh kinnim
away laaqo deqsitta baaxoy mangom gabuutit kak raqtah addal tan fiqmaamik a saaku ayti le namma fiqmay
debnee kee Daratle deqsittah caddol abne agaaraldal
geyne.

Daratle addal ane waytaamak Debneh addal nammam
geyne: Debne baxsah lem gaadi kuktaa kee biilul caneh
itta qide waanama. “itta qiddek biilu maliiy, ittah xaltek ilmoyta mali” axcuk sugen. Elle yangaleenim
Booda, albe, Keexo, Waraa kee Gamra, tama koona
ximmo Qafar fiqmaami xeflih tangaleh. Tama nammam debne xinto kah lem fokkaqne waqdi, debne tama
nammam kah haytem elle tan wahan teet’ulluk le cal
kee caxxa kinnim geyne. Daratle fiqmah addal
Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti

geyneemiy debne xintoh addal wayne tanih, toh fiqma
qeerannah qide lacak cado elle seefan inna. Too tiya
kaadu gaba geyit raqtaah, too gaba gey ken wahanal
ma yan.
Tama namma ximmo itta’llih loonum taybu’lleeh, nanu
edde yabnam xinto Qafar ummattah xiqtaama’kkal
debne doolatinni caddol edde tengelem taniih, Qafar
mango’kkel ken aydaadut yabtah.

Toh yaanam debne xinto debnek weeqimih reeda dumaak, difaaqih haysitte mara kinnuk. Away wagri
dabaanal woo gide takke dacayri faxxiime wayta way
yekken saaku ken heen hadafak bayisseenim kee
yeymeeqeemih faylak qaku hinna kah edde yabnam.
Debne tilyanti qeebih racayto Sultaanih difaaqih
Laqqoyta Cummadih baxi Cajji Qali abbah kak yan
macxi gexem taniih, amo gexak goobaqad debne itroo
kee deero tagorriiy, racayto inkih le. Qafar luk sugtem
baye kallam faxxinta. Kah kinnim warisnek nanu luk
sugneemik taysem gaadak barinneemit wayne, iggimah
sugtem burta mari yani way mango kasle mari a saaku
yableh. Tohuuk, ellecabo waktitte bayak sugteemi
mangoomul naduure. 2009 Qiisi Udaas reediseeh,

Ellecaboh tahak dumal Qafar addal reedak geyne aydaadul qafayda kah takke reeda Tagorrii kee Caraytok
kalih wahoonal ma sugi’nnaay, naharsi addah awasal
tekkeeh, 2011 Sultan Canfaxe Qali Mirac reede. taway
Goobaqadal takke. Qaadak tu elle sugtennal Goobaqad
Debne lem fiqmat-abbiinu’kal reeda hinna. Qusbam
takkem kaadu umam hinna.
Faxe bisuuy tallay rata leemiy a saaku neh taybullem
ni ayyunti mari af kee mari Qaadoodi barteeh, addat
tabteek geeral inkih taysem isi abuk raqti kinim yismiteenimi.

Toh yaanam afriikah gaysal geytima abuk raqti le mari
able waak suge’kal ken adda obte qado marih tu
taaxago xer saakuk toh yubleeh, nim ni gabat baysa
gidah ni marih afat boola le axcuk mangom nek bayte.
Tonna kinnuk, Marin mara kinnuk Meqe maray garci
neh kale kaadu yanih. Takke way away tu elle nable’nnal Qafar abuk raqtik mangoomul nandabbeeh, tohuk
gexak tahak wadir nee niimil aaxige loon. Ani haay
Qafar abuk raqti.

13

12 haytô gali

Qafar Sultaana / Sultanat Afar

Yaf Yinti

9 haytô gali

Madqa / Constitution

15) security of the person, to liberty (which prohibits
arbitrary arrest and deprivation of liberty articles 19 and
20), protection against cruel, inhuman, or Degrading treatment or punishment etc3...

Moreover, the Revised Constitution of the Afar National
Regional state further guarantees the right to equality and
equal Protection of the law4.

The right to privacy which can be limited only and if only
compelling circumstances exist, and in accordance with
law.5

In the same way, (Article 26). The freedom of religion,
belief and opinion (Article 27); freedom of thought and
Expression including access to information of public interest, linguistic rights etc are well recognized and protected under the Revised constitution of the Afar National
Regional state.

