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. .. .
,'
~" ·
..,.,ruoM'"'~~

Cl.', HISTORICAl REVII:W! · ··::~'\M
RELEASEAS SAf·:;·,, __ J

!

1997

,_1995

""""""dRcted-

lR . . .....,. i9SOI, thG e-n! Ialdli&r*openlioal
o1111a1"'
tbc ao-- ofJecd>o Ane~~&Gmno• Gem ~in Gua._•k
!Jdo..W ill ,._dl'orU -Wiiouo ~ .. Ill, thG diopoo&l ofb!y ~
..,_-.t olfic:iols ud
c-..n.c.. Tbc A/ipJDJ~ ~ U.U of
illd.iWdlllloiOr uuooinaliod. c1ioa-' ~Gull,_. ...U. iw ......w.liotlteam3,
1•n o.lliciab.
· ud coo»d11<1es' iatimidalioA fC"I!IUU apinst prollliDeut

.......maa

<lu........,

G·-•

ThisbrleiiQidy tnca,iaa~ !II"IOCC, Ibeiqeclioa oCusaoination

plandloa ad pn!JlOials in1o lbe l.'lll'Oit1tlNB co...t opcndoollll'i•• tile M><nz
......- I n l!ISl Olld iiato tbePBSUCCBSS opcrotiool. in 19SC.. II alXIWI!jli.S to illuslme
the depth oCouch planniac IIIII tbc kYd ofi o v d - ol~ oftlrisl• It abo
ltllallp(l to clllllil ""'""' die pn>porab ori&'•ated, wbo appowd diaD, ..., bow adYaaood
1116 prcpem~o.. lOr IUdl acrioa:l......, Flaelly, doe lllwly _..._ tbo implemeDiabocl of
JUd> plallniag aad tho ru.dls - - Le., in lbo cad, tbo plaos ......., obaDdoned and 110 Albeaz
ollidab or Ourtcmal"" CoiiiiiU!iMo wue ldllcd. The acudy ia bued a1mo111 cxduawly on
Diteotonllc of Opentiont rooocdl relating to PBFORTUNB aod PBSUCCBSS.

1.3 e•rlY u I952 US poliqmokcn <riewcd dle gov«nrnent ofP!'elident Men.
..idl _ , olomt.. .AithouaJt he bad bem pop.lbrly oloel<d ia 19SO, '""""" Colllftllllisl
;,..,_ ..illlin his aown~~DCN pve ri.. to corurn in tho United Swes that Arbenz had
eotaN1e! an dll:ai~W!Jrtang.niance M!h lb6Comluuaisls. Mof'CO"'O', Arbenz'
po.....,_ bad diDI>al"' US business iniCI'dU in U..awmla; • ........,U.s a~ao rd'om>
c:ollod fOr llu: aproprialion and rediwibution ofmach ofthe Uoiled Fruit Company's
land. 1 A.ltJiou&h most 1\iah-leYd US officials recopiud that a bos1ilc SOVUIIII1CIII in
Gua......,a by iuel£ did not eons1iruio a direcl S<C4Irily threat to 1bo United S~teo. tJu:y
viewed .....,., llu:re in tbe COC>Iel<\ of tM go,..u,g globol Cold War lllruggle with 11\o
Soviet Unioo aod t.&red lhot Gua!emala could becoll1C a client rwc from whiGh the
Soviea could project power .arul intluence throughOUithe w......., Hcmispbue.'

SECMI'

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I

I
CJA and t•l4 ei(~Moc Co•M111.1 My rcporu tended to $Uppon the. o,\c.w ch1.t
QuMunala and chc Atbcnz rc&ime .-ere n;p(.dly fallin.l under tM IW&Yo (the Commufli'SI.S.. J
Director or C.O<tal '"'~""'" (DCl) Wallo' Bodell s,;ch uld
1\&cncy o llicials
~ lk JiiUllion ailed for .Woa.. ThciT ...asmcn< wu, ~loot
h<lp. lhe
G.ooi<Qialao owosition _,jd rnnoin [nept, disorsani<ed ..., i~YC. The Allli- .
~ dcmcnLJ- -lhe Ca!hafie hienrchy, ~ bui!IIW weresu, !he ~l~y
warl<cn uni0<1, uniYotlity .......... and tho AnrrJ _.., JX"PP"''O to P~"""' • ~
..,....;on co power. but IIley hod little wiSicle "'Pport.'

