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> eu
¨ Yu` '& .
€ž  eg &   i#> :"H oi.W #! b=  kHK#X> n + YZ#1
\uw> u
=  u& YuZ#+ ›w S x  e sA"  M + “*1 . "  " L e [ž (#

7

\w>  '& 5 21l> M +  2K# š    . (%.#LW 5 klW e ;# , 2S%A & @+ 
YuZ= , 2uK  tw „ e+ '& ( 01  2K#3 š A+   .+ y"#  81  ;# 2S%A & @+ 
 . 2uK# š u   u. b# , ›%8+ ( Y` L>  – (.W – M  kHK#X> n +
uK . bG*Q R'+ YZ#+ K &   sYZ “  > h n + YZQ    21 – 'tA – (*#L=
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¦u#+ 21K"+ ( Y`
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 :"H \p  (!  L (
+ ‡#  > :.% > .b "Q  b# ` b."SA : n + YZ= 2 @ 21 (*#L=
. sYZ= r>m eH  kHK#X> n + YZ# ” 21W 2K.+ r>± eH ”
 kg."#+ Yc (%.   
r i'+ x e  X + '& (  + K b %  . F1« e b"H R SA  k!’ >  #H> 2 X Y`
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\Aq#uQ " L " :KLW eg
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2+> FS.L+  . h@A+ B
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 ." 2u#
+> " x .+  \!+ cH “ 5v o %+ 'A 2 p%+ ª i= b"qD R'+ kHK#X> h.#+  U
21ul  — 2"KH bA (ž kHK#X> YZ#+ s‘ ® "  " a  2‹  5 C (v :"H CYp  U> '& 
> 2uK# C š u   . ›%> eH L> Aq#L   #H> '& "%. e '+ n +  . oK#L
B  . .+ 2l Y` b#
= b#  7 >  : 2tU9 2+ .W y"= 5 o + ˆ Q atw "!
5 '& . 2K 2  e kHK#X> n + YZ= eH b + .  ( ž B . 2 ` '& e q u&  "!
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+ , s%#>
C)u%H  Ce
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= 2K# š    . ›%8+ 2 %+ 'A 2" 2L> «YL F
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8

" ‰&uA " ;KL  A i T+ r @A+ e oY% 2H Kœ eH B& ;X r!Q  .  .+ y"= 7p# 2+m 5
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. B;K#œ , n + YZ= , o :"H 2+m ( P*
: ‰&AW = C4
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nu . u Bu;K« 2"
p ( , ƒA+ r ;#X = i. o# . o#  7 ‰&AW e AK; 
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= – T+ k;1 2K"+
. i%#>  2O#+ - U eH 21K"+
8
 
>  aS9  2*c+ e ;A ( €c  2@8 n . M* Y`  ** kK"+ ‰;AW
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1
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„ > bA
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AL! c > b"%. M*c+ i.+ eH o
1 ( , µ#! “ . kK"+ )*%+ e  E - U eH 21W i c
. bu%&'W   ( s
#® = A; iw " 2K"+ "  " B"+ " 2K" (§ > “ . aS9 e i ;1 v ;AH
bv y+ . ˆ 2 e aS9 2p b"H A=i. (p > 2 e kK"+ )*%+  , ML#+ B"# “
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1 F   : " RZ%%+ "  #+ 5 b#* i%# e P;A1 7
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1 €LAA1 ±
u.v  o  o S B"+ h.= W !  '& '’  ª i#+ , \K"+ (  + . o  2K"H 2 @ >

9

hu.#+ €i B;# tw  X W  A!  , KŠ !  h + s'’ + . 5v o %+ 2"&X , €c#+
€c#+ B;! – e '+ \ i );"  KŠ e F"! AH A"H 
+ . kK"H Y` €i ba s\ i A# R'+
. b  r1  – 'tA – BŽ <*"+
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. b**uc= ;1 aS9 7p# :"H Kg  e i
 „ (  i
1 2* , Kg  yp  „ > '&
r @ e B . YZ#= > o+ k;1 i
1 > YZ# \kw ( e@A1  B"+ BQ  ¦ !S+ ŒA#+ , n. 81
. Yq &Y`   ;A Œ eH k" K1 ¢*#AQ .   > &i c ƒA+ ”p#
–  rQ 2K"H
YuZ= x  i ) ( , # ;AH ) 3 x E  . 2 p%+ ª i= , G ;.KH F ;A o  %
. 2+ }"+ k& y"= . b= @ kHK#X> n +

10

C2C
¦ }"+ ‰;AW
: 2+ }"+ C5
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. " 2"
# " 2 @ 2+ oi q"+
= oil eH K"
# AH
. ‰;AK 2+ }"+  e AK;  7  k!

uL> 2u" huH   2" k& kHK#X> n + YZ= u;S T+ 2QQv 2"
pW (3 o.1 ) A1H
2"
upW ic  .;#1 e
³  21 2K# š    . (%.#LW 5 klW e b# , ›%8+
uL> 2 2" hH A" .2L> o i> 2   2K#  . ›%> '&  ŒA= e %  &
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. 2"
pW s'f 8
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e=  <*Q Ž h T+ 2G E!+  2l + 7 p
+ i%#H e
D . i , 2HAc+ oi q"+ 2. F pH
 ˆŸ  o
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m h@ 2S%A 2 e
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K1 kHK#X>
) nK#~ ”
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k" u+ ev  kXi9 ev nK#~ , ƒA"+ 1 = a y+ b#+1 - #+ 2+m 2  e k%S+ .+ 2Q 
. o3 B« i0 ƒA+ b+ (c  '!A=

11

e u
!W nuW &\ i  . q   x8 2 c i
1> q «Q . 2K
m %= F 2SL rK"
ku& ( … .. š#+u  i
i  )† h  F  h &  Qi  b= X  ‡ +  Y#+ 1 ) \K"+  q%+ 
, ou3 bX rY` . e p+ .+ 7ip 5 :SQ + .+ rK"? e iv F".   2 i G rK"
. 2u8 rK" k& . ª i#+ e 2%.3 y"= x8 2 3 (X e ˆ}
+ r i q+ (
+ m F  b" –+
, £uK#X> , u.+ , uc#> , B
3 , 2++ , r @A+ e Yq
+ R
!+ ƒQ> F .1
.. b=  k*LW e + , o X €& ' F.q% ;A ( . … .. <8> , e!+ , Pv
;1 aS9 ”p#
+ E+ e  5 kK"+ )*%+ ˜#1 ..A+ :"H 2cH %= 2¯K"L F ”c  (%
Ru
!+ ƒQv ˆ Q š+ ¦ }"+ ‰;AW v y+ . aS9 'f d1 R  e‹ e p%+ n1 B b ”p#
 
