lecture Openings design .pdf



Nom original: lecture-Openings_design.pdfTitre: محاضرة رقم -4 الفتحات-الشبابيك-الأبواب.docAuteur: aelastal

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Openings
Lecture No.4
Course Director: Ahmed Elastal
Instructors: Monzer El-Meterbaei
Reem Abu El-Kair

sunday 23-11-2008

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
‫اﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت‬
Openings

1. Windows
"Windows are a very important part of both interior planning and exterior
styling."
v Traditionally, the window was considered an “opening” in the wall.
v Windows, perform several distinct functions. The most important of these is
normally the admission of “light” both from a practical stand pointed for it’s
psychological and aesthetic effect on the interior space.
v Any window design must satisfy the technical requirements of the relevant parts of
building. The main considerations are size, format, divisions, way of opening,
thermal and sound insulation, fire resistance and general safety issues, including the
use of security glazing must also be taken into account.
v A second function of windows is ventilation.
v A third function of windows is to permit vision, in or out.
v Fourth, windows sometimes serve as an emergency escape.
v Finally, windows are elements of architectural composition.

‫ ( ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻴﺤﻤل ﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﺨﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ ﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺫﺍﺕ‬١) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﻀﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺼﻴﺔ ﻻﻫل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﻤﻨﺘﺸﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪..‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﻭﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﻜﻌﻨﺼﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ‪...‬ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻁﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ‬

‫ﺒــ ‪curtain-wall‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٤‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻷﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺒﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺨﺎﻨﻴﻭﻨﺱ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺩﺭﻭﺴﺔ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٥‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺸﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﺎﺸﺎ ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺎ‪...‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺠﻭ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺤﺎﻨﻲ‬

‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﻭﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬٦) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﻜﺎﺴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻍ ﻜﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ‬

‫ﺒﺨﺎﻨﻴﻭﻨﺱ‬

Light
v The amount of light admitted depends on the number, size, location, and
transparency of the windows.
v The orientation of the windows will have an important effect upon the quality of the
light admitted.
v The type of glass used will also affect the quality of the light, as well as the quantity.
v If daylight is considered to be essential for the use to which a room will be put, then
windows are an unavoidable necessity.
v For workrooms which are 3.5m or more high, the light transmission surface of the
window must be at least 30% of the outside wall surface, i.e >0.3 AXB

‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ‬٧) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫( ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺭﻓﺘﻲ ﺠﻠﻭﺱ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺘﻁل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﺭ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬٨) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬
..‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻻﺘﺴﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺍﻍ‬...‫ﺒﺤﺩﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯل‬

Ventilation
v Where windows are used for ventilation, the requirements vary the season and the
climate.
v In cold weather the principal requirement is to deflect the entering air upward.
v In hot dry summer weather, it is often desirable to admit as much breeze as
possible.

‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯل‬٩) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

Vision
v The vision function of glass in windows works both ways, permitting one to look out
as well as to look in.
v Where looking out is a pleasure that can be indulged, large clear glass areas should
be used with as few divisions as possible.
v The use of large glass areas not only permits the view to be enjoyed but also makes
the room itself seen more spacious.

Fig. (10) shows that the choice of windows is important in room planning and design.

Fig. (11) shows that large glass panes
bedroom.

enhance the view in this

Fi.g. (12) shows that the windows form living room
to the terrace are located where glass walls are large.

Escape
v Windows used for emergency escape must be easy to open, have reasonably low sills,
and openings large enough to go through without difficulty.

‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯل ﺍﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻬﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬١٣) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍﺭﺉ‬

Materials
v Windows are commonly made of wood, steel, and aluminum, less often of stainless
steel or bronze.

..‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬١٤) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٥‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﻟﻭﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺴﻬﻠﺔ‪..‬‬

‫‪1.1. Types of Windows‬‬
‫)‪Double-hung (Casement‬‬
‫‪Projected‬‬
‫‪Awning‬‬
‫‪Vertically and Horizontally Pivoted‬‬
‫‪Sliding Window‬‬
‫‪Pictured Window‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٦‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ‪ Casement‬ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻅﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬

‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ( ١٧‬ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻙ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺼﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ‪Casement‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٨‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻕ ﺍﻓﻘﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﺭﺃﺴﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (١٩‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻘﺔ ﺍﻓﻘﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﺭﺃﺴﻴﺎﹰ‪...‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢٠‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢١‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻱ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢٢‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ‪ Fixed window‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻏﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ‬

1.2. Types of Operation
v
v
v
v
v
v
v

Window vents may slide horizontally or vertically.
Hinged at top open out (casement)
Hinged at bottom open in (casement)
Hinged at left.
Hinged at right (casement side hung)
Pivoted-vertically or horizontally.
Fixed light.

