osra .pdf



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‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬

‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﻴﺪﻱ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻗﻲ‬

‫*************************************‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺬﻛﹼــــﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪2010-2009 :‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪّﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ ﻭﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻴﻖ )ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻭﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪّﺓ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺰﺍﻉ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭّﻻ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ )‪(Statut Personnel‬‬

‫ﻱ ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻟﻸﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﱐ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻴﻨّﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺷﺨﺼﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺸ ّﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﹼﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼّﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﲰّﺎﻫﺎ &quot;ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ&quot; ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺳﺘﻤﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ّ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ‪.1‬‬

‫ﺸﺨﺼّﻴﺔ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻭُﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮ ﹼ‬
‫ﱄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﹼﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﻳﻄﺎ ﹼ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺴّﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﹼﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪.2‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻄﻮّﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻇ ﹼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﰊ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻄﺎﱐ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻇ ﹼﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﶈﺘ ﹼﻞ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﺗّﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧّﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺄﻧﻈﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳊﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣّﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﺄﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺸﺮﻋ ّﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣّﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﰊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﻛﺐ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬
‫ﱐ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻟﺘﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮ ّ‬
‫ﲤﻴﻴﺰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‪.3‬‬

‫ﱐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴ ّﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸّﺨﺼﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‪ :‬ﺷﻠﱯ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨّﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻁ ‪1985‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺹ‪18‬؛ ﺍﻟﺰّﺭﻗﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬ ّﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ّﻡ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪1986 ،9‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.5‬‬
‫ﱐ ‪1951‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸّﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﻮﺭﻱ ‪1953‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﳎﻠﹼﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸّﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻮﻧﺴﻴّﺔ ‪1956‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻭّﻧﺔ‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩ ﹼ‬
‫ﱐ‪1967‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸّﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺑﻴّﺔ‪1957‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼّﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗ ّﻲ ‪1959‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﻮﺩﺍ ﹼ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻌﺖ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻣﺞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺯﺣﻔﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻭﺃﻋﺮﺍﻑ‬
‫ﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺜﹼﻠﺖ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﰲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 2‬ﻣﺎﻱ‪ 1930‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 19‬ﻣﺎﻱ ‪ 1931‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﹼﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧّﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮّﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 23‬ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ ‪ 1944‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪11‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 1957‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺄﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 17‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ‪ 1959‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﳓﻼﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪-5‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻼﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﹸﺄﺑﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ‬
‫ﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪ 1961-12-31‬ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟّﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭّﻳﺔ ﺳ ّﺪﺍ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺍﻟّﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌ ّﻲ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴ ّﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﻣﻮﺍ ّﺩﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﺭّﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮّﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮّﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺪﺭ ﰲ ‪ 29‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ 1963‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻐﻰ‬
‫ﰲ ‪ 23‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ 1966‬ﰒ ‪ 16‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ 1969‬ﹼﰒ ‪ 22‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ 1971‬ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺧﺎ ّ‬
‫ﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪ 05‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 1973‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴّﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠّﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸ ّﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﹼﰎ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻭﰲ ‪ 09‬ﺟﻮﺍﻥ ‪ 1984‬ﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 11-84‬ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤّﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 02-05‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭّﺥ ﰲ ‪ 27‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪.2005‬‬
‫ﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴّﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﳍﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﴰﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﺼﻨﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟ ﹼﻄﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻠّﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟّﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋّﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﲟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟّﺘﺼ ّﺪﻕ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍ ﺩﻳﻨﻴّﺎ ﺫﺍ ﺃﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺩّﻩ ﻣﻘﺴّﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﳓﻼﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨّﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﱪّﻋﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﺍﳍﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎ ّﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ&quot;ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ 222‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﰊ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬
‫ﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴّﺪ ﲟﺬﻫﺐ ﻓﻘﻬﻲ ﺇﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﻣﻌﻴّﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜ ّﻲ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳّﻊ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻪ ﺃﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻱ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﻪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋ ّﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﻴّﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬

‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 221‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ‬
‫ﱐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﱐ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬

‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨّﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺃﺻﻠﻴّﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺩﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ 02-05‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺗﻌ ّﺪ ﺍﻟﻨّﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺃﺻﻠﻴّﺎ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ&quot;‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﹼﺐ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪّﻋﻲ ﻭﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺧﻠﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﻓﺾ ﺷﻜﻼ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﺗُﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﻋ ّﺰ‬
‫ﻭﺟ ﹼﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻆ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻗﺎ ﻏﻠﻴﻈﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﲤﻬﻴﺪ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺗﺪﻉ ﳎﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﻌﻞ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻳُﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻳُﺤﺠﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻘﻪ ﻳُﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺑﻌﻘﺪﻩ ﲢﺖ ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮ ﹼ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﲔ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺸﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺩ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺧﺺ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ ّﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻐﺔ ﺗﺮﺩ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻋﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ‪&quot; :‬ﺧﻄﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺧﻄﺒﺎ ﻭﺧِﻄﺒﺔ‪...‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻄﺒﻮﻩ َﺩ َﻋ ْﻮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺘﻬﻢ&quot;‪.4‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﻜﺴﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﺀ ﻫﻲ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻀﻤّﻬﺎ ‪-‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳋﹸﻄﺒﺔ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ‪.5‬‬
‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﺄﻧّﻬﺎ &quot;ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟّﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ&quot;‪ ،6‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮّﺟﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﺘﺰﻭﳚﻪ ﺇﻳّﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻫﻲ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ&quot;‪.7‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﺍِﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋ ّﺮﻓﺖ ﺍﳌﺎ ّﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸّﺎﺭﺣﲔ ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱّ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺮّﻓﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧّﻬﺎ &quot;ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ&quot;‪ ،8‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨّﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺼّﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﻃﻠﺒﺎ &quot;ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ&quot; ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪّﻡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮ ّﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ &quot;ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot; ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧّﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﻪ ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺧﺎﻃﺒﺎ ﻭﳐﻄﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﻭﺍﻋﺪﺍ ﻭﻣﻮﻋﻮﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻛﻼﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﻣﻮﻋﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﲤﺮ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺯﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ ﳎﺪ ﺍﻟﺪّﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻁ ‪1403‬ﻫـ‪1983 ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪1‬ﺹ‪.63‬‬
‫ﻱ )ﺕ‪711‬ﻫـ(‪ ،‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻭﻣﻲ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﳏﻤّﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻜﺮﻡ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪2‬ﺹ‪.1194‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺍﳋﺮﺷﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﳋﺮﺷﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩ‪،‬ﻁ‪ .‬ﺝ‪2‬ﺹ‪.167‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪1405 ،2‬ﻫـ‪1985-‬ﻡ‪ .‬ﺝ‪7‬ﺹ‪.10‬‬
‫‪ -8‬ﺑﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺷﺢ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1994‬ﻡ ‪.‬ﺹ‪.51‬‬
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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﻤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﻤﻪ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﻴﻨﺘﻈﻤﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺠ ّﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ&quot; )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،(234 ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﻢ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴّﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪-‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺿﻮﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻓﺰﻭﺟﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ&quot; )ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻛﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭّﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺘّﻔﻖ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺻﺒﻐﺔ ﻋﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺗّﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃ ّ‬
‫ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺗﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺣ ّﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺑﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻸﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬
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‫ﻟﻠﻤﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺧﻄﺐ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﺃﺣﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺆﺩﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻤﺎ&quot;‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ 10.‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻭﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻳُﻼﺣﻆ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺤﺖ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺮﺝ ﻗﺼﺪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺿﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ‬
‫ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺗّﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ 11‬ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﺒﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﺭ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ –ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪-‬‬
‫ﺝ‪6‬ﺹ‪.239‬‬
‫‪ -10‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.240‬‬
‫‪ -11‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗّﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ &quot;ﺟﻮﺳﲑﺍﻥ&quot; ‪ JOSSERAND‬ﻭﺃﻳّﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ &quot;ﻫﺎﻧﺮﻱ&quot; ‪ henri‬ﻭ&quot;ﻟﻴﻮﻥ&quot; ‪ leon‬ﻭ&quot;ﺟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺯﻭ&quot;‪. jean mazeaud‬‬
‫)ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬‬
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‫‪ .1‬ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺗﺘﻀﻤّﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺗﲔ ﻣﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ – ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ‪-‬‬
‫ﻳﺸﺒّﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ &quot;ﺟﻮﺳﲑﺍﻥ&quot; ‪ JOSSERAND‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﶈﺪّﺩ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺴﺦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻻ ﳛﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﶈﺪّﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻴّﻒ‬
‫ﻓﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺴّﻒ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻞ ﻋﻘﺪﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻀﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻌﺴّﻒ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊ ّﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺒّﺐ ﰲ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ&quot;‪.12‬‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺗّﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻘﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻟﺴﺒﺒﲔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻛﻔﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺒﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﳎﺮّﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﳎﺮّﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺗﻌﻬّﺪ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺧﻄﻴﺐ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ &quot;ﻟﻮﻳﺴﻞ&quot; ‪&quot; :LOYCEL‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌّﻠﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺧﻄﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺃ ّ‬
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‫ﺍﳊ ّﻖ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻃﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺪﻫﺎ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻗ ّﺮ ﳍﺎ ﺻﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﳎﺮﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻘﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﱪﺭ ﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺠﻤﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﺪﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﺄﻥ &quot;ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ &quot;ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻃﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﲰﻲ‬
‫ﻕ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻞ ﺃﻗ ّﺮ ﳍﺎ ﺻﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺮ َ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪.14‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﹼﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (06‬ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻴّﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳُﻘﺮﺃ ﻟﻠﺘﱪّﻙ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ‬
‫ﻳُﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻻ ﳎﺮّﺩ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (06‬ﻋﻠﻰ &quot;ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌ ّﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﺎ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﲟﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﺎ ﻣﱴ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ&quot;‬
‫‪Leçons de droit civil.3vol. les personnes .6éd. montchreftien. h.l.j/ mazeaud. p78.‬‬
‫‪. lecons de droit civil. ibid. p 78 -12‬‬
‫‪lecons de droit civil. IBID.p 78 - . -10‬‬
‫‪ -14‬ﳏﺪﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺏ –ﺑﺎﺗﻨﺔ‪. -‬ﺝ‪1‬ﺹ‪.28‬‬
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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻗﻮّﺓ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻣﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻓﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻘﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺮﻑ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪15‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﱪﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺠﻤﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﺪﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ &quot;ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ&quot;‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺧﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺟﱪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ‬
‫ﺑـ &quot; ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﻋﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳّﺔ ‪:16‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ &quot;ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ &quot;ﻻ‬
‫ﺿﺮﺭ ﻭ ﻻ ﺿﺮﺍﺭ&quot; ﻷﻧﻪ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﲡﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻗﻠﹼﺔ ﺃﻗﻀﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ‪.17‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ‪.18‬‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺍﻓﻘﺘﻪ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﹼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺤﺪﺙ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺿﺮﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﹼﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻧﺘﺞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻐﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺿﺮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ &quot;ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺮﻳﺮ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺭﺍﺀ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -15‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗُﻄﻠﻖ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﻳﻌّﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ – ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ .‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪.‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ –ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ -‬ﻁ‪.1980 2‬‬
‫‪ -16‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻦ ﳐﻄﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻓﺴﺦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺖ ﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻄﻮﻝ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -17‬ﺗﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﺹ‪. 90‬‬
‫‪ -18‬ﺑﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﲔ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ 1‬ﺹ‪. 34‬‬
‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺪ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻋﻘﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺇﻧّﻤﺎ‬
‫ﳝﺎﺭﺱ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧّﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮّﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﻀّﻤﺎﻥ&quot; ﻭﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨّﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳑّﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺳﺘﺮﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷ ﹼﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻧﻔﺴﻴّﺔ‪ .‬ﳑّﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤّﺪ ﲞﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻄﻴﻌﻲ )ﻣﻔﱵ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳّﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ( ﻭﻋﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻘﺮ‪.19‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺎﺩﻳّﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺦ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮ ﳏﻤّﺪ ﺷﻠﺘﻮﺕ‪ ،20‬ﻭﻓﺘﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻳﲏ‪.21‬‬
‫ﱯ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺿﺮﺍﺭ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳُﺰﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﻮﻳﺾ‪.22‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮ ّ‬
‫ﻳُﻌﻮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ )ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳُﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻠﺘّﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﺭ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺷﺮﻃﺎﻥ‪:23‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳌﻦ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻣﱪﺭ ﻳﱰﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻠﺘّﻌﻮﻳﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻴُﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰒ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ‪ :‬ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ&quot;‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﳊﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﻭﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻔﻖ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺟﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳُﻠﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 124‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ(‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻀﺖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ &quot;ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻭﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪...‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﻨﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ -19‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴّﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﺎﺋﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪،‬ﺹ‪.78‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺑﻮﱐ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﺹ‪- 20 .35‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﲝﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺝ‪2‬ﺹ‪.637‬‬
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‫ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.36‬‬‫‪ -23‬ﺍﻟﺰﺣﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﻫﺒﻪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ –ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ -‬ﺝ‪ 7‬ﺹ‪. 28‬‬