”p :"H ƒQv , %cA  ¢ rQ i e  #w> b  €"`  . ¦†+ €&'W b"H h R'+
 '& , B;® . bQQ :"H 2Kg.+ r @A+ e q  o  xA=   + “ ‰;AW y+ , kK"+ aS9
eu (u
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R6  2L1AW 2  :"H k. o3 2L1AW   .1 . 29 2 !+ b3c -./ b1 1 ( 2+m x8
(u ‡= :"H n + e 8
 + ¦†+ nK#~ , ƒA+ 2%"` 2= R'+ kHK#X> ƒ6%+ h . i
#> 5
. \p  "! S#L > ƒA+ e Yq  5 R6 \p  (!  
Bu@A#+ eu u EŸ b**c= e
D bX :"H 2QiKW 5 aS9 2%LA ‡  B;  eH £1+ + }"+ 2+m n
eu u EŸ b**c= e
D bX :"H 2+†+ 2 @A+ , aS9 7p#  #w>  + Œ 2+m  ¦†+
, auS9 7p# +® Cši xi B;A e    Rc#> ›pA+ , [.A+  k
3 (#+
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2+ }"+ bA  r '+  .%U (%.#LW , si S= n%#= b=8H ("/ 2+m  & K ¦†+ h@A+ 2Q i &  '1
nuK#~ , 2.uL+ 2%"`v  ‘ 5  +†+   :"H ” =  K# 2 ;A+ , R6Q h@ b F%q+
, ·ucW (u
 ( +u†+ ) ƒA+ e 2" iqt#Q  ;3c e (K# 2+†+ &!#Q T+ 2.%S+  i#+}+ )
(u"/ x8u e y+ b.SA 2 ` 5 b x  + - U eH ¦ }"+ ‰;AW aS ”p ši x R . nK#~
ƒi " b# £ l  & X & '& (  ‰;AW b #  P'
#Q 2QiKW  ” 'Ž F%q+ ¦†+ h@A+
b# ši €#
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– . " xW
h@A+ (%.#L e " h¬p#+ " 5 :;#  C8
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+ .
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. 2 @ O;A
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" P Eu  k;#A=  r   F;# “ F"*Kl  . xœ 5 xœ e #D  h   (#+ '& <S
ul ku%S+ .+ 2"H!+ 2 Y& 2Q  ;L! e B.= F " 2+ "
=  r T+ " i v
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!   +†+  78 e – h + –
K; . 2++ (=

12

u
! xu®  '& .   M%c > b#K# .+ .! AH . ;#K# r.1  2+ }"+   01 b+œ
: e  h  k%S+ .+ b#K# P¸'  ¦†+ n + a B;K"H nK1 . b1 2pAW –  – 2+†+
u  ¦†+ h@A+ 2  „  & bQQ :"H F T+ 2+†+ 2 @A+  ¦ }"+ ‰;AW aS¤ 7 #H> 
iu#1 . R
!+ ;QQ ‚.Q   n + , 2Kg 2+†+ (@#+ 2HK#X> 23   :"H 2K#3 i

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! M%  . YZ#+ d i e 2+†"+ 2 ] B;3c :"H ?! 2q+
. … ... 2l +   2
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, Pv , £uK#X> , u.+ , B
3 , 2++ , r @A+ ( 2+†+ 2 @A+  b" '& ˆ6
‰;uAW b H  2QiKW F' AH R
!+ ;QQ r.1  ¦ }"+ ‰;AW ƒQ :"H F T+ … ... e!+
:u"H h  ( 2+ }"+ x  cH bA
+ B;  eH + }"+ b1 n1  cH , A x .  AA
D . b =
. kHK#X> n + YZ= ‰;A 2"
p h Al 1  X e A H  b=  '&  Y` . r @ e ;QQ
: ¦ }"+ ‰;AW i c C6
. gEX > 2"
pW F"  (% e e
= – 2+ }"+  n + 
2u ›% e kHK#X> n + YZ= B;1 , F."S AH M*c+ (3 § 2QQ o S F.=  F
:u"H 2l!W  .+ k& sYZ=  x ®  YZ#"+ ( B;  'Ž ƒA+ FK"H . 2K#  . L>
"i*#+ "  B;#K"H . n + YZ# “  .+ y"= KS®  B;"H  . b# ‚%= T+ 2%S+  .+ 2+1
 B«uQ :u"H ƒuA+ K#+ 1 ‰;AW e M*c+ €Š '&  . kHK#X> n + YZ= 
j h>
2HK#X>  2 c#>  2HS> r8+ ED £S> \  \8%A+  ‡ "W r #  2LA
+ 2  S.L
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Y%= .  .+ y"= 2& ”p#
= – b# ‚%= 2K#   kHK#X> n "+ F!p# T+ 2+ }"+  Y`
F W . 21 Y` ;A
+  2l FL+  2H l       2‹  :"H b= ' x " k%S+ .+ "
yu"= , B
*#+ - U eH b V#Q 
j 2> ( ' ¢ … ' ¢  ) b#+1 ›w .+ 21
B;u#K"H . YZ#u= & #1 B«K#œ YZ ” 2+ }"+ e 1 – ƒA+ 01 kHK#X> n + YZ#+ ›p+
YZ#+u B;uL! "Zup > B;u#K"1 r  ( . 2 3 "!  B;K"= – ;A
+ i*# ” 2+ }"+
5 R!+ ›pA+ bO#=  ;#8 . 23   5 ;#%L 2. E1# " 2g`" :"H > 
= s +®  kHK#X>
;V#uL 2 ‚ l  .+ v . ¦ }"+ 
!+ , ˆ}
+ oZq+ k& y"= . K#  nK#~ 2*"c -./
egu
+ u& L>  . ;..*#+ L> hV#L= 2 Z 2H  o   .+ FL+  2 ` -.*#+ kH + L>
u
= ku
+  2%"uQ ”u  B«K#œ h.= e + }"+ ”.+ 1 i c.+ '&  .+ .  + k'+
iup+ kHuK#X> xW " YZ#= ;H " : iw F/  kg."#+ &YcW 2# 2" ˆ  2+ }"+ , rK#~
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Q b a# !#
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13

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. 2+ }"+ (? , F³ T+ 2HK#X> r YZ#+ ( :"H – %"Q ž – b" '& š
 
B&\† kc®  – B;#" e C ª i#+ 
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uH  Q  2HAc+ oi q+ ..®  B"+ 2%S+ ;.  –+ !p#
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nu . p%+ e fc >  H '& (%Q ,
";#L  ( oW 2iv oi3 ) RW \+ oi
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2" B& b*v " 2 2
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nu "+ už c# %1 kHK#X> YZ#+ 2g."= :"H x
=> aS ƒA+ ”p#  5 R . 8
 " q 
: b=  kHK#X> YZ#+ ‰;A &  tw YZ+   sYZ=   sY`  x  . sYZ= +m ¦†+
eu i*#+  '
& . " k%S+ .+ " 2+1 B
 K# -.*##Q B;3c e 2+ }"+ B;#K"H  Œ1i
n  R YZ= (%Q , 5v o S9
Q . 2+†+ rK#~ , n + YZ= (%Q , o S x 2+ }"+ aS
. YZ= > YZ= . kHK#X
( , – %"Q ž – 2+ }"+ rG .+ ( . 2 c#> o3 :"H i c. G  ¦ }"+ ‰;AW i c e
–
  ¥ . 2V"+ e
+ h.#+ : o   ( , ;#8H . 2A!+  2>  2HK#X>  2QL+ o3 k 
. 2 .+ : Ž „ [+ eU + , AK« T+  .+ B& e o  , – %"Q ž – rG
" ru 2u .+ r3  2+†+ " 2 " 2" r   2 .+ eH 2v eH €#
K1 ˜i + eK1
i  n . [iv 
!+ eH r>3 €"` , 8
 . i , 2 .+ r3 ª i= &@ ' " 2  X
B`+u  iv Bv ˜— 2iv Bv
= “ Bv b1 rX R'+ iv e  + 
W k& FL+
2u .+ u  2++  €p+  2v  \kU9 ‚"9 \k" 2 .+ eH [iv 
!+ b  €"`  e
. 2 .+ B;1 , \S> y"= r\X e  e 7 & – A& – AK;  > … 2 .+ 23 
   B;"H ! &  ( e i*#  i , ƒA+ FK"H  F 2+ }"+  k& 2UL% 2+aLW 
›upA+ u , u"1 y+' .21W Y` 2%S+ ;# ` 5 R‘ i > # ¥  k%U &  ( 5
" ku%S+ " bK#œ B;A   ( ”p# 2%S+ 5 o +%1 . k .+ ›pA+  , "1 y+' Rc#>
'u& e 7H . ;11 o X  F ( &X – b „ 'u& " b# "   ( ”p# . b+ kK#A R'+
" 2u%U " 2+ ;A > B.+ b"H 2l!W 2QL+ r
+ e i*#   i K"1 . 2 .+ 71 ;+ bgK#
O;uA 2+ }"+ F
1 k%S+ nK#~ n  eU +  p%+ : ; cAH , -!#= T+ 2++ k&2 .+ 2++ X
. 2 .+ o + F.. i , £S> r i FS.Q T+ 2 .+ r3 \ pA+ 1 3
u
!+ n +  .b1 e 7 k%U kHK#X  X C2+ }"+ , C2v1 . 3 '& AHv ” ... ¥
C 2u+ }"+ , C 2u .+  .2v ” = ” = x   18 ! = a! => š+ b" ¦ }"+ k .+