«""':

'"''hoot

Olhol' US offici. . .....oily ialhe Dcpanmonl of SliCe, u....,_ a ....,... cautious
approadl. 'lbo Burow of~~ for C~C~mplo, dld not Willi to p<aen1.
"the opoce.c:1o oftho....,._ ohUin& wid> alann l!efl>re lbe IDOliSe." . It Wllllod • policy
of linD .,._.sionv.itlt tho wichboldlnJ ohimWiy all ~ciYe ass!.!~ 01111 lhe
....... ~ olmili~a~Y dcboc ......... ,.... ..W.l!l SaMAlot, ,..~ .. 01111
~ !he~ of s- pooition .,..,.,_ tho of!iciol public us .
policy, the C!A ......-..r of tho oiculllion luod suppon willlia tho T RIItWl oddnis~R~ion
Tills led 10 the ~ or. OOYCrl oaion propDI desiS>'cd to topplelhe
Albeaz aovemmtt~• -- PBFORTUNE.

H.o"""""·

.. ....u.

PBFQKTVl(E
FoUowilog a Yilillo WaDnpon by N'1Uf18ULn President Anastasio Soonoza in
April 1952, in which Soo.oza boutecllbat il provilied ums he and Guatcznalan ..alo
CMlo< Cutillo AnN< c;ould ......WOw Menz, Presidenl Harty TNnw! ubd 0CI
Smith, lo iDva<iJ&Ic lhc pouibllil)'. Smith sCI>! a.n "~~""'· wdcnomod SEEICPORD, to
conl..a Guatemalan diooidenls.obotn mDOd otCion againS1lho Mcnz r~me' Aft"'

soeil1s hiueport,'(

]Chieforlhe [

] Oivition orthe
DnclOI\Ite or Pl.,.. (01'). propoocd to Doputy DUet~or o f Cea!ral U.ldUgcace AlitA
Dulles cJw. ll>e AfP'C'I all>ply Ca.sciflo Annu with wns aod rus,ooo """ lhac Nic:uaaua
and Hcndwlt furnish the <Naltmolw wilh air 1Upport.' Goinlng D~ ofSLIIc
Alppolt, Srnilh, on 9 Sopl<ftlbcr 19Sl, officW.ly opproved(
] ' • NOQUOUIO Uoitille
openlioa PBFORTUNE co aid G.o.IOIN!an eoiles io ovenlvowi.>a Atbtnz. PI~ for
PBFORTUNll Wlcd batdy a month, h""""", when Smith cemW>aled it aile< he lean>cd
;, Oc:lober cJw. i• had bee4 btcr..n. '·
ThrouafiCOll plantit1g f« PBFORTl.JME lhere were pt"Oposals for ..,, ..;nociO<l. •
Ewn months bef« e the ollici.J _.,.,a~ of PBFORruNE, Dircc<cr~te of Pl ..s (DI>)
ollioeo compilod a "hi1 ti>1." Working fiom &A old 1949 Gu••~Jan Army fiSt of
Communista ....S info rmalioco wppUcd by the Dircctoatc of U.lclligcoe<:, in h nuuy 1952
DP olficen compiled a li$t o!"109 Right Communists whom the <>ew govCrnn.ent would
desire to diminalc tmmodiaLely in event of suteeS$!ul anll..Cocnmunist coup."'
Mtadqu."!'er• as~cd ·[
J lo vcriJy the llit lllld roc:cnune<l<! ""Y
additions or dc1e~;ons.'" Heodquanctu!so .-.quested (
)to vaify a lise of ..
additional 16 Communists and/o r $ympuhi~rs whom lhe new sove:nunerrt would desire
to incatcen!i immediately iftbc coup suocudcd." [
J in
Gv;uemaJJ City ;added thtce rwnea to 1he llst in his (Cply. • J Nine months tater.
2
---sF.€1H!T

I

SCGKfOtU>. lhe CIA a.,gcnt in 1.0ueh with Cutitlo Nmu. rorw&r'ded to Hc:.dQ.u.utcn .a
dispo.>l list compll<d by C..•a!o Nmas. Thai ti>l aoltod for the .._OCU1ioo tl><o.>ah
~eo.Jli~ ar;don of $8 (iu&lemai&M (C&!CI&Of>' ()and ehc imprisocuneoc or e.w.ile. ol'7~

addilion&J Gua....Wans (Oolcgory ll).u SEBKFORD alao<epo«od >1 <heaameu-, II
Scp..m.:r t9S2, that Galec.l ~ T'1¥Uo. the ~n< of the Dl>o:oftea. ~~
ball asteed to aid Culillo Atma "'rctun1 fbr the "'ciilina o( fcur Saolo Docninic-. a<
prcsca~ ~ in G u . - o ........1'1 Friar to !).Day." ~ 10 SEEICFOIW,
Caslillo...,..
but~ IbM il could- bedoaa prior to !Mky
bc<.a- of seauity - - . Cu<Jllo Annas fiulba- added that his ow.. plans iacludcd
........ ao:liollaadlbat opecialsqu.......... al......ty beillj! tniaed... There u 110 record
1!1-. Hcollqu....,. tool< oay aclioo ._-dlot Culillo Annu' U..