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‫‪10‬‬

‫ﻣﱪﺭ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﲢﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻌﻮﻥ ﺿﺪﻩ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ&quot; )ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ‪ 1993/07/13‬ﻡ‪.‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻉ ‪ 1995/01‬ﺹ‪(128‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﻟﺪﻯ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺗﻠﺤﻖ ﺿﺮﺭﺍ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺒﲔ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ )ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻭﺟﺴﻴﻢ ﳝﺲ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻀﺮﺭﻳﻦ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺧﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻭﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻋﺪﻭﳍﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 423‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ‪ 09-08‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ ،2008-02-25‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪&quot; 426‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺔ ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﲟﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻟﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷ ﹼﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻬﺪﻳﺔ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻫﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﰲ ﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺒﻀﻬﺎ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ :24‬ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻫﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻮﺍﻫﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﰲ ﻫﺒﺘﻪ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﳍﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﺩّﻩ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻫﻠﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘُﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻓﻼ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ‪ :25‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺪﻟﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻠﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺮ ّﺩ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻠﻜﺖ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺑﲔ ﺃﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﱂ‬
‫ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،26‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ‬

‫ﺃﺣﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (05‬ﰲ ﻓﻘﺮﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﺩ‬

‫‪ -24‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺃﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺭﺩ ﺍﶈﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ –ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ . -‬ﻁ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1399‬ﻫـ‪1979-‬ﻡ ‪ .‬ﺝ‪2‬ﺹ‪599‬‬
‫‪ -25‬ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺩﻳﺮ ﲝﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ –ﻣﺼﺮ‪ -‬ﺝ‪ 2‬ﺹ‪.456‬‬
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‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳُﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﳑّﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﰲ ﻓﻘﺮﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮ ّﺩ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳُﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬ ّﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺠّﻞ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫• ﺳﻜﺖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻭﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗُﻘﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﱐ ﻟﻼﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ &quot;ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻹﻫﺪﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺮ ّﺩ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﳑّﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬

‫• ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻘﺪّﻡ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﻄﺒّﻖ ﺑﺸﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﺒﺔ‪.27‬‬
‫ﱐ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴ ّﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ‪&quot; :‬ﻛﻞ ﻫﺒﺔ ﲤﺖ ﻷﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (1088‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺘ ّﻢ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‬
‫‪Toute donation faite en faveur du mariage sera caduque si le mariage‬‬
‫‪ne se suit pas‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﻓﺎﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ﱂ ﲢﺪّﺩ ﺍﳉﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻗﺪّﻣﺖ ﺍﳍﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﺑﻴّﻨﺖ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴّﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺘ ّﻢ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﺗﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻨّﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨّﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻻ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺒّﺐ ﰲ‬
‫ﻱ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﱐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺼﲑﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (124‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ&quot; ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﲞﻄﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺿﺮﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﻐﲑ ﻳُﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺒﲔ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻷﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﳏﻤﺪ ﳏﺪﻩ –ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺠﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪&quot; :‬ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﳑّﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻩ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺩ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ&quot;‪.28‬‬

‫‪ -26‬ﺳﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺣﺬﻭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻲ‪,‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﻸﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻡ‪ 3/4‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲡﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪ 2/2‬ﻋﻠﻰ &quot; ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻫﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺘﺠﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺒﺔ ﲝﻘﹼﻬﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ -27‬ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.87‬‬
‫‪ -28‬ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.35‬‬
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‫ﻱ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﰲ ﺭ ّﺩ ﺍﳍﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨّﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻧّﻬﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺩّﻋﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﳍﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﲦﻨﻬﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻬﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻪ ‪.29‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺩّﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻛﺎﳊﻠﻲّ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺒّﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺮ ّﺩ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﺪﺗﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘُﻬﻠﻚ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻼ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ&quot;‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺳُﻴﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻬﺮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﺗّﻔﺎﻗﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ‪ ،30‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﻼ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻘ ّﺮﺭ ﲟﺠﺮّﺩ‬