14

. bu"H ¹!> > \kp  E#+ eK# > \K# œ v 2%"Q 2¡H ;A
+ . o + 2v \A  2%U 28H
. q > 2 .+ o + (X e 2gEO#+ l r> Π, Ri G kQQ R
1 x 2 .+ r3 
r3 eH 2 .+ eH  2v eH   “ pH nL+ .+ 'A ri T+ 2+ }"+ r#
+ ( (@#Q
b!uc= (2uv ) k .+  X + 7#= k;1 . %"Q ž ¦ }"+ nS+ 2H %S 2 .+ o + eH 2 .+
up= ku& .
Q  7#+ sYc n#=   X W 7#+ b|i= , )*%=  b= E¨ =
H= k& . k .+  X + eH aH1 «  :"H \.> YZ a E#+ 2 .+ , 7=   uf €c#= 2 .+
. (%.#LW 2"c+ £ S. n "+ kQQ L‘ œ « H , o + e
+ 2 .+ o + 5
e
+  K r  Yu` 2 .+ o +  2%"Q 2S i 2 .+   B.H  X 2v „ > '&
Bu;¨ u+ }"+ B;1 '
& .2+ }"+ ‰;A 21W , A"+   o +  2 .+  2v B;! '
& „
L> 2+! q 21 eK# kHK#X> YZ#+ 2"
pW  ¦ }"+ (3 " v 2 .+ B« Qi B« 
. " nK#~ 2+1 eH ' atw eK# >
£ c+ x8 > B;!= – ¦#+  ƒi= – 2i> r#
+ ;KL= K " 2 .+ 2+aLW " '& G e 
>  2u;#A 2+auL r}u#H ¥ . 2 .+ f F “ 2 .+ r3 ;#Z#Q T+ o#!"+ o + (X e
eH h + “ + }"+ s  ” L! '& . 3 x  £ E iG  > ;K;1 x® >  ;Qi
2+auLW "  = AH '& G ˆAQ .  2G8G 'A 2+ }"+ 
! 2!Q81 b+  r  & 2 .+ eH 2v
. e p+ .+ n"S , LiW :"H o . «  dS#1 " 2 .+
y"= r .1 . [+ eU + , i*#+ r , &G 5  2+ }"+ eH Aq  k;A  (%  A& eS! B;W
2+ (    i S+ ‚"L#"+ 2. Œ1   e p+ .+ n"S n " ˆ .+ 2K" s‘> 2  " r3
) 5v 2iv P3  . ( 1916 oi G ) . [+ <p+ B= 2H 2+ ;AH x8.#Q> 7;#L= 2189
i*#+ 7;#L= 2  2 i/ r F*% r8  x 5 [+ eU + k 2gE‘ ( 1918 – 1914
. u% .= 2AuQ oupH šº (%  5 y+' F. . o + 2+ : 2 .+ 2++ 2 [i> iK#Q> e
k u.+ u
!+ o'=Q  . 2c+ 2+ }+ r F  % .=  ”c ˆ :"H R  o#!+ y"= x U
 B;uAH u".A   2u .+ B&  + }"+ dU K B;# S ;"%Q , "lAW  o + oH
2u+ Bu. Pu+ " ‡iKL " b1  h  K"®  2+ o + eH b 1   Bf  e K#L 
uW   i.+  W 7  Yc o +  i 2v ˆ R  i= [+ eU + , Q . o +
– 2u`! «  , 1& o + F .  W k .+ nK#~ , o + 2+ (!=   o + , YcW

. kHK#X K R e – h + x . K
" 2u+ ou + (X e xA+  i  [+ eU + , k .+ 
!+ o'=Q  5 i c.+ ‡  nX e
–
i c.+ \X —  f  X > T+ 2+†+ B;c rO#A ;1 H + < L+ o eH q*% "  Xi 
" ƒuA+ B"= 2+ }"+  . ¦ }+ ‰;AŸ o + (X e "lA   2 .+ 1   2v K;!  B e
. "2 3 "!  B;K"=> e
+ i*# ”
eu oH B+ i*#= si‹ ²a i*#+ (X e xA+ %  (1945 C1939) 2q+ 2i> P3 k;#A= ¥
n + YZ= , s %L R'+ i*#+ e !#L a %+Si*#+ ‡i , c#AW M%c  . u&@+ iK#Q>

15

YZ#+  o +  28+ x  og  B;"H 2SW 2"tQv B& M%c= .  c# ”"V#W  QQ E~  [+
: e EK# AX 5 23 -pA#1 kHK#X>
ˆ ( . kHK#X> YZ#+  o +  28H 7 > ;1  + }+ K;1 o +  2 .+  2v B;! xv dAŠ
.2+ o + <¯   &  <EK1 e Yq ;AH c  &\. s p 2 .+ 2.+ :"H 2HK#X>  .+ h*
YuQ YLQ " o +  " \kw (  BHE  .o +   5 2HK#X>  .+ 21 . (Xa= 5 H &
hu xu~ <8uU  Rc#> ›pA+ eH  .+ n1i 1 ”"V#+ 2"
p eH  . 7 > …{” . a%U
eu 2O A& b+ — . a 7 > …{” . kHK#X> h.#+  Rc#> KA+ 5  6Q 2 !+ r i%W
bu1 – buX :u"H [+ eU + , 2+ }"+ ˆH P'
= )%"= > 2QiKW e
+ .2i> 2+†+ ª i=
 R  ¦  kK"H i  2+†+ 2L1AW  " P+ + }"+ v y+ .(% e + }"+
Fu
1 . kWuH Ri
# h@ 5 F+ / 2L1AW 2  :"H b1 F  2W+ 2+†+ F F , Rp
, 2u+†+  i b h R'+ <89 i+ 6+ 21 2  P+ +†+ h e
= – .2!H (p!+ ( H
«i  , B;V#L= ¥ r»pAW Bf B.= Bf  ƒ¬i B«} B;+ h.= . 2W+ r i
#> B« #1 . i
 u  . uA"H & %uL T+ 2 3 2! .!1  2 iK#Q> ˆ ."+  i    + 1.G = B& 01
eu “u 2u .+  ‘ 5 2+ }"+ R6= . bw X «i` T+ n W 5  X (
w ,  X e iK#Q>
 \8uK+ eu rH  1 k.  2 .+ 23 e dAO r D . dAŠ '& r K1 Ri*#+  K
[+ eU + n= o + X  2 .+ \H ;1 Ÿ <S+ (
 2 .+ &A  2W+ r i
#8+ #+
. o  2 iK#Q 2% , b"
2u" _> #K#L ! M1
;1 . 2!# s  F"?  2 .+ 23 (qD s k. .1  q+ dAŠ 
. u;../ :"H (K  o + 5 H & .  Š k!9 2"
w , iK#Q> o H  2+ "3  k .+ i*#+
u+ }+ uK;1 2 .+  2v B;! x E  & .  '& ( . oi*#W iv , ”"V#+ 2" ‘ x® &
2 .+ o + b#8H kHK#X> YZ#+ 2!
 '= 21 b+ h. > 2 ."+ ¦ }"+ B;!+ '&  W  Gi 
HASu    u su† Rug.+ h E#+>  2" U o#!+  o .   " aS9  2O#+ " ‰;A 5 aŠ .1
" oi " k #w> (3 5 ˆ#&  5 oY1 rU   ;X PiO#+ , £l   \w  PX ... \H 
F*%u T+ 2 .+ 23 :"H dS1 . 2+†+ - U eH 2KA#+ Pi‘ (p1 Rc#> ”"V#+ b"H ;l1
euH M% (  kHK#X> YZ#+ o + 28H eH > 6Q  – . o X 2Zc ¼.+ x 6L+ dAŠ '& , 2"q¨
.  *#+ bX :"H 2 #w>  o +  28+
Hi= >  gQ i=  . 2+ 2 .+ 23 (  e i= h AL! _ x 6L+ '& :"H 2Xj ,
(qD K;A gL+ . #>  !>  8c!A >  S"#$ i=  .
k& K 2O#+ & gL+ . oi "%+  ‰A+ § &i S= , 23 r  (qD Hc+  2+ «KL 2 .+ 23
eu uX –  ;." gL+ i#+ 2‘ e & Hc+ i#+  x .  . «}H 2O#+ 28 & Hc+ 
. 2+A+ « e b=X T+ k& ( ;Xi
5 2%uLA+ 2%"uQ k;1 (g v k .+ 
!+ o'=Q e ;K"= K 2 .+  2v B;! x E K1 gL+ i#+ 
bu#8H 7u >   + }+ si}  b"H c   %"S o + :.%= A& e . kHK#X> YZ#+ r8
p
:u"H Bg €"S k;1 . Rc#> ”"V#+ 2" kSV#+ oi 2O#+ ;1H .1 2 #w>  . 2 #w>

