Combs al 2010.pdf


Aperçu du fichier PDF combs-al-2010.pdf - page 6/17

Page 1...4 5 67817



Aperçu texte


EXPLORING HUMILIATION

133

TABLE 1
Main Effects, for Humiliation, and Related Measures as a Function of Publicity and Reprimand (Study 1)
Publicity

Main Effects
Manipulation checks
Publicity
Reprimand
Humiliation-related measures
Humiliation
Unfair treatment
Anger at others
Desire for revenge

Reprimand

Group
M (SD)

Individual
M (SD)

Main Effect F(1, 144)

Severe
M (SD)

Moderate
M (SD)

No
M (SD)

Main Effect F(2, 144)

4.28 (1.42)
3.47 (1.36)

1.66 (1.80)
2.63 (1.56)

98.5
20.9

3.50 (2.20)a
4.35 (1.06)a

2.81 (1.92)b
2.32 (1.26)b

2.63 (2.05)b
2.47 (1.30)b

3.80
51.1

3.85
2.87
2.51
2.39

3.01
1.56
1.58
1.42

21.9
51.1
21.0
16.5

4.12
3.35
2.91
2.71

3.22
1.61
1.64
1.60

2.91
1.65
1.57
1.38

16.1
38.4
18.1
13.2

(1.09)
(1.31)
(1.40)
(1.60)

(1.26)
(1.35)
(1.33)
(1.24)

(1.16)a
(1.38)a
(1.39)a
(1.49)a

(1.13)b
(1.18)b
(1.39)b
(1.48)b

(1.15)b
(1.18)b
(1.11)b
(1.19)b

Note. All means (within rows) with different subscripts are significantly different at p < .05. Scales range from 0 (not at all) to 6 (extremely).

p < .05. p < .001.

All other humiliation related measures produced
similar main effects in the predicted directions. For
the unfair treatment index, the anger at others index
and desire for revenge index, separate ANOVAs found
that participants in the group publicity condition
reported more unfair treatment, more anger at others,
and a greater desire for revenge than did participants
in the individual publicity condition. There were also
main effects for reprimand such that that participants
in the severe reprimand condition reported significantly
more unfair treatment, more anger at others, and a
greater desire for revenge than did participants in the
mild reprimand condition and in the no reprimand
condition. Of critical importance, as with the humiliation ratings, participants in the group publicity severe
reprimand cell reported significantly more unfair treatment, anger at others, and desire for revenge than did
individuals in each of the other conditions. There were
no interactions for any of these humiliation-related
measures.

Shame and Guilt
As predicted, there were no effects for the shame,
guilt, or negative self-attribution indices. However, as
predicted, the effects for shame and negative
self-attributions increased from the private control condition to the mere publicity condition but did not
increase further.
Control Condition Comparisons
Finally, we took the opportunity to make several
additional exploratory control group comparisons.
Specifically, we tested for differences between the private
control condition and the individual no reprimand and
mild reprimand conditions for the primary dependent
measures. Participants in the private control condition
reported significantly less feelings of humiliation
than did participants in the individual mild reprimand
condition, as well as the in the individual no reprimand
condition. Of interest, participants in the private

TABLE 2
Cell Means and Differences for Humiliation, Shame, Guilt, and Related Measures as a Function of Publicity and Reprimand (Study 1)
Group
Severe
M (SD)
Humiliation cell means
Humiliation
Unfair treatment
Anger at others
Desire for revenge
Shame
Guilt
Neg. self-attribution

4.40
3.96
3.29
3.20
4.44
4.76
3.46

(0.94)a
(0.95)a
(1.33)a
(1.47)a
(0.94)a
(1.06)a
(1.38)a

Moderate
M (SD)

3.72
2.24
2.05
2.07
4.41
4.71
3.26

(1.06)b
(1.09)b
(1.15)b
(1.64)b
(0.86)a
(0.97)a
(1.19)a

Individual
No
M (SD)

3.39
2.40
2.21
1.86
4.00
4.79
3.06

(1.05)b
(1.16)b
(0.96)b
(1.38)b
(1.16)a
(1.09)a
(1.12)a

Severe
M (SD)

3.83
2.74
2.54
2.22
4.04
4.45
3.18

(1.31)b
(1.48)b
(1.36)b
(1.36)b
(1.16)a
(1.45)a
(1.69)a

Moderate
M (SD)

2.72
0.99
1.24
1.13
3.77
4.32
2.96

(0.98)c
(0.93)c
(1.16)c
(1.16)c
(1.23)a
(1.17)a
(1.37)a

No
M (SD)

2.48
0.96
0.98
0.94
3.88
4.58
3.46

(1.09)c
(0.68)c
(0.91)c
(0.76)c
(1.23)a
(1.39)a
(1.47)a

Control
M (SD)

1.20
0.79
0.72
0.84
2.90
3.98
2.24

(1.10)d
(0.80)c
(0.82)c
(0.88)c
(1.48)b
(1.48)a
(1.48)b

Note. All means (within rows) with different subscripts are significantly different at p < .05. Scales range from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely).
Neg. ¼ negative.