‫ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧّﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﻴﺎ ﻭﲟﺜﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺜﻠﻴﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﳎﺮّﺩ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻳﱪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻّﺔ ﺍﻟ ّﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ّﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﺼ ّﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﻭﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﺗﻔﻀّﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎ ﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﳚﻠﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻧﺰﺍﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳُﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻬﺗﻴﺌﺔ ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﰒ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺯﻋﻪ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳛ ّﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﹼﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴّﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻃﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ )ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‪ ،‬ﺣﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﺎﺱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻐﻠﲔ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺁﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪&quot; ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺸﺮﺍﺀ&quot;‪.31‬‬
‫‪ -29‬ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot; ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮ ّﺩ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﺎ ﱂ ﺗُﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺄﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﻠﺒﻮﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻬﻼﻙ &quot; ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﻭﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺮ ّﺩ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺮﻳﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳑﺎ ﻳُﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﺳﺘُﻬﻠﻚ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻪ&quot; ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.87-86‬‬
‫‪ -30‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪ ﻭﻬﻧﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺼﺪ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ 2‬ﺹ‪.22‬‬
‫‪ -31‬ﺑﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﲔ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﻥ‪.‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻟﻸﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪.‬ﺩﻁ ‪ .‬ﺝ‪1‬ﺹ‪32‬‬
‫‪13‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻨﺠﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻧّﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲡﻬﻴﺰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻠﺘﺰﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﳍﺎ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﻣ ّﱪﺭ ﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﹼﻠﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮّﻑ‪.32‬‬
‫ﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗ ّﺮﺭﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﹼﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﻱ ﳌﺎ ﻳُﺪﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺳُﻴﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻬﺮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻻ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺿﻤﻨﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟ ّﺪﺧﻮﻝ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﳋِﻄﺒﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪّﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰱ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺣﻘﹼﻪ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﻭﻻ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧِﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ&quot; )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ (234‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﻮﰲ ﻋﺪّﻬﺗﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻘﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ&quot; )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪.(235‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ &quot;:‬ﺣﺮّﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪّﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑّﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﹼﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺫﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺁﻛﺪ&quot;‪. 33‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ –ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ –ﺻﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ ﻳﺒﻊ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﳜﻄﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﻟﻪ&quot;‪.34‬‬
‫ﻭﲢﺮﳝﻬﺎ ﳏﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲤﺖ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻭﺗﻮﺭﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻓﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﺮﻫﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺭﺟﻌﻲ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﺋﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻮﻧﺔ ﺻﻐﺮﻯ ﺟﺎﺯ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻌﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻮﻧﺔ ﻛﱪﻯ ﻓﺠﺎﺯ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺧﻮﻓﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﱰﺍﻉ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -32‬ﳏﺪﻩ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.33‬‬
‫‪ -33‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ .‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ .‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺠﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ –ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ -‬ﺩ ﻁ ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ 1‬ﺹ‪.212‬‬
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‫ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬‫‪14‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﻓﺘﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺠﺎﺯﺕ ﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷُﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻀﺎ ﳊﺮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰲ‪.35‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﲤﻬﻴﺪﺍ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫• ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻗﺘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﳏﺮﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺡ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺻﺪﺍﻗﺎ ﻣﻌﺠﻼ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﲑﻩ ﺑﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﺿﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺪﺛﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻣّﺎ ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﹼﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺠّﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﳋﺎﻃﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺩﻳﻦ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﰲ ﺫﻣﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﳌﺨﻄﻮﺑﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﺎﺑﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﻭﲤﺎﺛﻠﺖ ﻓﺤﺪﺛﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻓﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ ﲡﻮﺯ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﺤﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺿﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳊﻘﺖ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﳑﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (5‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺑﻮﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺈﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳُﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﺯﻭﺟﺖ&quot; )ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ (7‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﺄﺑﺪﺍﻬﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﺣﺸﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻇﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﻢ&quot; ﺃﻱ ﻗﺮﻧﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻋﻘﺪ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﲟﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺿﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﱐ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻭﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﳛﺪﺩ ﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ&quot;‪.36‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (04‬ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺮﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺇﺣﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﻴﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ 7‬ﺹ‪.17-16‬‬‫‪36‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﳏﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ‪ .‬ﺹ‪.44‬‬

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‫‪15‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻘﺪﺍ ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺣﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻲ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺿﻴﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (09‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪- :‬ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ – ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ –ﺍﻟﻮﱄ – ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ –ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺭﻛﻨﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﻳﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺑﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﳘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻴﺜﺎﻗﺎ ﻏﻠﻴﻈﺎ&quot; ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﲦﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‪ -‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ‪ &quot;:‬ﺃﺗﺮﺿﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺟﻚ ﻓﻼﻧﺔ ؟&quot; ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫‪ &quot;:‬ﺃﺗﺮﺿﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺟﻚ ﻓﻼﻧﺎ؟&quot; ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ .‬ﻓﺰﻭّﺝ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪.37‬‬
‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (9‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺺ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺭﺿﺎﺋ ّﻲ&quot; ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴّﺔ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻧّﻬﻤﺎ ﻃﺮﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ :‬ﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻫﻮ ﻭﱄ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻓﻼ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺭﺿﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻬﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺭﺿﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﺘﻤﺜﹼﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -37‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪16‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﺎﻓﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﺍﻟﺜﻴّﺐ ﺃﺣ ّﻖ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﻴّﻬﺎ&quot;‪ ،38‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ &quot;:‬ﻻ ُﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺍﻷّﻳﻢ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﺄﻣﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﺄﺫﻥ&quot;‪.39‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪&quot; :‬ﻋﺒّﺮ ﻟﻠﺜﻴّﺐ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ ﻓﻴﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﻤﺎﺭ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺄﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺇﺫﻬﻧﺎ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺻﺮﺣﺖ ﲟﻨﻌﻪ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﺗّﻔﺎﻗﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ&quot;‪.40‬‬
‫ﺴﻜﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻬﻧﺎ‪ 41‬ﲤ ّ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎ&quot;‪ ،42‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺯﻭّﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻜﺮﻫﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺄﺗﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ – ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ -‬ﻓﺮ ّﺩ ﻧﻜﺎﺣﻬﺎ‪.43‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗ ّﺮﺭ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻀﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﻜﻔﺌﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺿﻞ‪.44‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺯﻭّﺟﺖ ﺃﺧﺘﺎ ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﻄﻠﹼﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘّﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺖ ﻋﺪﻬﺗﺎ‬
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﳜﻄﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﺯﻭّﺟﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺷﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﻠﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﹼﰒ ﺟﺌﺖ ﲣﻄﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻼ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﻀﻠﻮﻫ ّﻦ&quot; ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ&quot; ﻓﺰﻭّﺟﻬﺎ ﺇﻳّﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻞ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﹼﻖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻛﻒﺀ ﻭﺭﺿﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻛﻒﺀ ﻭﺩﻋﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﻭﻟﻴّﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻒﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -38‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 39‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -40‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ .‬ﻧﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻃﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪.‬ﺝ‪ 6‬ﺹ‪.254‬‬
‫‪ -41‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﺝ‪ 6‬ﺹ‪ .255‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﻭّﺟﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻬﻧﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺼ ّﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺫﻫﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧّﻪ‬
‫ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻸﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻭّﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﺌﺬﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮ ّﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪...&quot; :-‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎ&quot;‪...‬ﻭﺃﻣّﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪–-‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺐ ﺃﺣ ّﻖ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﻴّﻬﺎ&quot; ﻓﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺃﺣ ّﻖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﺾ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺴّﻚ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻮﻕ&quot; )ﻧﻔﺴﻪ(‬
‫‪ -42‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -43‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -44‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﺟﺖ ﺃﺧﺘﺎ ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺖ ﻋﺪﻬﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﳜﻄﺒﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻚ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺷﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﻛﺮﻣﺘﻚ ﻓﻄﻠﻘﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺌﺖ ﲣﻄﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ &quot;:‬ﻭﻻﺗﻌﻀﻠﻮﻫﻦ&quot; ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺰﻭﺟﻪ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪17‬‬

‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ)ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻ ّﺢ( ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻞ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﻋﻀﻞ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻷﻧّﻪ ﳏﺾ ﺣﻘﹼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻞ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﹼﻖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺐ ﻛﻒﺀ ﻭﲟﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻞ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺿﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻲ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (9‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ&quot; ﻭﺃﺩﺭﺟﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﻨّﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﱄ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎ ﺑﻐ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻟﻠﻮ ﹼ‬
‫ﻱﺃّ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻬﻧﻰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺿّﺤﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (11‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﹼﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﻭﻟّﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﺭﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃ ّ‬
‫ﲣﺘﺎﺭﻩ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (7‬ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﺫﻧﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴّﺎ ﺑﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻣﻦ ﳚﱪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (13‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻹﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃّﻧﻪ &quot;ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﳚﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﻢ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻃﺮﻗﻪ ﻭﺗﺘﻨﻮّﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺗﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﱪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﱐ‪.45‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﳘﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺗﻀﻴﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴّﺔ ﻭﲤﻴﻴﺰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺗّﻔﻖ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻔﻈﻲ &quot;ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot; ﻭ&quot; ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ&quot; ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻔﻈﺎ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻷﻧّﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻔﻈﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻼﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -45‬ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 60‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ&quot; ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﺮﻓﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘّﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺗّﺨﺎﺫ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺿﻤﻨﻴﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺮﳛﺎ&quot;‬
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‫ﺍﺗّﻔﻖ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ‬
‫ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻠﻴﻚ ﻛﺄﻟﻔﺎﻅ &quot; ﺍﳌﻨﺢ&quot; ﻭ&quot;ﺍﳍﺒﺔ&quot; ﻭ&quot;ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻠﻴﻚ&quot; ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻬﻧﺎ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪ ﹼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺠﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻗﻴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘّﺼﻼ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺐ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot; ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫• ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ(‬

‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺄﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻟﻐﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫• ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺗّﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺪﺙ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﻠﺸّﺎﻓﻌﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻐﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴّﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﺍﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﺎﻬﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺼ ّﺢ‬
‫• ﺃﻟﻐﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 20‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﻛﻴﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﻮﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ&quot;‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ )ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻃﺎﻝ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺟﻮﺍﺑﺎ ﻟﻺﳚﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺿﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ) ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺧﲑ(‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻭﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺠﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﻓﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻐﲑﻫﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﳘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻀﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ,‬ﻭﻻ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻀﺮ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ &quot;:‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ&quot;‬