16

eu
+ ŒuA= K;A
> k!
1 .  K;+ ˜#§ k|i#+ A@ e  %"S   . (.#L ƒQ
eu  YZ 2QiKW , b..§ Ÿ o}+  .   R
1 ƒQ :"H 2 #w>  o + h .=  x R :"H hE" >
. 2 i*#+ €Q
W :"H o S ( , ¹!3 n r @A+
>  2 #w>  o +  2 *"+ ;8 , yw ‡A&
>  oYq ˆ  b+ kK#A= Œ H i= b n + 
bX :"H [+ n + YZ= ” ;#1 , Y% yw 2‹ e
+ 2#W «
 eH i c ;X e b+'%= K1

M*uc= x/ k& .2DE& 5 c e  2L
 5   e  (p1 5 d_ e (.#A= k;1 . « iw b -.*#=
eu
D buX :"H 2 .+ 5  B@A#+ e  EŸ b**c= e
D bX :"H 2QiKW 5 aS9 2%LA 2SW «YL
-u U euH u+ ;AH nX #+ . ;AH nX #+ b**c= e
D bX :"H 2 #w> 5  o + (Xa# b**c=
.i*#+   e ;!  , o x E=  F   X N ‘ ”  f h ( , . "¦ !S+ iL+ "
.2u1 oiL 2 g.H Y` oYL 2 v k#9 PL3  ˆY1 2+ 2 .+ 23 €" , Hc+ i#+ 
›uw  u.+ yu"= 21  ;#1 e
³  21 2K#  . 2S%A rK#~ 2 F   b
:u"H uc  4 > '& a1 r  o  o A"p1  A 01 kHK#X> n + YZ= 
j 2> ;#+1
(p!"+ kQQv icW  .A  YZ ” 21 , } ;X x'%  A"H  „ ( ƒA+ o , € O#+
uAK" > 2u ."+ " ¦ }"+ " B;!+  bX e
+ 2 #w> , aS  2 .+ , aS  2QiKW aS e
–
" N O#+ " ‰;AW   R
!+ bQQ .#! 2 #w> e k .+ ” W :.%1 2 #w>  o +  28+
. Ru
!+ bQQ .#! o + e k #w> ” W :.%1 2 .+  2 #w>  28+ AK" > 2 #w> ,
2u+†i ˆ u  2 .+ 23 (   2.#+ 2 .+ ˆ .+ ‚"#’ a M†  " 2 @A+ " , i c.+ '& 
•u YuL!= •u B;! ;A ( °!#/ o  r iw  n1= 2 ;#  2X # 2  >  2X #
o u , nK‘  “  « iw -./  :"H oi Y` & . " 2V!#AW " 2 .+ 23 01 . o W r ip"+
, nuKŠ œ b**c#+ k!
> ;" oYLW ,  aS 2‹  „ i
#W (p!+  . 2 + &Y& o 
oi u" q  l q [+ n + YZ#+ " 2 @ " e A+  81 . 2 #w>  o +  2 3    iw
. uH (u F + o  o  , Ž k.#" 2 @ . 2 .+ 23 (  2S"#VW ˆ .+ 1 :"H oi. q
S .= h.#AQ 'tA A01 . 2 aS F + S  .= . ˆ x U F + o  2S¤ ;1 hE#"
:# + 2 @A+ s'& 5 R#  A"H  . 8
 " > h.# > ”"9 5 E!.A1  A+ hv 5 E!.  e > 
Eu~ [u+ uA  YZ    A  . 2 #w> eH 7  ( 2 .+ eH 7  ( nX   '&
, 2u @  2 #uw> -u.§ ”u AK"= > 2 .+ , 2 @A B"L  A+ kZ%A 81  c# ”"V#W QQ
(up!= uW 7 A"+ '& e -KH ˆ #L , )*% v :#  . o + -.§ ” AK"= > 2 #w>
. r*u= eu h.  ;X e x'% ¨ B`+ A=YL (p!#1 [+ A  ¯Z ” AK"= , r @A+ y"=
2 #uw>  2 .+  2 #w> ,  2 .+ , r @A+ y"= P* 7H ” & b1 €ž  x
1  Y` 2 #w>  2 .+ 2.. e 7  A""1 . B;A sAK"= s + R'+ bX + :"H – 2.. Ck&
nu + YuZ= , Ž_  ;Qi—  (%  B« @ Œ1  (%.  (% B;O&A }#¶ 7  A"H  R .
eu
uK; . [H Y`   H kHK#X> n + YZ# ” AK"=  A  > A+ :=a# > '& . [+
ApH T+ \S> ”p 5 '& ˆ K; . oc#A oYL
#Q A=YL 01 B"#A+ b+'% R'+ ;Š  F +

17

 ug.H \.#+ 2QiKW , ¬.#+
+ b+ R6=  (%.  e A+  > 21.G oi G y"= 01 &YGa= F/ µ 
. c#AA1
Ru# 5 d# & Ÿ ;#Š eH ”
 [+ A  ;S T+ r8
pW 2;X  eH ” #  '& „ >
.
 €ž Ÿ h.#+ (%Q ,  ;X d# & Ÿ h.#+ , ;X 5 ” „ (  2 @ 5
A1H  . ) 3 '& ;+ kK#A oYq 2 
1 r ;#X 2+ 2 .+ 23 €" , Hc+ i#+ '& 2 ,
y+ 21  . ( 1 o.1 ) sYZ= ‰;A 7  e A+  > n + YZ= 2 @ 7 k
+ b –  “ – bA
  ( 2 ou.1 ) ;#1 e
³  21 2K#  . ;# , 2S%A & @+  \w> ( v 2A
¨ ‰;AW
YuZ#+   2K#  ŒA= e % Ÿ kHK#X> YZ#+ , hSc bA
+ 2 W 2%S+ 5 2%LA+ B¸"L y+
 (4 ou.1 ) ŒuA#+ y+'+ ( 7p#> o H r>m 2‹  ( 3 o.1 ) L> o i 2  kHK#X>
:u"H F³ T+ 2QiKW , <c – ¦ }"+ ‰;AW  ( 5 o.1 ) r>± y"= e o
% o  F 2+ }"+
. ( 6 o.1 ) b &
. ‰;AW 2"
p h AL! _ ˆ o   2+ }"+ e i*# AH