.-lily...,..,_

/!JJis 111o .PBfOUUN!i opcriDc. ~ riftlciolly ICnllinalocl, lho Apter coo1iaued
10 pick up oeparll ot...-inWooo .,r-.ina0111faopeit of tile Ouatool>afltl.,....,iooa. In
I&IC Nommll<a' I'll, iw CICIIIIIple, ~~~~ ~ leoder, in LQCII\~
wilh SBEIU()IU). oon&noocd tNI ~ AnloulwS opccial "K" sroupo wbooo ll'iooion
wu co till olllcodin,[J poliUcal IOIId aoiliwy bien, Olld Challhe hit li!t wiih the locallon of
tbo
ollica otllll !alp> bad allady"- ........, up. u Oo l l Docaober
SBI!XI'ORD rq>o<Uid a.rd>er IIIII Caolilla Armas piiiADOd to 1Nke rrwci0111a1 iiS6 ot the
"K" .,_." Anodw:r ..,..,... ~aulr rqiOited lbat N"IC&fri&!JUI, Hoaolul'ltl, &nd
Salwdoan ,...,..... ia civilian dOibca ......U iafilll'lle Gualcmola and ~ uNIImod

-•111>11

Communistleoden. "

Aaeocr COflliaucd to try to
Wluenccdewlopmcnu &nd IO.floolldcub-dUposi"iofkeJ ligurcs in the(
J
In odditioc> to ononitonna evoous ia Gualemala, the

'*'-· (

J

JIOY<O
in 19$3 proposod not only to fo<ouo on oobota8<,·d~n,
pene~nuon, am pro~ cfCoru
rqn 10 Gua~mWo. bu• t!iminatt (

(

to

..w.

1wu

)

Jl.=rdi•& to l }tdtoft ~ dercrealina utorytba1(
'repori<lc l<l oust tho COIIICIIWii$ts, he alOI4 be ..-.un.tetl. Hio assut<MtiO<l would be
"laid to the Co mAli.." aod uiOd to bri"' abcut a rtwo de(occion of !be Ouaumolaa ormy."
A Wcotcrn KctnisphoreOi.;mn memo oll8 Aujpla 1953 aho ouaestod pos>ibly
.
......u.atiog key Guatemalan !IWiWy olllcm if!bey refu.oed to be comvertcd ro lhe rd>e1
ca-.19 In September 1953( ")aaoo ocnt (.
Jan updatod ptao of
action wb;clt indudod a rdtt-enoc to ".....u.lizin&" lc:ey GuotctDilan miliWy leaden."
In the psyd!ofosjad ...n.to arco, G.uoiOIItala City StuioR sent [

J olll....ting ColtUI1UAists in

Guatemala, "death nelie<:" cords for JO Wlight dayo besWU"' 15 AptUI953. The
Statioa IC[>CIIc:d the op.,.tlon besinni"' IS Iunc 19.S3 bvt repotlod no rO&c:tion from the

waeted L~•."

)

seeRET

.

... . .

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/'

SECtt(T

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/

By ohe fall of 19Sl, US poli<ymabn. iadvdina Cl-' ofticialo, WCft Jar<hina for a
- .....,.a
for ~-.. ..;oh Arbon&. The Olaaoomalan lAd« lwl .........S ......,
cl.....-10 ole Commulliooa. l:fe hod cocprop;atrd addiliollll u.i&ol Fnoit Coonlpuy
bol6. ., lopi.led tbo Guol........, ~mn•uliJI Palt)', !be PGT, and ~p~ anti·
Connunid opposioion foll""""s "' abonive vplisina 11 Salunl In rapor111~ the National
Soasrily c.....ciiiUihariad • COY<It ~on opcn.lion apinol N1l<:ru and ,.... the Cl-'

p...,..,

pcWnuy reoponoibilty.n

b!l

)