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‫ﻭ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪,‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺗﺘﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪&quot;:‬ﻭ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﻓﺎ ﻛﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ&quot;‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠـــــﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﱂ ﻳﺒﲔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺭﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻼﺀﻣﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪. 47‬‬
‫‪ -46‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‪ ,‬ﻓﻤﱴ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ‪:48‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ &quot; ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ&quot; ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ) ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬
‫ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 107-106‬ﻕ‪ .‬ﻡ( ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﺎﻻ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻼﺋﻢ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﲣﺎﻟﻒ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻻ ﲣﺎﻟﻒ ﺣﻜﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﺪﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﻬﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻠﻐﺎﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﻬﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﻭ ﻳﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﻭﻬﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳌﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻠﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﻓﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺃﻟﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺑﻄﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -47‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺧﻠﻂ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ&quot; ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ&quot; ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺑﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻴﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﺎﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ )ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺹ‪&quot;... (66‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﺎ‪ .&quot;...‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻗﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﻬﻤّﺘﻪ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﻼﻍ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﻮﻳّﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲪّﻞ ﺇﻳّﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺩّﺍﻫﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻠﺲ ﻣﺮّﺓ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺮّﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﻗﺒﻮﻻ ﳑﻦ ﻭﺟّﻬﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -48‬ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ‪,‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ)ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺣﻖ ﺣﻴﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ(‬
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‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (19‬ﻣﻨﻪ &quot;ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻃﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺭﲰ ّﻲ ﻻﺣﻖ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻳﺎﻬﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﺪّﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ&quot; ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (35‬ﻣﻦ ﻕ ‪.‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺝ &quot; ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻳﻨﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺑﺎﻃﻼ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ&quot;‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻓﺘﺢ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (32‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﰱ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ&quot;‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺫﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (19‬ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﳎﻴﺰﺍ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪.(53‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﻣﻌﻴّﻨﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻷﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﱂ ﳛﺪّﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺳﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﲟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻻﺣﺘﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﱴ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ &quot;ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺣﱴ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﻴﻖ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺑﻄﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﺑﺒﻠﻮﻏﻪ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﺘﺎﻣﻰ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻐﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺁﻧﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺭﺷﺪﺍ ﻓﺎﺩﻓﻌﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ&quot;‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻛﺸﺮﻁ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﳕﻮ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ﻭﻧﻀﺞ ﻳﺆﻫّﻞ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ&quot; ﻓﺈﻥ ﺁﻧﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻟﺘﺤﻤّﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺭﺷﺪﺍ&quot;‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺻﺤّﺤﻮﺍ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﺧﺎﺻّﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻌﻴّﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﹼﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ &quot;ﻭﺍﻟﻼﹼﺋﻲ ﻳﺌﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻓﻌﺪﻬﺗﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺺ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺰﻭّﺝ ﻭﺗُﻄﻠﹼﻖ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻼﹼﺋﻲ ﱂ ﳛﻀﻦ&quot; ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﺄﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻌﻠﹼﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻐﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼّﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪ ﹼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪ ﹼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨّﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴّﺔ ﻛﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‪-‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪ -‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ –ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‪،49‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻮّﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻟﻸﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻴّﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺷﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬
‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﺪّ‪ ،‬ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳉ ّﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻷﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﻟﻸﺏ ﻭﺍﳉ ّﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ‪.50‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗّﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻟﻸﺏ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻜ ﹼﻞ ﻭﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴّﺔ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻭّﺝ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﺟﺎﺯﻭﺍ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺪﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪ 19‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺧّﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﱴ ﺗﺄﻛﺪﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺂﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1930‬ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺣﺪّﺩ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﲞﻤﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴّﺔ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺧﻄﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﺄﺧﺬ ﺭﺃﻱ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻟﺪﻯ ﳎﻠﺲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺢ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-49‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ &quot;:‬ﺗﺰﻭﺟﲏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪ -‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺳﺖّ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲎ ﰊ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺗﺴﻊ&quot; ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -50‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺣﻴﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪1،1984‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺝ‪7‬ﺹ‪183-179‬‬
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‫ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ 1959‬ﺣﺪّﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot; ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪ 1963-06-29‬ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﺪﺍ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻔﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﺧﻄﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻉ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻭﻛﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳّﺔ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ‪ 1984‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (07‬ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺧّﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﻭﺭﺓ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺄﻣﻞ ﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻭﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺳﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻣﻮﺭﺍ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﻣﻌﻴّﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺪّﺭ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﻀﺞ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻣﺆﻫّﻞ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﳌﺎ ﲰﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﶈﺪّﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺎﻁ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫• ﺃﻟﻐﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 02-05‬ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪1984‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺻﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 223‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻻﺷﺘﻤﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺴ ّﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot; ﺗﻠﻐﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﺣّﺪ ﺍﳌﺸ ّﺮﻉ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻟﺴ ّﻦ ‪ 19‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺣّﺪ ﺑﲔ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐﹼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﺃﻬﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻴﺰ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺳ ّﻦ ‪ 18‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺷﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﶈﺪّﺩ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪1963‬‬
‫ﻱﻧ ّ‬
‫• ﱂ ﻳﺘﻀﻤّﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﺃ ّ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﳑﺜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﳛﺘﺮﻣﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴّﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺒﺲ ﻣﻦ ‪ 15‬ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺑﻐﺮﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ‪ 400‬ﺇﱃ ‪ 1000‬ﻓﺮﻧﻚ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺘﲔ‪.‬‬

‫• ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪1963‬‬
‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﺑﺮﻡ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ – ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ‪ -‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻃﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳑﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻼ ﻟﻠﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﳊﻘﻪ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﳉﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 1963‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ‪2‬ﻭ‪ 3‬ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﳉﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ‬
‫ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺳﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺂﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫• ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ‪ ،2005‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳُﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﺇﺫﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﹼﰒ ﻻ ﻳُﻤﻨﺢ ﺃﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺂﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
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‫• ﱂ ﳛﺪّﺩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺣﺪّﺍ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ – ﺃﻱ ﺳﻦ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬
‫ﺺ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﺢ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺳ ّﻦ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﺜﻼ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ -‬ﳑﺎ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻮﺿّﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺪّﻡ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ ) ﳑﻦ‪-‬ﳌﻦ‪.51(.....‬‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻫﻮ ‪ 13‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (42‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃّﻧﻪ &quot;ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻫﻼ ﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻪ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﺘّﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻟﺼﻐﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﺃﻭﻋﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐﹼ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺟﻨﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻳُﻌﺘﱪ ﻏﲑ ﳑﻴّﺰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺘﺤﺼّﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴّﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (84‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘّﺼﺮّﻑ ﺟﺰﺋﻴّﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﻴّﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻘﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬

‫• ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﻬﺎ ﻟﺼﻐﺮ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺟﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻔﻪ ﻳﻨﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻭﱄ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺻﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﺪّﻡ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،81‬ﻭﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺳ ّﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺪ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 34‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺿﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 83‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (222‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺫﻥ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻣﱴ ﺗﺒﻴّﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ :‬ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﻣﻌﻴّﻨﺔ ﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ ﺑﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‪،‬‬

‫ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘ ّﺮ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺮّﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -51‬ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊ ّﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻟﻺﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 18‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪15‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﱴ ﻭ‪ 13‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﺘﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪.52‬‬

‫ﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﺑﺄﻧّﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻑ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻧﻈﲑ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺣﻖ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺁﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺻﺪﻗﺎﻬﺗﻦ ﳓﻠﺔ&quot;‪ ،53‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪:‬‬
‫&quot;ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﻓﺂﺗﻮﻫﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ&quot;‪ ،54‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺲ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺧﺎﲤﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪ&quot;‪.55‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻮﺽ ﳊﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳍﺪﻳﺔ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﻓﺂﺗﻮﻫﻦ ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ&quot; ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﻬﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲰﺘﻪ ﺃﺟﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺁﺗﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺻﺪﻗﺎﻬﺗﻦ ﳓﻠﺔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻠﻬﻢ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻻ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻃﻠﻘﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﲤﺴﻮﻫﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻮﺍ‬
‫ﳍﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ&quot;‪ ،56‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ‪ ،57‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﻠﻮ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -52‬ﻟﻪ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳓﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺟﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺒﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻘﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﺋﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -53‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.4‬‬
‫‪ -54‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.24‬‬
‫‪ -55‬ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -56‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.236‬‬
‫‪ -57‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ‪&quot; :‬ﺃﰐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺻﺪﺍﻗﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺩﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻬﺑﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻯ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻬﺮ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻓﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻚ‬
‫ﻗﻀﻰ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺷﻖ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻀﻰ&quot;‬
‫‪26‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺇﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﻠﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻚ ﺍﻟﻼﰐ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺃﺟﻮﺭﻫﻦ&quot; ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﺭﺗﺒﻮﺍ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺑﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻤﻀﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺮ ﻭﻋﱪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ )ﳓﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (14‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻞ‬
‫ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﳓﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻠﻚ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺸﺎﺀ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻴﺰ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﳊﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪&quot; :(33‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﱄ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ُﻳﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻥ ﰎ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺃﺧﺬﺍ ﺑﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻬﺮﺍ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺴﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺈﳚﺎﺯ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺎﻻ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻘﻮﻡ ﲟﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳚﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻖ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﱰﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺫﻫﱯ )‪1.125‬ﻍ‬
‫ﺫﻫﺐ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻟﻴﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﻄﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﳍﺎ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ )ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﲤﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻭﻻ ﳚﺐ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﱏ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﻫﻢ )ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪4.5‬ﻍ ﺫﻫﺐ( ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺣ ّﺪ ﻷﻗﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻘﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻘﻮﻣﺔ ﲟﺎﻝ ﻛﺴﻜﲎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮﻡ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‪ ,‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻛﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﲦﺮﺓ ﱂ ﻳﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ‪ ,‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻀﺮ ﻛﺄﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﲔ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳊﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ ,‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺛﺎﺙ ﺑﻴﺖ‪ ,‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻳﻌﲔ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﺮﺭ ﻳﺴﲑ ﻳﺆﺧﺬ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﻂ‪ ,‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻣﺢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫـ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻪ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬

‫ﺻﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﺸﺮﻃﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (14‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪&quot; :(15‬ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺠﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺟﻼ&quot;‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺿﻤﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﻻ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻘﻮﻣﺎ ﲟﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻠﻚ ﳍﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﲝﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ,‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻃﻠﻘﺘﻤﻮﻫﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺴﻮﻫﻦ ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺿﺘﻢ ﳍﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻓﻨﺼﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺿﺘﻢ&quot;‪ ،58‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻢ ﻣﻬﺮ ﻓﻼ ﳚﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﲡﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺔ‪.59‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻻﺷﻲﺀ ﳍﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻢ ﻣﻬﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﳚﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪ ﰲ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﻡ‪ ,‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﻭﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻛﺎﳌﻌﺪﻭﻡ ﺣﺴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ‪ ,‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻬﺮ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻤﻰ‪ ,‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ,‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪&quot; :(16‬ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺎﰿ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ –‬
‫‪ -58‬ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪.137‬‬
‫‪ (59‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺴﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺤﺐ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺔ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻜﺤﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﺎﺕ ﰒ ﻃﻠﻘﺘﻤﻮﻫﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﲤﺴّﻮﻫﻦ ﻓﻤﺎﻟﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﺪﻭﻬﻧﺎ ﻓﻤﺘﻌﻮﻫﻦ&quot; ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪&quot; :‬ﻻ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻃﻠﻘﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﲤﺴﻮﻫﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﺮﺿﻮﺍ ﳍﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻌﻮﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻊ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ ﻣﺘﺎﻋﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺴﻨﲔ&quot;‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ‪ -‬ﺑﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (2/15‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻕ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻗﺮﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (33‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ,‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺇﻣﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻻﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ‪ ,‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳑﺎ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﺴﺨﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﳑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ)‪&quot; (34‬ﻛﻞ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﶈﺮﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﱪﺍﺀ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻰ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﻪ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﻪ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﲔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﻊ ﺭﻭﻋﻴﺖ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﻃﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ -‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻓﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ,‬ﻭﺟﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ -‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺟﻼ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺨﻤﺴﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻈﻨﺔ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ :‬ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺸ ّﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (15‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺟﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ &quot;ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺠﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺆﺟﻼ&quot; ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﲟﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻟﺒﺲ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ‪ ,‬ﻓﻴﻘﻊ ﻧﺰﺍﻉ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻠﻔﺎ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻓﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺣﻠﻒ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻒ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺾ‪ ,‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺭﻡ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ :‬ﺑﻴّﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ‬

‫ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺎﻻﺗﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ ﳘﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ,‬ﻓﻨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪&quot; (17‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ‪ ,‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺭﺛﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﲤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺍﲡﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﻔﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (15‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻛﹼﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻻ ﻳُﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺠﻤﻟﺮّﺩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻗﻀﻰ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (33‬ﻣﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺼﻠﺖ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺭﺥ ﰲ ‪ 1998-11-17‬ﰲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 210422‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻉ ﻳﻘﻀﻰ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓُﻴﻔﻬﻢ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻳُﻔﺴﺦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺳﻘﺎﻃﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺮّﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭّﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭُﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪&quot;:‬ﻭﺍﻧﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻣﻰ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ&quot; ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗُﻨﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ&quot; ﻓﺎﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ‬‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :‬ﻻ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﱄ&quot;‪ ,60‬ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ‪.‬‬‫‪ -60‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‬
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‫ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ &quot; :‬ﺃﳝﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻜﺤﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻨﻜﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻓﻨﻜﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻓﻨﻜﺎﺣﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﻃﻞ&quot;‪.61‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ &quot; :‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ&quot;‬‫‪.62‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰉ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﺯﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺴﻜﻮﺍ ﻬﺑﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤ ّ‬
‫ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﲢﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺯﻭﺟﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ&quot; ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬‫ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﺍﻷﱘ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ&quot; ﻓﺄﺣﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﱘ ﺗﻌﲏ ﳑﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬‫ﻋﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﻣﺘﻤﺴّﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣّﺎ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻧّﻬﺎ ﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﺘﺒﻴّﻦ ﻣﱴ ﳚﻮﺯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻄﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﳌﻄﻠﹼﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣّﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺿﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻴّﺐ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣﻘﻴّﺔ ﺍﻷﻳّﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻄﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺒﻴّﻦ ﺷﻄﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﲣﻠﻒ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺣﱴ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ( ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺛﻴﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﲑﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﺃﻡ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻠﻚ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﻖ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﺑﻜﺮﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻴﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﲑﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻼ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻫﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪) -61‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ(‬

‫‪ -62‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﻪ‬

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‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻃﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺳﺘﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺥ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺥ ﻷﺏ ‪ -‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺷﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺏ – ﺍﳉﺪ )ﺃﺏ ﺍﻷﺏ(‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﺷﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺏ ‪-‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﺷﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻷﺏ‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻞ ﻟﻠﻴﺘﻴﻤﺔ )ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﻛﻔﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫• ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ) ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪.63‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻮﱃ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺪ)ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ( ﻣﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﻫﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻛﻔﺆﺍ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻣﻬﺮ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ(‪ .‬ﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﱄ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﱃ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (9‬ﻣﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 02-05‬ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪01) .(9‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺃﻱ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪&quot; : -‬ﻻ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﱄ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻩ ﻻ ﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/11‬ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪&quot; :‬ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ&quot;‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫‪ -63‬ﻳﻘﺪّﻡ ﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﳉ ّﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺑﻦ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 2/11‬ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ &quot;‪...‬ﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺅﻫﻢ&quot;‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﳝﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻟﻸﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 1/11‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﺗﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ ﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻗﺎﺭﻬﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﲣﺘﺎﺭﻩ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻓﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﺎﺀ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺏ ﰒ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﱄ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻭﱄ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 2/11‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;‪...‬ﻳﺘﻮﱃ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻓﺄﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﱄ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻭﱄ ﻟﻪ&quot;‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﺑﺮﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻮﱄ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﺓ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻲ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺗﺎﻥ ‪ (9 ،4‬ﻭﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،(1/11‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 13‬ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻹﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﳚﱪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ&quot;‪ .‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺼﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺮ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪ (7‬ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﻮﱄ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻣﱴ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲣﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪-5‬‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 2/33‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﱄ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﻳﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺣﺪ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﲤﻴﻴﺰﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ ّﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺗّﻔﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﹼﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

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‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻟﺼﺤّﺔ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺣﲔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻟﻴﺴﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﺪﻭﺭﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﹼﰎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﺎﺳﺪﺍ ﻳﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﻮﱄ ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪﻱ ﻋﺪﻝ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺐ ﻛﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﹸﻓﺴﺦ ﺑﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳُﻔﺴﺦ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺴﺘﺤ ّ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺋﻨﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﻣﱰﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺮﻃﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﺒﺎ ﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﹼﰎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗّﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻈﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴّﺔ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺇ ﹼﻻ‬
‫ﻱ &quot;ﻳﺘ ّﻢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﻇﹼﻒ ﻣﺆﻫّﻞ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (18‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﲝﻀﻮﺭ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (9‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ&quot;‬
‫ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻓﺤ ّﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺛﺮ ﲣﻠﹼﻒ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (33‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱّ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ‬
‫)‪ (2/33‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﱄ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﻳﻔﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺻﺪﺍﻕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﹼﻟّﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻷﻧّﻬﻢ ﻳﺒﻄﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﺭﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﻜﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﺑﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺋﻨﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹼﰎ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺷﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ .1‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪّﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺬﹼﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﻷﻧّﻬﻢ ﻻ ﳚﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﻬﺗﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﱄ ﻭﺷﺎﻫﺪﻱ ﻋﺪﻝ&quot;‪،‬‬
‫ﱯ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﻮ ﹼ‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﻳﺼ ّﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﻴﲔ ﺇﻥ ﺗﺰﻭّﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻣﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﻴﲔ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸّﺎﻓﻌﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﺢّ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻴّﺰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﺤّﺖ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑّﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺗﲔ )‪ (09‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ‬
‫ﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭ)‪ ،(33‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﲨﺎﳍﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴ ّﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴّﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 20-70‬ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤّﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 33‬ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺸّﺎﻫﺪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘ ﹼﻞ ﻋﻦ ‪ 21‬ﺳﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﲔ ‪ 21‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪّﺩ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (9‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ &quot;ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺬﹼﻛﻮﺭﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻗﺮّﺭﺗﻪ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺭّﺥ ﰲ ‪ 1986-12-15‬ﰲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (33‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ ،43889‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻧ ّ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﲔ ‪ 21‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻴﺰ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻭﳜﺘﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳜ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲّ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻏﻔﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺮّﺽ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﻟﻌ ﹼﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻃﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ ،(22‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻧّﻪ‬
‫)‪ (22‬ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﲢﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺷﺮﻁ ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺒّﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻴّﺰ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ /‬ﳏﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﺑّﺪﺍﺕ ﺏ‪ /‬ﳏﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﻗﹼﺘﺎﺕ‪.64‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﺑّﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﺎﻧﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻭﻝ )ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﹼﺖ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲟﺎﻧﻊ‬
‫ﳑﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﻝ )ﻛﺎﻹﺣﺼﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﲑ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ &quot;ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ&quot; ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻳﻮﺣﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺘّﻘﻠﻴﺪ ّ‬
‫ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺻﻔﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺟﻞ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻛﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﺰﻭّﺟﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻧﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺒﲑ &quot;ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ&quot; ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮّﺟﻞ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻴُﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻻ ﲢﺮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪّﻡ ﺳﻴﺘ ّﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭّﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﺑّﺪﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪(24‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪) .‬ﻧ ّ‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ(‪ ،65‬ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﺫﻛﺮﻫ ّﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (25‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﻫﻮ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺮّﺣﻢ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺰﺍﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 64‬ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﹼﺖ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺑﺄﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮّ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻤ ّﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 65‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﺣﺮّﻣﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺃﻣّﻬﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻤّﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﺧﺎﻻﺗﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺥ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ&quot; )ﺁﻳﺔ ‪.(23‬‬
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‫ﺏ‪-‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻭﳛﺮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﻫ ّﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪.(26‬‬