18

(3)
i S#+ ‰&A
:i S#+ ‰&A C7
u nu "  S= "  " i S= " 2K" ' –  n + " YZ= "  " YZ= " eH B"
# e§ ) 3 '& 2  'A
• )  5 b=  & ˜#® Y%# ) 3 , ˜E  ap – Av  e H '& , A .+ . 21 +a 2Xi  2K"
2+>  M%c – " i S#+ " Y%= v y+ . bŠ R'+ £ l W " i S= " -%L   e
 – . b#+> 7 k
+
i 5 L> F"  2K"+ 7 p
+ F   pH eq+ .+ e a# F , > 23 2
 E > b#   21 2+ }"+ 2!Q81 x® R'+ –+ KH  .1 y+ (%  . 2%S+ 21W e < !#
Buf Fui T+ ( ¼.+ ;+ ) " o i #+ " e s K"= K i 
! b1   '& . 2AQ 7> 2#Q eH
, u&G euH ƒA+ )*%+ 21 2AQ 7> 2#Q e
= – . " iv  r KL+ ½ -" \%+ , " : 'A  X +
e 7H 
 > pH nQ#+ .+ ( [iv 
!+ 
 b Y` . 2+> R Y` a F . B; 
rutŸ 2AuQ 7> 2#uQ (%  X   –+ . … ... £ > ( 2G i +  X + Š , 2K"+ 7 p
+
– r YZ#u+ oYuv 2"c3 > š+ n +  .  X L> .%Q  3  KŠ  AL+ e 7 +v
FuL+ (%.#LW 5 klW e & @+  \wv 2  oYv 2"c3
= e+ b –+ X  'A ” #=
x8u kH uA+ YZ#u+   23 x8 KA+ 4Ÿ " i S#+ " 7H '
& . E+ }H  — ( E+ , > .#
u& u 5 kH  YZ= ( kH  YZ= œ š+ i S#+ v i S#+ 2+> k! > Yv Y%#+ '&   . 23
r @ (m F"  "i S#+ " , e i  r @
= “ pH nQ#+ .+ ”c#A   x R :"H . :i
2uKg + 2u3 f & @+  \w> ( f n’ ¦ 2"
+  .+ e 2H Kœ h M%c . 23 , e= 
 „u i S#+  W . b  7 k. " i S#+ " ;+ ”l ¥ K#LW YZ#+ ;q+G x%#W YGa#+ ;G
. k|i#+ ;  2A k& 2HK#X o&? (  Kf : & Qi ƒA+ B"H .1  |i= o&?  \kw (
+
2X ,  b1 r+ R'+ kHK#X> n + > b"H F  :"H
=  f   i
1>  r @A+ “
R'+ "  "9 " f n #  kZ%A > kHK#X> ;  5 2 LA > B;!= > ¦#+ . 2  r8
p (*+ ;+
e i*#+  i , £S> e i*#+ 2 @ F T+ 2+ }"+ :"H '& -%S K . 2|i#+ ;#" Ž O#
2.#W i ,  i#+}+ i/ 2 @ F T+ 2LiW 2 #w> :"H -%SAQ  [+ eU + ,   i S+ ;.+
Buv iu/ 2 @ k& T+ 2 .+ 2 #w>  2A+ rK#~ i/ 2 @ k& T+ 2AU + 2 #w>   HA
c#A= ( S+ ˆW , e
+ bSpA=  ¢ v b = H .= &‘ ª i#"+  : K;G . … ... oE~ 2!"V#W
. i S#+ 2K# bAH }  & ;   :"H i S#+ 2
 ruK#OK"+ k|iu#+ i uS#+ 5 kHK#X> i S#+   7p# r>m F;‘  q+ ƒi+ '& YGa= F/
. k|i#+ ‰;AW &  X ‰;A A+ 1

19

: k|i#+ ‰;AW – 8
eu 23 y"=   •8V#Q  ;# i 2L> rK#~ i S= 2@8 :"H k|i#+ ‰;AW BH E h .=
k .+ Pv , . kHK#X> i S#+ b+ bO# R'+ (%.#LW = ,  .+ y"= (K#L    ¥ SW ;H.
ou + uW : x 6L+ eH 2X0 ;AK#= T+ 2+v £  e ;1 . k|i#+ ‰;AW :"H 2Kg o H rQ i
2uQ i+  W  ¼.+ ª i#+ ¢  k;1 '& :"H 2+v  . " 2|i= " 2K# ;1 o +1 … { 2+
. Bv  P p+ ª i#+ 2i.W
yum ku& 2QiKW   21W ‰&A i%#> 
m M"c  2K # 2 p 2Qi¨ si%#H  ª i#+  , yw >
2" , > €#
– ª i#+  . 2"  2**
= >  ª i#+ 21W k& 2+aLW e
+ . 2 @A+ i%#
. M*c+ ;;X :"H 21 e
= – ¢  M*c= . 2+ ;œ F ¢  b+ 7= h ( , . bA oa#
rK#~ ( ª i= " : h3 -G + x .+ ( 1847 ) " kH p+ %+ " E"_  ši  ” ' A"+
ou#! ru  F 2 p%+ `i  ”p# ( 1877 ) ‚.1 H G8G  . " k.%S+ £ c+ ª i= &
"  uW uA|i= e 7 k.%S+ £ c+ e 2+ ¦#+ 29 2
"W e 2+ "2H w" 2+ , 2" U
u
> uA& e . ¢ v &? e ƒA+ b1 ¨  M q ƒA+ eH " KH " 2 O± ª i#+ " i Q
_ )  • bX  2+ r#
+ e Yq i c :"H 2  2O s'& . b8U :"H > %. ª i#+ ˜O#>
" Tu+ 2u|i#+ ¢ v '  " ... 6 ª i#+ "  €OH i 0  ("  i
P#
+
eu+ uf c > ¢  ¢ a „` ª i#+  ¥ . ;A \ .#Q> 2* i%#  ;#X  e
³ k
+ " r
– u&  i R'+ R+ 6+ ;.#A G  ª i#+ €# , ž ª i#+ -SA eH ¢*# R :"H %

k& 5v 2A+ . # e y+ k|i#+ ‰;AK"+ 2K 2  kZ" b=  i S#+  ¥ . b AA.  – 2 %+ 'A
, – ku& uK – i
#= > k;1 ¦#+ ª i#+ }H ;# x8 KA= 2HK#X> o&@+ „ k|i#+ i S#+
K «H  ;# e " k|i#+ .+ " A1H T+ o&@+ oH 8
 *#L M%c A& e . ;|i= e #"
o&u@+ ru ”u ª i#+ e 7  A01 ˆ 2 e . sA1H R'+ .+ 2* ;1 }#VA+  k&
Yu` ¢u 'u& v b i S##1 ;+ 7Q  bA 7  nS#L > A
+ n + 5 F"  5 ri S=
8
 q  (  . s‘> '& , s S#+ (! €ž  7A+ k!
= > ª i#+ s‘ 21 eH ¥  ª i#+ , < %L
. [u+ eU + , o + 2+ h .#Q "  h " , b x .+ '& e 7 A01 2|i= 2K# 2+ o +  
(u+ ( . h .= “ [+ n + , b"! A"H R'+   h .#Q ”  h .#Q “ 7A+ k!
> '& e
+
 uq > F 2+aL 2+aLW  2= o + :"H > 
= o + (X e xA+ €A‘ 5 :H
'&
‰;AW ;AK# T+ 2|i#+ " 2 }Š " \:S¶  e
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. ˜#> r  i S= s® R'+

26

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27

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28

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29

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33

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34

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35

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p ,  K"H b#%q  nS#L > bv %` D sAQ 2*c
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. ½  X 
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36

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) " u".= B
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37