It also incorporates various rights that Every Afar and
dwellers of the Region has the right to freely engage in
economic activities; to choose his/her means of Livelihood, occupation and profession; and equal access to publicly funded Services. It further requires the state to
allocate ever-increasing resources to provide social services; provide funds for the rehabilitation of persons with
disabilities, the aged and children without parents The right
of the non negotiable of the Afar to self-determination, up
to secession, includes the right to speak, write, develop
their language; to express, Promote and develop their culture; preserve their history; and to self and equitable representation in the federal Administration.6

In spite of the sharp homorganic nature of the Afar community in terms of culture, history, religion and language
the constitution the constitution accepts and promotes diversities. For instance it granted right to self administration
to the Argopa minority ethnics groups in the region the as
self administering district called «Baxsa le Argubbi
daqaara»7. Morever, the Revised Afar National Regional
constitution granted Economic, social and cultural rights
(ESC Rights). Every Afar or Ethiopian has the right to
freely engage in economic activities; to choose his/her
means of livelihood, occupation and profession; and equal
access to publicly funded Services. It further requires the
state to allocate ever-increasing resources to provide social
services; provide funds for the rehabilitation of persons
with Disabilities, the aged and children without parent’s
etc8 The Constitution also guarantees several labour rights.
These rights include the right to association including the
right to form trade unions for collective bargaining purposes; the right to strike; equal pay for equal work; paid
leaves; reasonable limits to working hours; and a healthy
and safe work environment.9

12

The Economic Social and cultural rights guaranteed the revised constitution of the Afar National Regional state. The
constitution creates clear constitutional obligation up on
the Regional state to strive for the practical realization of
Socio economic and cultural rights granted under the constitution. Moreover, the provisions create government obYaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Yaf Yinti

ligations, rather than individual or collective rights, in a
manner similar to the state policy principles and objectives.

One essential feature of the revised Afar National Regional
constitution is the recognition of third generation or group
or solidarity rights. The right to self-determination up to
secession, the right to development and the right to a clean
and healthy environment are clearly enshrined.10
The right to development is recognized as a benefit of the
peoples of the Afar people and any Ethiopian dweller of
the region as a whole, and in the form of a right to participation. The right to clean and healthy environment similarly recognizes the right for the benefit of all persons; as
such it appears more like a guarantee which accrues to each
individual.

Linguistic and cultural rights are well recognized and includes the right to speak, write, develop their language; to
express, promote and develop their culture; preserve their
history; and to self-government.
3. Constitutional Supremacy and Limited Government

The edifice of constitutional democracy is founded on the
subordination of the exercise of Governmental power to
established legal rules in the constitution.11

Constitutional supremacy is therefore a principle that elevates the constitution to the level of being the supreme law
of the land unto which all other laws and conduct must
conform to. In essence, this is a Principle of constitutionalism whose implication is to put government and every
citizen below the constitution, so that, no one can claim to
be above the constitution.

In a constitutional democracy, it is important that the constitution be the supreme law of the land because, constitution is an expression of values and principles bywhich
the people would like to be governed.12 Thus by insisting
on constitutional supremacy, those values and principles
are raised to the level where they become the standards
against which all other laws and conduct is measured. Assuming that these values and principles are democratic,
their supremacy facilitates the protection of human rights
and democracy because undemocratic laws and decisions
will be invalidated for their want of constitutionality if
such laws and conduct is challenged in the relevant courts
of law or any other competent organ for invalidation.

The concept of limited government requires the constitution to limit government’s powers to those provided for
under the constitution and law, and requires such power to
be exercised in the manner prescribed under the constitution.13

In other words, government must not have any other powers other than or beyond those provided for under the law.
As the popular saying goes, power tends to corrupt, and
absolute power corrupts absolutely and as such it is safer
to limit governmental powers than to give governments a
free reign.14

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

9

10 haytô gali

Madqa / Constitution

legislative power into the regional legislative council and
executive authority in the regional executive Council and
cabinet, lead by m6the president of the Regional state, similarly article 64 vests judicial authority in the Regional judicial system.
6. The Rule of Law

At the philosophical level there are different schools of
thought as to what the rule of law encompasses. However
the rule of law is essentially a doctrine which requires that
all citizens and their government be bound by the same
laws and be protected by the same standards or rules;
which are interpreted by the same principles at all times,
and as fairly as possible.25