‫ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ )ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ( ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ &quot;ﻭﺃﻣّﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺮﻡ ﲟﺠﺮّﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ( ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ &quot;ﻭﺭﺑﺎﺋﺒﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﹼﰐ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻮﺭﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﹼﰐ ﺩﺧﻠﺘﻢ ﻬﺑ ّﻦ‬‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺘﻢ ﻬﺑ ّﻦ ﻓﻼ ﺟﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺤﺮﻡ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻟﻮ ﹸﻃﻠﹼﻘﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻮﻓﹼﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﲑ ﺯﻭﺟﺎ ﻟﺒﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﳛﺮّﻡ ﺍﻷﻣّﻬﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻣّﻬﺎﺕ ﳛﺮّﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼﰐ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻮﺭﻛﻢ&quot; ﻻ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻻﺗّﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺧﺮﺝ ﳐﺮﺝ‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ &quot;ﺍﻟ ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘّﻐﻠﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮّﺑﻴﺒﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣّﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﻋﺎﻃﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﻮﻳّﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺘﺤﻤّﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻷ ّﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺰﻭّﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺑﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﺭﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻄﻠﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻋﻠﻮﺍ )ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ(‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻜﺢ ﺁﺑﺎﺅﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺳﻠﻒ ﺇﻧّﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺘﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﺀ ﺳﺒﻴﻼ&quot;‬
‫ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺗﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻣﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﲟﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘّﻄﻠﹼﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﺭﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﺰﻟﻮﺍ )ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ(‪.‬‬‫ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ‪ ...&quot; :‬ﻭﺣﻼﺋﻞ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻼﺑﻜﻢ&quot; ﺃﻱ ﺯﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨّﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻗﻴﺪ &quot;ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻼﺑﻜﻢ&quot; ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺬﻛﲑ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻄﻠﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻋﻴﺎﺀ )ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﲢﺮﻡ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ &quot;ﳛﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ&quot;‬
‫ﺝ‪-‬ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪...&quot; :‬ﻭﺃﻣّﻬﺎﺗﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﹼﰐ ﺃﺭﺿﻌﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﺗﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻋﺔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪: -‬‬
‫&quot;ﳛﺮﻡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ&quot;‪.66‬‬
‫‪ -66‬ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﳌﹼﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺸﺄﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (27‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ‪-‬ﺱ‪-‬ﺝ( ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﳑّﺎ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮّﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺃﺧﺬﺍ ﺑﺮﺃﻱ ﺑﺎﺗّﺠﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜ ّﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺒﻠ ّﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻫ ّﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻷ ّﻡ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷ ّﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﺿﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻷﺧﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤّﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺖ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺥ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﻬ ّﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻷ ّﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺭﺿﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺿﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤّﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻉ )ﺃﺧﺖ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺃﺧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺑﻨﺖ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﻴﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ﺃ ّﻡ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ )ﻣﺮﺿﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ( ﲟﺠﺮّﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺿﻊ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧّﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﻌﺪّﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺧﻮﺓ ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﻴﻊ ﲞﻼﻑ‬
‫ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (28‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻪ ﻓﻴﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭُﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺿﺎﻉ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺮّﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﺎ ﻫﻲ )ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜ ّﻲ(‪:‬‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻮﻟﲔ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ ﺭﺿﺎﻉ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳊﻮﻟﲔ&quot;‪ ،67‬ﻭﺃﳊﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﹼﻼﺛﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﻮﻟﲔ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃ ﹼﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻄﻢ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻻ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺘﻖ ﺍﻷﻣﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺎﻡ&quot;‪.68‬‬
‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴّﻌﻮﻁ )ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ( ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺼ ّ‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﱭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺭ )ﺍﻟ ّ‬‫ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﱭ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻭ ﳌﺎ ﺧُﻠﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳏﺮّﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻓﺎﻷﺭﺟﺢ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﻻ‬‫ﳛﺮّﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺑﻴّﻨﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (29‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻮﻟﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺎﻡ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﱭ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻮﻟﲔ ﻷﻧّﻪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻓﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻣﲔ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻜﺖ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻃﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﳑّﺎ ﻳﺪ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﳛﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ ّﻲ ﰲ ﺗﺒﻴّﻦ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻃﲔ ﻟﻴﺒﻴّﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺟّﺢ ﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﱭ ﺍﶈﺮّﻡ‪.69‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﹼﺘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﹼﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (30‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪-2‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪّﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪-4‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪-5‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻟﹼﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (8‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﺟﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪّﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣ ّﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ &quot;ﻓﺎﻧﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻃﺎﺏ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﺎﻋﺎ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ -67‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻗﻄﲏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -68‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘّﺮﻣﺬﻱّ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -69‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﺑّﺪ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺪّﻬﺗﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﻗﹼﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﳌﺆﺑّﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﻋﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻤﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺤﺮﻡ ﻣﺆﺑّﺪﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪39‬‬

‫ﻭﲢﺮﻡ ﻬﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﶈﺼﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺍﶈﺼﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻠﻜﺖ‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﺃﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪّﺓ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻋﺪّﻬﺗﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻼﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻌﻴّﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﺋﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻘﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨّﻜﺎﺡ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻗﻴّﺪﺕ ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺗﻄﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ ﻣﺮّﺗﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻓﺈﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﲟﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ&quot; ﹼﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ‪&quot; :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻃﻠﹼﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﲢ ﹼﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺯﻭﺟﺎ ﻏﲑﻩ&quot; )ﺃﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﺮّﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺜﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﺖ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺘّﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :-‬ﻟﻌﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﻠﹼﻞ ﻭﺍﶈﻠﹼﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻪ&quot;‪ ،70‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺑﻨﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺘ ّﺪ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻠﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﲞﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪:‬‬

‫&quot;ﻓﺎﻧﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻃﺎﺏ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﺎﻉ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ –ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪ -‬ﳌﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻟﻪ ﲦﺎﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫&quot;ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﻬ ّﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺎ&quot;‪.71‬‬
‫‪-5‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻋﻤّﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪...&quot;:‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﲡﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺘﲔ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻣﺎ‬

‫ﱯ –ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; -‬ﻬﻧﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﺳﻠﻒ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﺩ ﹼﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺗﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤّﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤّﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺃﺧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺃﺧﺘﻬﺎ&quot;‪.72‬‬
‫‪-6‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﻭﻻ ُﺗﻨﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ&quot;‪.‬‬

‫ﻱ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨّﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻳﻦ ﲰﺎﻭ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻜﺖ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫َﺗﻨﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﺆﻣ ّﻦ&quot; ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﳏ ﹼﻞ ﺍﺗّﻔﺎﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻟﻜ ﹼﻞ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺎﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ &quot;ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺈﺣﺪﻯ‬
‫ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (34‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺍﶈﺮّﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﻔﺴﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ&quot;‪.‬‬

‫ﻱ ﻭﺻﺤّﺤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -70‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘّﺮﻣﺬ ّ‬
‫‪ -71‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﻭﺣﺴّﻨﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -72‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘّﺮﻣﺬ ّ‬
‫‪40‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻟﻮ ﺳﺠّﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﻳﻈ ﹼﻞ ﻋﻘﺪﺍ ﺑﺎﻃﻼ ﻻ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻃﹸﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻓﺾ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳُﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻛﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺎﻻ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻳُﻌﺘﱪ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻨّﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ّﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﱯ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﻣﺼﲑﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﻪ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺗﲔ )‪(10‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺘّﻰ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺃﺟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﱐ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭ)‪ (11‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘّﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﺎﻣّﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻉ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﹼﺐ ﰲ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧّﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﻨّﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪ ،73‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸّﻜﻠﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮّﲰﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻻ ﺑ ّﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﺪﱐﹼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻘ ّﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮّﺭﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ )‪ (18‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺘ ّﻢ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺺ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮﻩ ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺍﳌﺨﺘ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﻇﹼﻒ ﻣﺆﻫّﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺗﲔ )‪ (9‬ﻭ)‪ (9‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴ ّﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺳﺠ ﹼﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﻴّﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻨﺎﻓﺮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸّﻌﺐ ﺃﺑﻘﺖ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﲢﺔ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻷﻋ ّﻢ‪.74‬‬
‫ﳘﻴّﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻱ ﲟﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻹﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺄ ﹼ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼﻝ ﺗﺪﺧّﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ ﺭﲰﻴّﺎ‪.75‬‬