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.  
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38

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= kHK#X>
> 2uHK#X 2 }X (qD ¦ }"+ ‰;AW  A1H .1 2gZ+ y"#+ YL!= e     . ½ o i & k%S+ .+
. k8Q> ‰;AW :"H 2% ` 2 }Š  . ( 6 o.1 ) 2%U 2 }X v ;A !
i+ 'Ž s s !   n +  S= , L> i sa= b!p
 QQ EK#W ‰;AW '& R& :"H b B;W
. 2 up%+ ª i= , G 2HK#X> r i q+ -KH e o  %  K"LW e 2" FHS#Q  bAH b#+6L 
'1  != 2|i#+ ;1? , F 2 i o \A 5 5v 2"&Š o  e (.#A=  ;"
 P w FHS#Q 
AuQ 5 2X  B;!  ‚%= " 2K " M%a1 ƒA+ kH , ‰;AW .#Q 2QiKW e 2" U  x8 .
\ #&> q%+ \:S|> R'+ EKW  L> nS+ y+ h8Q> (? , F T+ r i3 rK#Q bA  „ 
u uL+ B n  Ri3 B;|i= A ƒ  2#p " 2K.+ " y"= F ” 7 bA . b+
'u& , G6   b & :"H E_ K1 \w 
1  L> ‰;AW 2* :"H o3 2Qi¨ , .#+ . K"L
. b#1 ic , B;18#  2ipW   \."+
u  bu . YZ# “ n + YZ#+ ž b c= e  > L> i/ 5 21l> b „Z+ ª i#+ y+ e B"#
K"uLW e 2"" 2" FHS#Q ” : B@+ ƒi+ y+ B"# . bAH x6L sYZ= :"H i b01 n + 
. " K"uL= K"uQ "   oU  "  iv , e %#LW o#H 5 i' 2".+ \ *c+ €" e q% 
Yu` . 2u+q i'A+ y"= %= F  ;../ 2+6L (K® b# ` 7 R'+ L> 2.G ˆ Q ƒ. (

u b 8
 g %= F T+ 7@+ ( e B`+ b# ` -./ :"H L> oi. F%q “ )%" > ª i#+
. 2+  A? T+ i'A"+ & %#LW nV1 .  
{ "p1 W C15
{ kHK#X> B;.= 2"  , –  – K"LW (p1 W
. 2** Y` b#Z v >  x 6L+ M*c
Tu+ rK#~ F pH ƒL+ .+ 2  501 . 2|i#+ b1? e œ q  % (p!+ eH ) 3  
(%.1 . oW rK#~ e &Y` e !"’ q e
= – (v :"H  .  nK#œ R e .= q h8Q> ;"
 Riu3 E K#"+ 
m ;1 & , ;K@ , &  , ;qH  , 2%"c+ P3 F – 8
 q – ª i#+ y+
bu##X K  *# nK#œ d#X x/ 2  2X  %= F . 1 W  e #W   R
L+ x . >
 ‚guQ ˆu   2UQ F 2%"c+ P3 y"=  i
AW e š+ . o }+ x ZW ;Aw &Y` 2X 
Ful!1 2uiv ˆ u.+ rH “  2 Œ³ – b k!A > '& . i 5 P+ e oi3 x.#
– uŸ u;K§    > y+ n . 2+†i 2X  y"=  7 e§ . K"L Y` K"L –+ :"H «SQ
–u+ r%#Q .1 . L8+ o H –+ F#X T+ rX W w e F  e  e q  > b1
hu.#+  , yuw > . b1 yw > kK"H h.= o‹ F 5v «ap ,  x . ( +†+ %H e Å Ã
: b#Z
= :"H (p!+ eH x 6L+ dU Mc ‚.1 A& ”"V#+  A& . Ri h.= kK"+
{ B«K#œ eH £1+ , K"LW (p1 W

39

u1 – Bv ( K"L Bv "p! – "p1 e '+  . K"LW (p! – x . ‰;AW eH ) 3 '&  ,
b+K
#uQ Bf ‡= ‰;AW šQ B;    nl h8Q> v y+ . Ž \1 + 2+6L h8Q> Bf ‡= r+6LŸ
. b+K#Q 
;u#+1 ›w 21 ;1p#  Bf ‡= K# & @+  \w> 2 ‚%= š     2‹  B;K"H
. ; V#Q 
2! 21 &  \KL+  iv AH 7p#  Bf ‡= Bf VL \KL+  iv ,  (  B;K"H
. B« ij &YVL=
ru
 B;  r8
p 7p# Bf ‡=    :"H B;   S= eH +6L i B B;K"H
. YZ#+ '& 2 ` sYZ=
" u& K " h8Q> x . .  ( , 
 ( ,  21 ƒA+ €U| e  – & K – h8Q> v '& (
, duS u& .b# , dS & K > bK;1 x§   h8Q> B;!   A+ kZ%A   nS#L > Av
 L> bX + '& :"H
+ h8Q>   . 
 ( ,  ( ,  21 ƒA+ 5 PS b :"H b#
!up#
 K"#  "a#   ( , 
 ( , ƒA"+ ‡# – +  E+  
W e   YZ  (p+
. 2|i#+ b1? B; + .%U kHK#X> i S#+ eH r+6LŸ B;A \1 YZ  "K 
u 01  K"H **   b#* , G6 > 2. E1# r> . e ‰;AW -%L   A"  A   '
&
euH :;uA 7W a . ;#X8+ ‡# kHK#X> i S#+ €+Q r ` r."SA , h
 e ‰;AW k"
2u  nu ;#X>   . s
A  b1A1 A  , b!p#
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AW &  7W &    
AW
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, 2Hic# 2!"#$ o H €& ' i
1 \ i , B« ;#X ` B& i  , K"LW ;#X s e .
u
!+ , ( 2 @ ) €&' b b#* . 8Q %&' s† + b% 5 €LA ;#X ( . rv e Yq

W , 2"w > €& ' k& . -1 = e ;1  (1 Bf i c e €& 'W ,  2+6L "K*#  . k8Q>
u
W , u 5  e 
 5 
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, Ä ! KH ” b"% e . c 5 < + e (.# AH b%&' , YZ1 k1p+ h> (1 y+' .  +
r ;u#X> yu"= B;1 e
D > A& e . K"LW o ,  %L e
– k|i= 7? , ( BŽ " 2!+6W ) .+
r\uO1 Ž*u ;#X om ( €&' ) 2 @ 5 o H
= > 2A& + 2|i#+ ;1? eH o €& 'W 
& . B«K#œ n  ;%"S# K kHK#X> i S#+ €+Q  r ` r."SA  eH K"LK B;#+6LŸ 21 
. Yq
+ bA P;1 \AH 5 ˜#® ;#X
 ‰;AW :"H X e
– k8Q> 
!+ , ( r @A+ ) €& 'W = ;#X> , 78#>1 v    
”u"# 01 . ‰;AW \ l :"H n + y+ 2Š 2"c & o :"H n  ( , -.*#  v . b=  QL
5 u#  )u%" – h8uQ>  W . ‰;AW o e B`+ – 2K"+  2 
!+ – 2"c3 F!"# n +
B"1 .  2!"#$ 2Qi¨ 2!"#$ €& ' F kHK#X> i S#+ 2"c 01 &i S= ˆ ;  , 2!"#$ rK#œ
Bv "p1 B \® e '& bAK# Ÿ "p1 2H K"LW  x .  nS#L “   k8Q nK#œ ‡A& e