The rule of law is com4 rnerstone of contemporary constitutional democracy as it plays a dual role of

protectingthe normative values of a constitutional democracy against manipulation and it also functions as a vehicle
for the enforcement of the same normative values26. in
terms of its content must be just and promote the normative values of democracy which include (though not limited to) democratic accountability, transparency, political
pluralism and tolerance as well as fundamental human
rights. Both the formal and material aspects of the rule of
law m6 are critical for purposes of protecting and enforcing
the constitutional democratic system. The formalistic side
of the rule of law ensures that government decisions are in
conformity with the law (principle of legality) while the
material side ensures that the law itself is consistent with
the entrenched constitutional democratic values and principles.27 The revised constitution of the Afar National Regional State under its preamble acknowledges the need to,
entrench Democracy, good, transparent and accountable
governance and the rule of law‟. Furthermore, the new
Constitution entrenches the rule of law as a foundational
value.28
Articles 9(2) and 13(1) impose a duty on all organs of the
regional state to uphold Fundamental Human rights and
freedoms. Moreover 13(2) of the Constitution require all
laws and conduct to be consistent with the provisions of
the Constitution, including the values and principles enshrined.

At the same time it imposes a general duty on all individuals associations; political parties etc to uphold the constitutional values, including the rule of law. Similarly article
13(1) imposes a duty on all organs of the state to respect
the rule of law by obeying the decisions of the courts.

7. Principles of Democracy and Public Sovereignty

Rousseau argues that the essence of democracy is that the
people are the sovereign or highest authority in the state,
and they enter into a social contract with their government
through which they give the government the mandate to
exercise powers on their behalf.29

10

In contemporary constitutional democracies, ideally the
people exercise such sovereignty through an election
whereby they give persons of their choice the mandate to

11 haytô gali

Yaf Yinti

govern. Thus regular, free and fair elections are an important part of democracy.

The Former President of the United States of America
Abraham Lincoln’s famous quote Government of the
people by the people for the people’ best captures the
aspect of democracy which demands that the people
should decide whom they want as their government.30 A
government can only be a government by the people if in
the first place that government has been chosen by the
people themselves.

Elections are the means through which people are able to
decide who they want as their governor. Elections are
therefore a mechanism through which the idea of government by popular sovereignty is implemented.
It is important that such elections be held in between constitutionally defined intervals, and they should be conducted in a manner that is free of any fraud, violence or
any other form of coercion and disenfranchisement.

The Revised constitution of Afar National Regional state,
prescribes principles of Democracy and public
sovereignty.31.

Essentially, the revised Constitution of the Afar National
Regional state requires that government must conduct its
business in a manner that is transparent and must always
account for its decisions and conduct.32

Information that is held by State institutions are not acquired for the benefit of officials or politicians but for the
public as a whole, and the public should be able to request that information whenever they need it especially
for purposes of holding the government accountable. Subject to a few exceptions such as those relating to protecting
state security and personal privacy, governmental powers
must be exercised in a manner that is open to public
scrutiny.33

The preamble to the Constitution of Afar National Regional state recognizes the need to entrench transparent
and accountable governance in the Region34 It also provides that transparency and accountability shall be one of
the principles of governance binding all State institutions
at all levels of the regional government. Furthermore, it requires the Regional government to formulate and implement policies and legislation to develop accountability and
transparency in all institutions of government.35

The net effect of all these provisions of the Constitution is
that, transparency and accountability has been entrenched
as part of the fundamental principles of governance and
Democracy that must be respected and adhered to by all
institutions of the State. Accountability by State institutions
can be horizontal or vertical.
8. Conclusion Statement

In conclusion, the Constitution of the Afar National Regional state of Ethiopia contains fairly modern and Democratic constitutional principles. And it grants long list of
fundamental human right of all categories. However, the

Yaf Yinti 19 Qasa-drri / Qado-dirri / Laqeeni / juin/juillet/août 2015

Madqa / Constitution

mode of formulation of the socioeconomic rights provisions of the Constitution is, problematic. Due to this, the
question of justiciability still remains being bone of contention. For instance, right to education was not clearly
covered as the constitutional right to the Afar Pastoral community and children. Therefore, there is a need to amend
it in the line with the International covenant on Economic
Social Cultural rights.
References

Constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1995
The Revised Constitution of the Afar National Regional
State of Ethiopia 2000.
Asbjorn E., „Economic, social and cultural rights as
human rights‟ in Asbjorn E. Catrina K. and Allan R.(eds).,
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1995) Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Black‟s Law Dictionary 2nd Edition Online (available on
http://www.blacks.worldfreemansociety.org/2/)
Conte A. and Burchill R., Defining Civil and Political
Rights: Jurisprudence of the United Nations Human
Rights Committee. 2 ed (2013) Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Currie et. al. The New Constitutional and Administrative
Law. Vol 1 (2001) Juta: Landsdowne.