‫‪ -73‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘّﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺇﻣّﺎ ﻻﻧﻌﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﺵ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺣﻀﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‪ (4/52‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ)ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪.(8‬‬
‫‪ -74‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 23‬ﻣﺎﺭﺱ ‪ 2 ،1882‬ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻞ ‪ 11 ،1930‬ﺟﻮﻳﻠﻴﺔ ‪ 4 ،1957‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ ‪ 17 ،1959‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪.1959‬‬
‫‪ -75‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 26-62‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 13‬ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ ‪ 1962‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ )ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ‪ ،(8-7-1‬ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 166-62‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺃﺑﺮﻣﺖ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘّﺤﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 72-69‬ﺍﻟﺼّﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ‪ 16‬ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ‪ 1969‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ )ﻡ‪ 1‬ﻭ‪ ،(2‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ 20-70‬ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 19‬ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ ‪ 1970‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ )ﻡ‪ (77-71‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ 18‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ‪-‬ﺱ‪-‬ﺝ(‬
‫‪41‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪:‬‬

‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ‬
‫ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﲝﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋ ّﻲ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫)‪ :(22‬ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﲟﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﲝﻜﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺋ ّﻲ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺑﺴﻌﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣّﺔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺪّﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘّﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﳜﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺘّﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻳّﺔ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻃﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﺷﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻭﳛﺪﺙ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (21‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ‪.‬ﺱ‪.‬ﺝ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ )ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧّﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﹼﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 20-70‬ﺍﻟﺼّﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ 19‬ﻓﻴﻔﺮﻱ‬
‫‪ 1970‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻩ ‪ 76-75-74‬ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻳﻘﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺎﻥ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺭﲰّﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﻇﹼﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺬﹼﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺪّﻣﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪّﻓﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠ ّﻲ ﻟﻸﺑﻮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻱ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 74‬ﻕ‪.‬ﺡ‪.‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪّﻓﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﹼﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪) 7‬ﻕ‪.‬ﺱ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ّ‬
‫ﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻃ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ (4‬ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻳﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ (5‬ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻬﻧﺎﺋﻴّﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺳﺒﻖ ﳍﺎ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪75‬‬
‫ﻕ‪.‬ﺡ‪.‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳُﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 02-05‬ﺍﳌﺆﺭّﺥ ﰲ ‪ 2005/02/27‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻃﺎﻟﱯ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺸﻜﹼﻞ ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻃّﺒﻴّﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ )‪ (3‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺧﻠﻮّﳘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺃ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻌﻴّﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﻄّﺒﻴّﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻞ ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆ ّﺷﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺘﺤﺪّﺩ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺯﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤّﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴّﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮّﺭﺓ ﺑﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 06‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪-06‬‬
‫‪ 154‬ﺍﶈﺪّﺩ ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴّﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪7‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ &quot;ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺛﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻄّﺒﻴّﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴّﺔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺇﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻞ ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻀﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴّﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻞ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ&quot;‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻠﺘّﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫‪ 7‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 154-06‬ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘّﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﰲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺧﻀﻊ ﳍﺎ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻞ ﺧﻄﺮﺍ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺷﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﲟﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴّﺔ ﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻜﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;‪...‬ﻭﻳﺆﺷﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ&quot; )ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ‪ 154-06‬ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ(‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 2/7‬ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫&quot;ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻃﺒﻴّﺔ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ&quot;‪.‬‬