. K"L

40

7p# , B;#  @!#m ;1  T+ o#!+ x U   KA   2HK#X> B«  S= , K"LW M_ 
u.1 AH . tU  +  q ;#X>  o%H B"+   h . kHK#X> i S#+   2%S+  
– , &.1  . B&Y` B;.%L1 2 i3 B«YL Ž    T+ 2HL+ xŸ h.#+ eH ! = B;# 
€& 'K"+ \:U9 ƒ."+ nAScW £Æ+ 2H l W ) ¡+ M% 2189  %#Q> #L=  h – AK#œ
2; 2+ 5 K"LW 2+ F+ /  
W  E+ , & e h
v F."U .  .+ ÄA+ 2Q 29
:u"H 2 up+ , €& 'W rKO#1 . q%+  e 
!W  2!Q8!+  \K"+ e >  e + xXi \!"9 ;K
®
(u  , o3 r8
pW 2**c+ x "3 , =  eH o F*%a1  2.Q 2|i= (  , ;#%L 
ruK#~ h.=  .gH   %#Q  ;#X> P (!   '
& . i S#+ (%Q , .gH &  h.1 . 2+=
. bO;A ŒA & ( \kw , h8Q> e ;#X> P (! š+  28Q>
2u;
+  u eu 2+ }"+ «i x 28Q> 2189 2+ FS   2†3 2|i#+ 2"W r\X K"1
uv 8
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!= FE £S> \   %#Q  2LA
+
. kHK#X> i S#+ r8
p 2;X  , k8Q> ‰;AW eH F"’ R
!+  kK"+ )*%+ 2  r.1  F
ou . buAH b#+ tL i+ 'Ž s s !  n +  S= , L> i sa= b!p
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b  i S# > b=i. (p#1 b#  .!  h b kHK#X> i S#+ 2 g & L>  2QiKW F%q= ˆ
. YZ= + “ H i S=
u& i*#+
 .A#  .1  h AG = eH  —  AG = eH   h A#  .! – A 7 '
&
) 3 '& ,  b1p# AA  . YZ (K ”p#
 B"# (a# e 7 9 & sL
  x  . 2 %+
. [+ A  YZ ” 7 “ ;#1 e  > T+ kHK#X> i S#+   k& 

41

C5C
L> xX
: b != k .+ 
!+ 2 C16
¥  €u#
 q 5 2%LA+ 01 ‰;AW i c , oi cm ;AH AG/ T+ r @A+ 5 2%LA+ 2"
pW F 
O;A b+ 7 R'+ [+ k .+ 
!+ e (".+ . 8U ‰;AW 2%` 2"
p [+ k .+ 
!+ 5  €LA
\u1 + eH bO;A i c n -L#W si c 29 b# A1H 
1 ‡  . P+ + }"+ bU  & *l 
b# O#  AA > ¦#+ b* 2 b#a1 kXi b . ( 6 o.1) [+ eU + , kHK#X> h.#"+ 2 @A
¢u*# b!1 . 2*l  b1 ‰;AW 2 . Yq & b+ €LA   .=   :KLW 
!+ & AA R'+ — .
)  … [+ eU + , €ž>  €ž KH 2+ o + eH 2+ 2 .+ eH 2+ 2v eH Yq
+
> bu1 q*#  1H ” + . ¨ 7  nS#L > Av  i 3 ; E  2= '+ oXAW  °H W
kuK#A 2  X :"H 2** 2+> 
 k .+ \K#> i p+  . k .+ \K#> B&i p+ 2=

. b "Q b# ` k .+ n +  S= r."SA 21W ic M"c > bA
+ ¢*#W ;+
euH £u1 bv Ac > '& . x . K1 ‰;AŸ h E#+>  e    2  Œ1 eŸ k .+ 
!+ , k.#" .+
– :u > 2gH+ r8K3 e €  ;1 . S9  2O#+ x8 e h.#+ 2+m :"H 2QiKW , Bg P "Q
\A%+ , ‰&AW  -!"#+ &Lž K ‰;AW 2%` ;1 . hc R'+ — . R
!+ ;#X> 2%= 5 – i. K1
 ruK"
+ 2KVl  r*!c+ oYq r# €#
 [+ eU + s‘> '& 
! <`  .  + R
!+
ku!1 . ku! Y` > 8Z#Q €#
+ , r*!c+ n#= ;1 "Z#Q  2 #w>  o +  2 .+ eH r }A+ 2+H
2 #w> eH AG® x= (c1 , . ¦ }"+ 
!+ o'=Q e Gi  q  o +  2 .+ eH €=
+ AG® (c1
€"uL=  u kLiW ¢ #+ e oi#LW r Y%#+ * b1 B*.=  Yq 2+ }"+  A  % ` q 
 q  K;A ( ¢/ !"#$ %= h Aa
1  O1 HS. -SAW nS.A "c!+  K1 . 2"v ;#+>
'& . #K"
+  oH nKž R'+ A+ , > 2 #w>  2 .+  28H _  x§ q%H . • (c1 ,
& . .= :KLW k .+ 
!+ e dS &  q , ogL+ 2KL+ & ‰;AW 2%` ˜8+ -!"#+ , P "Q>
:"H 2 c#> 2KA#+ oil B
 + Km B ¦ }"+ ; ;!Ÿ 2 .+ K"= e '+ ;1 X 2|i= 2"  1
eu bAH AG/ T+ 2+ 2 .+ 23 , gL+ i#+ "qD B& . 2 #w> oH e   #w 

. ( 6 o.1 ) (%
Ÿi  &_ ( 2 #w>  2+ }"+ 2 .+  nKŠ r>m :"H oi c. Y` k .+ 
!+ , ‰;AW 2  Y`
u + K  % .= [+ k .+ Pv ( ,  [+ k .+ Pv , # dS x  ,   l q
2QQ 2+ A+
=  " €O1 " o  2H 2 A Aa x .+ & y+ . \kw , 2& %+ e š+ & &
au 2+ }"+ bA :!’> R'+ x .+ 2tU rX 2‹   . P X 81 '&   " €ž " W  . o 
(uq . 2u .+ YZ oi} «  k& F  2** rX 2‹   . B¡+ " k%S+ " s‘> 2 ` k& o +
. ou + P X + 2O &'V#1 8
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2H 2+ , 
L+ 21q , 2U!W o E+ 2 :"H €"Z#+ , – 8
 q – 21 v 2+ o + h .=  €O1

42

R u Y% µX  H nS#LA+  . ˆ}
+ x+ cH , n!A= T+ & k& ˆ} 2+ A+
#+  . ˆ
28+ 2 p%+  2 W r
> 1  o + bv  . 2 ;c+  2+ }> l AH  , A!A R'+ s &
. … ... 2  \i 2 #w> \A%+
. 2** rX R'&     A" 
2uHK#X> o&@+ y"= , kK"+ )*%+ - U eH &A1H  A  ... { 2**  A1H ” k& 2+aLW —
(? , > 2¡+ -.*# > k.#+ (%.#LW  ;A A11  K# &i S= 2 ‚%= T+  .+   2 :KL= T+
 2ugEŠ ;#!A ;1 šK"= > T+ r>  r>3 , “ 2 ` " 2+ o + " hE#" A01  2 .+ ;#+
hu.#+ e‹ & y+ a A K"H A.  A ;.  " ;. r*= ;../ :# + “  2"W
" 2!AW " 5 2Q K"W 2+3 :"H Q 2** rX  A1H  A   . ( S+ ˆW , + nKO"+ SW
u K A"H 2O 
+ €ž >  €ž W Sl sA"% + . 2*"+ ²  ‚l 2!AW v S aS y+'1 « 
 A"%.+  . n1 +   YZ+   A+  K"  A"H   A + r i} A"%.+  . A+ 2O