Yaf Yinti

Currie I. and De Waal J., „The Bill of Rights Handbook.
6th ed (2013) Juta. Diescho J.B., The paradigm of an independent judiciary: Its history, implications and limitations in Africa. In Horn N and Bosl (eds). The
Independence of the Judiciary in Namibia (2008).
Goredema C., Whither Judicial Independence in Zimbabwe? In Raftopoulos, B. and Savage, T. (eds.), Zimbabwe: Injustice and Political Reconciliation, (2005)
Harare, Weaver.
http://www.giga-hamburg.de/sites/default/files/openaccess/afrikaspectrum/2008_1/giga_as_2008_1_yasin.pdf
Mohammed Yasin Mohammed visited on 6 february 2015
Limington G, Reflections on the Significance of Constitutions and Constitutionalism for Zimbabwe. In Masunungure E. V. and Shumba J. M. (eds.), Zimbabwe: Mired in
Transition, (2012), Harare, Weaver Press.
Malherbe R., Constitutional Law (2009) Durban: Butterworths. Nwabueze B., Judicialism and Good
Governance in Africa, (2009) Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.
Olivier L., Constitutional Review and Reform and Adherence to Democratic Principles in Constitutions in Southern
African Countries (2007) OSISA.
Pollis A., A new universalism. In Pollis A. and Schwab P
(eds), Human Rights: New perspectives, new realities
(2000) Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Lexique

1
http://www.gigahamburg.de/sites/default/files/openaccess/afri
kaspectrum/2008_1/giga_as_2008_1_yasin.pdf
2 See chapter three of the constitution of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
3 See Revised Afar Regional constitution article
Constitution, Arts. 14 – 18
4 Ibid Article 25.
5 Ibid art 26
6 Ibid art 37
7 Ibid art 43
8 Ibid art 39
9 Ibid art 40
10 See articles 37,41-42 of the revised Constitution of the
Afar National Regional state.
11 21 Diescho J.B., The paradigm of an independent judiciary: Its history, implications and limitations in Africa in
Horn N and Bosl (eds), The Independence of the Judiciary in
Namibia (2008) at 40.
12 Currie et. al., The New Constitutional and Administrative
Law
(2001) at 24-25.
13 Ibid at 10-11.
14 Becker „What is Democracy‟ 2008, 4. Available at:
http://library.fes.de/pdffiles/ bueros/madagaskar/05860.pdf
15 Ibid
16 See articles 64-66 of the Revised constitution of the Afar
National Regional state.
17 Goredema C. Whither Judicial Independence in
Zimbabwe? In Raftopoulos, B. and Savage, T. (eds.),
Zimbabwe: Injustice and Political Reconciliation, (2005)
Harare, Weaver at 100
18 Diescho J.B.,The paradigm of an independent judiciary:
Its history, implications and limitations in Africa. In

Horn N and Bosl (eds). The Independence of the Judiciary
in Namibia (2008) at 19 Malherbe R., Constitutional Law
(2009) Durban: Butterworths at 7819
20 Ibid
21 Barber N.W., Prelude to Separation of powers (2001) 60
The Cambridge Law Journal 59- 60.
22 Ibid. P.39
23 Ibid. P. 72
24 See articles, 44,45 and 65 of the revised constitution of
the Afar National Regional State.
25 Suppra cited note 25 P.6
26 Ibid
27 Currie etal. The New Constitutional and Administrative
Law (2001) at 78 and 81.
28 See articles 9 and 44 of the Revised constitution of the
Afar National Regional State constitution.
29 Suppra cited 25. P 25.
30 Keane J., Democracy: The Rule of Nobody? (2004)
Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung at 2. Available at: http://johnkeane.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/rule_of_nobody.pdf (accessed on 24
October 2014).
31 See articles 9(1), 43, 44, 46 of the Revised constitution
of the Afar National Regional state.
32 See article 12 of the Revised constitution of the Afar
National Regional State.
33 Suppra cited note 31 p.236
34 Ibid supra cited note 36.
35 See articles 10-13, 29,36, 40, 53 and 101 of the Revised
constitution of the Afar National Regional state
constitution, 2000.

Volume 4 Issue 3, March 2015
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY

11
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