‫ﺺ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻣّﺎ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪) 71‬ﻕ‪.‬ﺡ‪.‬ﻡ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺨﺘ ّ‬
‫ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻪ ﳏ ﹼﻞ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﱯ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣّﺎ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻪ ﻣﻘ ّﺮ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗ ﹼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ )‪76‬ﻭ‪96‬ﻭ‪) (104‬ﻕ‪.‬ﺡ‪.‬ﻡ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﳛﺮّﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﹼﻔﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪّﺑﻠﻮﻣﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺼﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴّﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﶈﻠﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﳍﺎ ﺣ ّﻖ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮّﲰﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼّﺪﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (73‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪّﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (15‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ‪.‬ﺱ‪.‬ﺝ( ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫)ﻕ‪.‬ﺡ‪.‬ﻡ( ﺣﺪّﺩﺕ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﹼﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﻫّﻞ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﻘﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻟﻘﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﺑﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺃﻟﻘﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﻮﺩ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘّﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺳ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬‫ﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋ ّﻲ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ّ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻋﺎﺋﻠ ّﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﺑﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘّﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫ﲏ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻛﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳّﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﻭﺗﺘﻠﺨّﺺ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﻌ ّ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ﹼ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤ ّﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺸّﻌﺒﻴّﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮ ﹼ‬
‫ﻫﻮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻻﺩﺓ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻗﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﹼﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﳌﺎ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻭﻛﻴﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﺪّﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺸّﻌﺒﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﺴﺠّﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﻟﻴﻘﺮّﺭ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻓﺾ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟ ّﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺄﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺭﺟﻌ ّﻲ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﻴّﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ‬
‫)‪ (39‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (58‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻘﺮﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﹼﻢ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺩﻓﺘﺮﺍ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﻴّﺎ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﹼﰎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﹼﻖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻠﹼﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻠﹼﻢ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺟﲔ‬
‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺣﺮّﺭ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻣﻠﺨّﺼﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ ﻣﻬﻠﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳّﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺳﺠ ﹼﻞ ﻋﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻳﺴﻠﹼﻢ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﺩﻓﺘﺮﺍ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﻴّﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﻫﺎﻣﺶ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺳﺠّﻠﺖ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻠﺪﻳّﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﹼﰎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﻴّﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺎﺑﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳّﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻨﻴﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻀّﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﺠﻤﻟﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋ ّﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﻠﺪﻳّﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻛﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﻨﺎﺋﻴّﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻳﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﻭﳍ ّﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬ ّﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ&quot; ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :‬ﺃﻻ ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﺣﻘﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺣﻘﺎ&quot;‪ .76‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬ ّﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﺍ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺈﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺣﻘﹼﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺗﲔ ‪36‬ﻭ‪ 37‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﻤّﻨﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺣﻘﹼﲔ ﻣﻬﻤّﲔ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﹼﰎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﹼﲔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻫﺘﻢ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﺤﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ :‬ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭّﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟّﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻐﺔ ﺑﺄﻧّﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﰲ ﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗُﻌﺮّﻑ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎ ﺑﺄﻧّﻬﺎ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳌﺄﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻠﺒﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺴﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 78‬ﻕ ﺱ‬
‫ﺝ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﲡﺐ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 74‬ﻕ‪.‬ﺱ‪.‬ﺝ( ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﺗﻨ ّ‬
‫ﱐ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﺣ ّﻖ ﻗﺎﻧﻮ ﹼ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﻮﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﹼﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻋﻴّﺔ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﺍﺳﻜﻨﻮﻫ ّﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻜﻨﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﻛﻢ&quot; ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺗّﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﳍ ّﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﲝﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻜﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺯﻗﻬ ّﻦ ﻭﻛﺴﻮﻬﺗ ّﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ&quot;‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ ﳍﻨﺪ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‪&quot; :‬ﺧﺬﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻙ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ&quot; ﳌﹼﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪&quot; :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇ ﹼﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺷﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻳﻌﻄﻴﲏ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻔﻴﲏ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻱ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ&quot;‪.77‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 80‬ﻕ ﺱ ﺝ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ُﺗﺴﺘﺤ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳝ ّﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﻬﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪّﻋﻮﻯ ﻭﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴّﻨﺔ ﳌﺪّﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪّﻋﻮﻯ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﺘﺒّﻊ ﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﺭﺍﻋﺖ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﲔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ - 76‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘّﺮﻣﺬ ّ‬
‫‪ -77‬ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ -1‬ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺴﺮ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻟﻴﻨﻔﻖ ﺫﻭ ﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻴﻨﻔﻖ ﳑّﺎ ﺃﺗﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻠﹼﻒ ﺍﷲ ﻧﻔﺴﺎ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﻭﺳﻌﻬﺎ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ &quot;ﺍﺳﻜﻨﻮﻫﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻜﻨﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﻛﻢ&quot;‪ .‬ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺗّﺨﺬﻭﺍ ﳍ ّﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﳑّﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺣ ّﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌـﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﺧﺬﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻙ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 79‬ﻕ ﺱ ﺝ(‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫&quot;ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺵ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻀ ّﻲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻖ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴّﻜﻦ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 78‬ﻕ ﺱ ﺝ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺟﺮﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴّﻜﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀّﺮﻭﺭﻳّﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻬﺗﺎ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺝ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪ 74‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ &quot;ﲡﺐ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﻮﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺔ&quot;‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 8‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ ﺱ ﺝ( ﺇﺫ ﺗﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻱ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﰲ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺃﻗ ّﺮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﻣﱴ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﱪّﺭ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻋ ّﻲ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﹼﺮﺕ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺮّﺕ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot;:‬ﻓﺎﻧﻜﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻃﺎﺏ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﻭﺭﺑﺎﻉ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻠﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨّﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﶈﺪّﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﻴّﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﺩﻫ ّﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ ،08‬ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺣ ّﻖ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﻧ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗّﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴّﺔ )ﻋﺪﻡ ﲡﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺧﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤّﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺮّﺿﺎﻉ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﱪّﺭ ﺷﺮﻋ ّﻲ ﻟﻠﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳏ ﹼﻞ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﹼﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻭﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣّﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺎﻟﻴّﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣّﺎ ﻧﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﲏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﹼﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪّﺭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﺣﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻃ ّ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺮّﺧﺼﺔ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺃﻥ ﳜﱪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﹼﺣﻘﺔ ﺑﺮﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ -5‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﹼﺣﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘّﻌﺪّﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﻟﻠﺰّﻭﺟﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴّﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﹼﺣﻘﺔ ﺣ ّﻖ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺘّﻄﻠﻴﻖ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘّﺪﻟﻴﺲ )ﻧﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 08‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ( ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺑﻔﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺼﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪8‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ )ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 8‬ﻣﻜﺮّﺭ ‪.(1‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ )ﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺗﻪ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫ ّﻢ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸّﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻃﻬﺎ ﳏﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻛﺨﻠﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴّﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﺸﺮﺍ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺎ ﻭﺻﻬﺮﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺑّﻚ ﻗﺪﻳﺮﺍ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪّﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻌﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻘﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨّﻜﺎﺡ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ&quot;‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺟﻠﻪ‬
‫ﹸﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪّﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺭﲪﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﹼﻘﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﺮﺑﺼﻦ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬ ّﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻗﺮﻭﺀ ﻭﻻ ﳛ ﹼﻞ ﳍ ّﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺣﺎﻣﻬ ّﻦ ﺇﻥ ﻛ ّﻦ ﻳﺆﻣ ّﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺮّﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ 78‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪّﻋﻲ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﺑﻨﺎ ﻟﻪ‪ ،79‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺎ‪.80‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻃﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻷﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻫﺘ ّﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪ 40‬ﻣﻦ )ﻕ ﺱ ﺝ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ &quot;ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼّﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴّﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻜﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸّﺒﻬﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻜ ﹼﻞ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﹼﰎ ﻓﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ‪ 32‬ﻭ‪ 33‬ﻭ‪ 34‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﺠﻮﺀ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴّﺔ ﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﹼﺮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﺘّﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼّﺤﻴﺢ‪ :‬ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪-‬ﺹ‪&quot; :-‬ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺍﺵ&quot; ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ )ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺗﲔ ‪ 42-41‬ﻕ ﺱ(‬
‫ﱯ ‪-‬ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪&quot; :‬ﺃﻳّﻤﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‬
‫‪ -78‬ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪-‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ -‬ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻨّﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻳّﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺟﺤﺪ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻀﺤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭّﻟﲔ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴّﺎﻣﺔ&quot;‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺎﺋ ّﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ - 79‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﺩﻋﻴﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀﻛﻢ ﺫﻟﻜﻢ ﻗﻮﻟﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻓﻮﺍﻫﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳊ ّﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻬﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴّﺒﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﻵﺑﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﺴﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﱯ ‪-‬ﺹ‪ -‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤّﺪ ﺣﺘّﻰ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺁﺑﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻓﺈﺧﻮﺍﻧﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪّﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﻜﻢ&quot; )ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﰲ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟّﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺔ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ‪) .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼّﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺼّﺎﺑﻮﱐ‪ .‬ﺹ ‪(.269‬‬
‫‪ 80‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﹼﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﹼﻢ‪&quot; :‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺩّﻋﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻤﻰ ﺇﱃ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻌﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨّﺎﺱ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺪﻻ&quot; ﻣﺘّﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺗّﺼﺎﻝ ﳑﻜﻨﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴّﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﻓﻌﻼ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺗّﺼﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﳑﻜﻦ )ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺟﲔ ﻏﺎﺋﺒﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﺪّﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺠﻴﻨﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻟﻌﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺭﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺺ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﻀﺖ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻀ ّﺮ‬
‫ﺐ ﺍﳌﺨﺘ ّ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ( )ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻄ ّ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘّﻤﺴّﻚ ﻬﺑﺎ )‪ 97/07/08‬ﻣﻠﻒ ‪.(165408‬‬
‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻧﻔﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﹼﻌﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻌﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﹼﱵ ﰲ ﻋﺼﻤﺘﻪ ﻣﱴ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﹸﻓﺮّﻕ‬‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺑﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻣّﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘ ّﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋ ّﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳّﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺑﻪ‪.81‬‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳌﺪّﺓ ﻳﺘﺼﻮّﺭ ﳎﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﻞ ﺣ ّﺪﺍ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻭﺃﻣﺪﺍ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗ ﹼﻞ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺳﺘّﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺪّﺧﻮﻝ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﰲ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺁﻳﺘﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﲪﻠﻪ ﻭﻓﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﺷﻬﺮﺍ&quot; ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻭﻓﺼﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻣﲔ&quot;‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺣﺪّﺩﺕ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺑﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﻭﺣﺪّﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﲔ ﻓﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﺳﺘّﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (42‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺃﻗ ﹼﻞ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ )‪ (06‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣّﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻓﻠﻠﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﻨﻮّﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘ ّﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﺛﲏ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 42‬ﻕ ﺱ( ﺑﺄ ﹼﻥ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻣﺪّﺓ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﻹﺑﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻟﺪ‬
‫ﰊ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﴰﺴﻴّﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮّﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘّﻮﻧﺴ ّﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﺮ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴّﻮﺭ ّ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ 43‬ﻕ ﺱ( &quot;ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻷﺑﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻧ ّ‬
‫)‪ (10‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﺲ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ(‪ :‬ﺍﺩّﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪّﻋﻲ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺃﺏ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ )ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ(‬
‫ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴّﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﺃ ّﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺪّﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻭﻋﺪّﻬﺗﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻣّﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺰﻭّﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺘﺪّﺓ ﻓﺈﻧّﻪ ﻻ ﺑ ّﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺩّﻋﺖ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺝ ﻷﻧّﻪ ﺳﻴﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺼّﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (44‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧّﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮّﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺠﻤﻟﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻭﻟﻮ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﻣﱴ ﺻﺪّﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫‪ 81‬ﺃﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺭّﺥ ﰲ‪ 1993/11/23 :‬ﰲ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪.99000‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺘ ّﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻌﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﻖ )ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﶈﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ‪(1997/10/28‬‬
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‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨّﻔﺲ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷ ّﻡ ﻭﺣﺘّﻰ ﺍﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻠﺤﻖ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺃﻧّﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﺩّﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺬﻓﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺤ ّﻖ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺬﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ ّﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﳌﺪّﻋﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻢ ﺍﻟﹼﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬
‫ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺬﹼﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟ ّ‬‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﳌﺪّﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺪّﻋﻲ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻼ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴّﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺣ ّﻖ ﻟﻠﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻓﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﹼﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﻪ –ﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﺑﻦ‪ -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﻷ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺣﻘﻴﻘ ّﻲ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﻩ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﻳّﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴّﺔ ﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﻭﺑﻨﻮّﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻟﻮ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻮﺕ ﺣﺮﺻﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ‪.(46‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺎﺏ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺭﺙ‪ 82‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪&quot; :‬ﻳُﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘّﺒﻨّﻲ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ&quot; )ﻧ ّ‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﲪﻞ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ )‪ (45‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﹼﻥ &quot;ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﰲ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﶈﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺩّﻋﺎﺀ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮّﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﺘﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ&quot;‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺇ ﹼﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘّﺼﺪﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺼﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻗ ّﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﺄﺧﻮّﺓ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﺇﺧﻮﺗﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺮﺙ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻳﺮﺙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﻳﺴﺮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻨﻮّﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴّﻨﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴّﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺸّﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺃﻧّﻬﺎ ﻛ ﹼﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺠّﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻷﻭّﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴّﻨﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧّﻬﺎ ﻣﱴ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺩ ﹼﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺮّﻉ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ّ‬
‫ﻛﺬﺏ ﺍﳌﻘ ّﺮ ﻓﺼ ّﺢ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴّﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -82‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪّﻋﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻮّﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮّﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺪّﻡ ﺭﻓﻘﺔ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨّﺴﺐ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻼﹼﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺩّﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 224-63‬ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻱ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰّﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺪّﻡ ﺍﳌﺪّﻋﻲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻨ ّ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠّﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻘﻴّﺪ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻼﹼﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴّﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘّﺎﱄ ﻓﻴﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
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