 . uA (u  u.#+ %= n!A >  n1 &  x    F e  o :"H 2+ ( , <#! ”"#¶
A u#1 uA%OHv  . 2u1 21+  o + (X e xA+ U$ :"H 21+ G6 e '+ %"L+ A#>
už > e '+ e =W  K"L#LW  ;#> 2K
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Œ / eH ”
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+  . 21 = – o +  ž  e '+  o + , !
. … ... tw b% n!A > ;1 hH r W v o + (%Q , ;p#Q> :"H ƒA+
eu u;1 uK 2!AW F +  . 2+ o + i}= > 2!AW 01 2!AW i}= 2+ o + F  b ¥
:"H Ž €"Z# T+ 3 , o + (%.  A"H %X  
+ €ž >  €ž  A#1 ‚l k& 2Q K"W A#X
> R  Y% µX \A%+ h8+ i.+  .  > ˆ} 2+ h.+ k!
= T+ 3 5  . q > 
L+ 2
,  ˆu= x+ e 2H Kœ (  [+ eU + (  2gEX r   2+ o +  R L   .  E
2 i Q     < + o ‡i%   . 2"p+ 2+ o + e f ! q «    f ! «
u
=   . 2u+ o + 2+ ,  L+  2 i Q < + o ‡i% K   G   L+   =
   AQ o + rL €   b" '& e S . … ... 2+ o + eH > %. 8
  2. 1> o +
o + eH = o P8U ;"X e A T+ 2!AW F. 01 . oS  2#G " div "  e a#A+   i
. xc!> (%.
}u#V+ h> o + eH €#
K1 ;A 2"q dU   [+ €p"+ 2 n1A 2+ o + ,  A@> 01
e o + eH ¢*#  €=
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p o + (/  e
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uAi 'u& ( A@>   ) 3 ;1 i T+ 2"W  2gEŠ 7@+ €QA  2"qv y"= e i#| 
;1A o "+ Rg.+ i}W €Z ‰;AW 2%Z bv y+ . .= :KLW k .+ 
!+ , ‰;AW 2%` oi S ˆ
0u1 & n1AW e bLK"  b1  :"H 2." o + :.%#1 bLK" > b1 >   ;A bLK" b1  
˜#§  5 Ÿi ... o + FS.Q  2!AW F.1 A#X F%w   2** Y` 2!AW A#1 F ¢
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s %= &i. K o + n!AW  % Q
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euH .. { ou + n1A k&  : k*SL+ x 6L+ :"H 2X> b1 AZ#L B > + .  .#+  X ;X '&

43

" o  2H 2 A  : x .+ 5 ;#A ¥ .. { n1AW s'& ( o "+
= W : -KHv x 6L+ :"H 2X>
. o  2QQ 2+ A+
=  " €O1
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, – ;uAH Fu!"’ 2 
1 oE! :"H R SA – yw> – & . o + #L= + x8Z#Q> .#+ (%. > K
c#W " AS!+ " :"H % e
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AH  . k.#+ k .+ 
!+ 5 2 LAW rQ i+ e Yq
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!+ , ‰;AW 2 b"q³  S š+ '&  Y`
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> 2 ` Z+  + “ k.#+ k .+ 
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b%%uL uK1 (qK# k..3 S9 — . s;#X 2+6L ;#œ ( (K*#  % ` š+ 2 
!+ r ;#X> , aS9
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!+ , i c.+
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F   rK"
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u.#"   x / b= iw –  – 1 R'+ k.#+ k .+ 
!+ , ‰;AW 2%` v  B;A K1 £ c+ 
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44

eU u+ , duS  
1 R e b#* ,  != q k.#+ k .+ 
!+ 01  '& e B`+   '& n
5 bu + *#   F+ ¦#+ .#+  .+  2 g.+ o +  F+ b1 ‰;AW 2%`  . [+
R eu sY` b
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!+ . [+ eU + , 2.#+ BHE 
1
¾ uc '
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!+ . kXi
, 2QiKW 2Q , aS9  2O#+ 2"c3  %= e  " 2 #w> o + " eH B&i
1  .+ Y`  .+
**u \u.#+ ku.#" 'Ž &  k #w> xA"+ \H iU b E#+ , k .+ 
!+ < !# ¥ .  #L '&
e B`+ 2 .+ 23 -./  ˆ> i
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u
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45

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'Ž s s !  n +  S= , L> i sa= b!p
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‚%u= 2uK M%a1 ƒA+ kH , ‰;AW .#Q 2QiKW e 2" U  x8 ( b ) ... bAH b#+6L i+
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& . si b+ ˆc=  kK"+ )*%+   b"H ” #
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1>  r @A+  ‰&AW (  x .  e
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47

b 4Ÿ K# b# ‚%   b+ A!p# 01 .  ( , 
 ( , 2HK#X> & @+ ( , ‡#pW
'Ž ( bK#œ ) b1? 5 R . b Ga#  b1 G6  5 ‡#pW !W '&   b+ .%U > i S# > b+ .%U i S#
u;|i= o&u@+ Y` . 2|i= o&? F*%  E+ & ;+ ”l 01 «  2HK#X> o&@+ 5 nX
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#> si%# (gQ  e 
”u 7uA+ " L> xX " ‰;A h. — . ‡A& dS &  A&   nS#L AL+ . 2QiKW 2"c
R'u+ buX + :"H b. k" K1 . [+ n + YZ= " 2 @ " 2` , 7   bV#L “ bV#L
.  K1 b+ £ X+ (;L
YuZ= -u"SA / " 2 @ " & > n + \ i K1 2!L"1 2+ . & 81 . n + YZ#+ ‰;A " L> xX "
nS#L ;E#"A1 ;1  . kH l W n + , o X W  .+  H .+ e 2H Kœ & — . b "Q  b# ` n +
š+ e
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eK# " L> xX " ‰;A 01 '& :"H . b** K1 bAH ”"#| bv b.%Q W i 
=
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(1)

sAH e 21l

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‰;AW 2"
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48

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: B"# bA
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KW " '& -.§ ” 7 > :.%
›uw  bu# ‚%= T+  .+ 7p#> b1 kK"+ )*%+ - U eH 2** 21  & K  s¯Z 
" uL> xX " A"H ! 'Ž .   R'+ e
KW -.§ ” 7A+ ›p+ y"= , B
*#+ 2!  ;#+1
“u B"#u ƒi )*%  ¥ -.*#"+ 2" Y` oœ 2 
1 r i c#+ A# n’ T+ 2+qW e i*# 
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2"w1 2+qW  2+q y"= . sYZ=   = Ÿ " B"+ " 5 .#!= ;A
+ e
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… { e  : x 6L+ ¥ . E+ , sYZ= 2S n + *A1 … { “ : x 6L+  s¯Z ” n + &  ;#X

49

 b+     s    bK¯.      tw B;! > :"H AL! Pi . 
W , sYZ= 2S n + *A1
-uKH u oiY 2+ , bK;!A1 . e 3 e '&  oK#LW b# x8  E+  
W e b  , >
b# , n "+ M*c+ B;!+ 2
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;i 81 2!  2!!U r ¯Z#+ y"=
=  . oK#L r YZ# K;A ( €c oK#LW 23 x8 sY`
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=  
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 (%.#LW 5 klW e oK#LW b# x8  b"%.#L , – K#
u. u . b1 K M% “ ¯Z= ” ( b|i= ) klW , b# e 7   > n + YZ= ‚S
r YZ#u+ s'& ‡i AH .   R'+ (%.#LW 5 s S#+ ‚S¶ e§ b"%.#L , K# b.*"#Q T+ r YZ#"+
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FL+ 
W 2"p+ ASS   A"%.#L „%A+ ;K"# 2K # o} ( A+ 1 klA+ ;1 ¢ v e i
, ou#KW ASS   
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K"H   H  i# ( 2%#W xX> :"H  ;O"+   =  (  :"H  ;Š BL.= œ FL+ E+
xuX " i'uA 'u
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. 2%QA = B"1  ¯Z#W n + &O#1 2"W 2%QA F T+ €+Q>  ˆ .+  7 &v r  AH oKO#
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+ 2> 5 o S   . 5 o S > FL+  YZ# *# Ga#
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50


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