..‫ ( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬٢٣) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

1.3. Other considerations
v Every work area needs a window leading to the outside world.
v The window area which transmits light must be at least 1/20 of the surface area of
the floor in the work space.
v The total width of all the windows must amount to at least 1/10 of the total width of
all the walls.
v Window size as %10 of room floor area.
v In planning the size of windows, the optimum daylight level relative to the purpose
of the room must be the deciding factor. For example, building regulations require a
min. Window area of 1/8 of the floor surface area for living rooms.
v The window width in secondary rooms can be chosen according to the distance
between the rafters.
v Minimum height of the glass surface is 1.3m.
v The total height of all windows must be 50% of the width of the workroom .i.e.
Q=0.5R.

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢٤‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٢٥‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ‬

‫( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﻜﻤﻨﻁﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺫﺓ ﻜﺨﺯﻥ ﺠﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬٢٦) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

Fig. (27) shows that high window give privacy and allow wall space
for furniture. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﻌﺮض اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﺸﺮﺑﯿﺔ ﺑﻐﺮض اﻟﺨﺼﻮﺻﯿﺔ‬

2. Doors
v Internal doors must be positioned in order to maximize the usable room space.
v It is necessary to decide whether a door should open inwards or outwards.
Normally doors open into the room.
v The width of doors is determined by it’s use and the room into which leads. The
minimum inside width of a door opening is 55cm.
v In residential buildings the standard door opening width are as follows.
1. Single-panel doors: main rooms approx. 80 cm, auxiliary rooms approx, 69 cm,
front doors to flats approx. 90 cm, front doors to houses up to 115 cm.
2. Double doors: main rooms approx. 170 cm, front doors 140-225 cm.
3. Door opening height at least 185 cm. but normally 195-200 cm.

‫( ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﺩﺨﻭل ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﺍﻍ‬٢٨) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

Door Types
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v

Hung right or left door.
Swinging double door.
Pivoting door.
Sliding door.
Revolving door.
Folding door.
Telescopic door.
Roller shutter door.
Fire door.

‫ ( ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻻﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‬٢٩) ‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٠‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ( ٣١‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻻﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٢‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﻤﻔﺼل ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻀﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٣‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻘﻁ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٤‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻻﻭﻀﺎﻉ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٥‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٦‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻕ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻟﺘﺭﺍﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺩﻤﺞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪...‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ( ٣٧‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻔﺼﻠﻲ ‪ casement‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻨﻁﻭﻱ ‪folding door‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎرﯾﺔ‬

‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ )ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ( ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩﻩ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺃﺨﺫﻫﺎ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‪:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ .٣‬ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻟﻌل ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﻭﺸﺎﻗﺔ ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻤﺘﻀﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻀﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬
‫ﺴﻬﻼ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺩﻋﺕ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺜﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺠﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬

‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴـﺔ‬

‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺤـل ﻤﻌﻤـﺎﺭﻱ ﻤﺤـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل ﺘﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻜﺴـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﺩﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺨﻼل ﻜل ﺃﻭﻗـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺼﻴﻔﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺘﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺇﻨـﺎﺭﺓ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺨﺫﻫﺎ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺘـﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻹﺸـﻌﺎﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺨل ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﺭﻴﺤـﺔ ﻟﻠﺴـﺎﻜﻨﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺼﻭل ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﺴﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻹﺤﺴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﻭﻴﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻬﻡ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﻬﻡ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺘﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻷﻏـﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺠﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻴﺤﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺍ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻀﺎﺭﺍ ﺠﺩﺍ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺍﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ )‪ ،(Compromise‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻭﻴﻘﺭﺭ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻀـل ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠـﻕ ﺒﺎﻹﺸـﻌﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻭﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻰ ﺨـﻼل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﺌـﺔ ) ‪Under‬‬
‫‪ ،(Heating‬ﻭﻴﻤﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ )‪ (Over Heating‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺴـﺘﺩﻋﻲ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﻤﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﻤﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﺌﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﻅﻠﻴل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻓﻀل ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﺨـﻼل ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﺃﻗل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌل ﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﺎﺒﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸـﺘﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻟﺘﻘﺘﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻴﺢ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻤـﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ‪،‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﺴﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺴﻤﺎﻜﺔ ﺠﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻨﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟـﻡ ﻴﻜـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﻗل ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺒﺎﻻ ﻷﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸـﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺨﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺒﺭﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺤـﺩﻭﺩﺘﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺸﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻭﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴـﻲ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﺩﺨل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺴـﺒﺏ‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺸـﻜل ﻜﺒﻴـﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸـﺘﺎﺀ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺩﺨﻭل ﺃﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺃﺒﺩﺍ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺤﺴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩﺜﻪ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﻑ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔـﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﻤﺱ ﻭﻤﺒﺩﺃ )‪.(Sol-air Temperature‬‬

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‫ﻭﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﺘﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺎ ﻟﻺﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻭﻏﻴـﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭ ﻟﺘﻔـﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺴـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁـﺔ ﺒﺸـﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ( ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻗﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴـﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤـﺔ ﻭﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻬﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩل‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺫﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤـﺭ ﻤـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬
‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺘﺤـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﺘﺴـﺘﻌﻤل ﻤـﺜﻼ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺄﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺩﻓﻘﻪ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤـﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨـﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺌﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺜﻼ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﻀـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬

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‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻤﻬﻡ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺒﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺯﺠﺎﺝ )‪ (U-value‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻤﺯﺩﻭﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ( ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺤﻴـﺙ ﺍﻹﺸـﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴـﻲ‬

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‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻨﺼﺢ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺼﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺸﻙ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻷﺨـﺭﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

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‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﺘﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻜﺱ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ )ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻥ( ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻴﺸﻜل ﻋﻨﺼﺭﺍ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﻌﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻴﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺹ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﺠـﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻜﺱ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺄﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬

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‫ﻟﻜل ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺜل ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﺦ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻜل ﻋﻨﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪3-1‬اﻟﺸﺒﺎﺑﯿﻚ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺌﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻁﻊ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﻅـﺎﺌﻑ‬
‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﻋﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﻋﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺸﻴﺩ ﺩﺍﺨـل ﻓﺘﺤـﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺌﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺓ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻏﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺸﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻴﻔﻀل ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻷﻱ ﺤﺠﺭﺓ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺘﻪ) ‪( Habitable Room‬‬
‫ﻋﻥ ‪ 1/10‬ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺃﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﺓ ﻤﻘﺴﻭﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻊ ﻭﺘﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺴﺭﺏ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٨‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٣٩‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺸﻜل ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬

‫‪3-2‬اﻷﺑﻮاب‬
‫ﺘﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺓ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺸـﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻨـﺔ ﻜﺎﻟﺨﺸـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻬﻡ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻴﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻨﺴﺏ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻤﺜـل ﺍﺭﺘﻔـﺎﻉ ﻓﺘﺤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻁﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺨﻼﻓﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﺜل ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺨﻼﻓﻪ – ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﺭﺘﻔـﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ‪.220- 210 cm‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻗل ﻋﺭﺽ ﻟـﻪ ‪ 70 cm‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻜﺒـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﻲ‬
‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻋﺎﺯل ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻭﺕ‬

‫•‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﻴﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫•‬

‫ﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴل‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٤٠‬ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٤١‬ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻼﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (٤٢‬ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﻼﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺯل‪..‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺒـﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﻋﻤـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺘﺸﻴﻴﺩﺍ ﺃﺴﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟـﺭﺒﻁ ﺃﺠـﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻭﻟﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ‬

‫‪ v‬ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ v‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫‪ v‬ﺍﻟﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻺﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺤﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ v‬ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺨﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻘـﻕ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﺌﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻁﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻃﺮق اﻟﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬
‫‪Institute of Design Graphics‬‬
‫واﷲ وﻟﻲ اﻟﺘﻮﻓﯿﻖ‬


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