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lecture notes MdC2014.pdf


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COMPOSITE MATERIALS. APPLICATION

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

introduction
Aerospace
CFRP

introduction
Composite material= combination of two or more materials with significantly different 
behavior on a macroscopic scale i e a material with two or more distinct phases namely
behavior on a macroscopic scale, i.e. a material with two or more distinct phases, namely 
the reinforcements and matrices Not like an alloy, like e.g. Ti6AlV4, or Al 7050!

Wing Skin, Front Fuselage, Control Surface Fin & Rudder, Access Doors, Under Carriage Doors, Engine Cowlings,
M i Torsion
Main
T i Box,
B
F l Tanks,
Fuel
T k Rotor
R t Blades,
Bl d Fuselage
F l
St t
Structures
and
d Floor
Fl
B d off Helicopters,
Boards
H li t
A t
Antenna
Dishes, Solar Booms and Solar Arrays, etc.

BFRP

Horizontal and Vertical Tail, Stiffening Spars, Ribs and Longerons, etc.

KFRP

Nose Cones, Wing Root, Fairings, Cockpit and Fuselage of Helicopters, Motor Casings, Pressure Bottles, Propellant

Reinforcements can be: particulates (e.g. SiC), whiskers or fibers, embedded in continuous 
phases („matrices“), here: restriction to composites with long fibers („advanced“ 
composites), often abbreviated as FRP (fiber reinforced plastics)
Fiber, monofilament: Primary reinforcement, short (= staple) or long (= continuous), fiber 
„size“  Ø =7 ...150 μ
i “ Ø 7 150

Tanks, Other Pressurised Systems, etc.
GFRP
Structural
GFRP

Floor Boards, Interior Decorative Panels, Partitions, Cabin Baggage Racks and Several Similar Applications.
Folded Plates of Various Forms, Both Synclastic and Anticlastic Shells, Skeletal Structures, Walls and Panels,

Matrices: polymers, metals or ceramics; we shall consider  polymeric matrices

Doors, Windows, Ladders, Staircases, Chemical and Water Tanks, Cooling Towers, Bridge Decks, Antenna Dishes,
etc.
etc

In general, the reinforcements are much stronger and stiffer than the matrix and matrices 
are more ductile than fibers

Marine and Mechanical
GFRP
Ship and Boat Hulls, Masts, Automobile Bodies, Frames and Bumpers, Bodies of Railway Bogeys, Drive shafts,
g Rods,, Suspension
p
Systems,
y
, Instrument Panels.
Connecting
Sports
GFRP/CFRP

Lamina ply laminae: unidirectional (UD) layer is basic element thicknesses (in mm) 0 125
Lamina, ply, laminae: unidirectional (UD) layer, is basic element, thicknesses (in mm) 0.125 
(E‐Glass), 0.13 (Kevlar, HR carbon)

Skis, Ski Poles, Fishing Rods, Golf Clubs, Tennis and Badminton Rackets, Hockey Sticks, Poles(Pole vault),
Bicycle Frames, etc.

Laminate: a stack of two or more UD‐laminae with equal or different orientations 
Laminate: a stack of two or more
with equal or different orientations
(„multiaxial“), defined by a stacking sequence
5

6

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

COMPOSITE MATERIALS
introduction

7

introduction

8