Wuteno Hembphcrc Diwioio11,
COIJibiood ~col -We. OCOIIOmiC, di~ 111111 ~ octioN oprul
<Ml...W.. Nome! PBSUCCI!SS, and eooo&o.ted wUh lho Dopu1mcnl of S~a~c, the
·Tbo CIA plan. .. drawn up

1

cl>jecd ... wu "to , _ 00\'U11y, and -Mihout 1lloodlloed it,-.'blo, 11\o
. . - o(oJc prosant eo......itt-caallolcd so-- ofC...Ientlla.• In the outline
oflfle opcnlioG die s\Jnh "'""'called for doe "to~ of Communi., MOl coflobontC<$
Ill« o ......,...,, <:<>up."
,piu.'• -

Dulto plac.c4 (

oili=, (

] in clwit of PBSUCCESS MOl aent a ocaior DDP ·
]to 00\ablilh a temporary ouiioa (l.IHCOLN). to ooordinalc 1M

-l

p~a~W,. 0114 uocu<ian ot P8SUCCESS. Od>er key At,eocy fia,sra inwl-s
i
ODd {
)auet ortbe(
Stall". Otpartmart of
Stat. [
]'Assirwn Sc.nwy of State for [

1

] from tho Office of(
J Main. and (
Slate liaisoo to llle ~ctet. also pii)'CII major roles.

]

Ald10uaJt • .....,.ination wu not m<ntioned .specifically in the overall plan, the Chief
]11 ( . ] requelte<!a special paper on ~uidarioc. or
peiiOQDCl 011 S IIIUIUJ l9S.. This paper, """"Alina to lhe [:
j lhict, wu to bo .
utilizod to bricl !be tnining cbief for PBSUCCSSS bcfon. he ld\ 10 bo8in tniains Catillo
Almas' foruo in Honducuon IOJanuuy 19S.. A~ITom[
]lhcfollowina
day RqUCSI<d 20 sacocus (oonwnas) ((l( .n caliber riSes. HadquartiR - t the
rih"' The (
· ]<hcfalso discwsed the ttainina plan ..;oh the qent SEEKFORD
on 1J llllAW}I9S4, indicatina lhat he waot<d Castillo hmu and the PBSUCCESS
1officct 10 train CWO au u.sinJ.. ln :uklit~ he diSoalssed the:se "assusi1111ion

of(

t

spoci16su" witll C ..tillo Armu on J Febnwy 19:>4."

Jllc ick:o of ro,;ng·......ination ........ ("K"' groups) oppote~~tlv oripated with
Castillo Annu in 1951 . Adapting C..lillo hm... <O<ICCfll, the [
)clrief
routinely included l wo ususin&tion. $ped1lists in his lR.inin& plans.,.
CIA pi&Mina for ssbotaae ,..,... in Cltly I ~S~ abo indudod crutins • "K" group

trained to perfonn usassiNtions. The main tnission or the tlbotqc lc.ama or h&r;usmc:.fll
le.amt, however, waalo 1Uack local Communists and Communis:~ propccty and to 1void

ett£<;.b 0!' t~e. anny.n A c.tu.rt ckpia~ th{

CALLIOE!US (C...illo

J~e.r, pla.n (or 11-\e

~~ or~tion , , _ t1oc -1c· Oroup.

h wu distlibu<cd in
v.uiow patamilituy plaiVl.ing packe1s .s )at~ as lhe "P'i"' of' t9S4.u In 11 bcleline fOf
(
.
· ·
] in June 19~.(
al.so metltioned tl••t
ubougc lt.aml woutd .uW~ssinatc bO>Nn Cotramonisu in c,b:ir ucas ooee. Lhc: il\vuion

.

~

ope:ca.uon ~san.

1

..

fMJ.Din it:.I Waif-at

lu in PBFOilTUNE. . . iatu"C ~ worfotc progrom p...UciOd Lho
pi~Mins (« ~ adiOA. Ulr"!iziQa die~ I>Cl.....t: e<tablishod by a
Oual.<m&lan diuidcct,lhG OiJ ofPGiideal ud ~ Opcncio.. IILINCOUI
dcotdopcd a mtjor prop.pnda -..paip oaai... lho M>en1< 80-.-nl. Po.n oflhio .
pfOSRI" i<>du6eol lise .-lin& or now .........,. -.u to tap o._,u, lcaclen. Tll<oC
canis .-."!'0'1
""""lioa ofvariou• Colllllldllisls lhtou&!-tlhc
......td Oftd ltinurl oflhc fo~ tl<>o"' oftho addroNcc. Dc.ath lc11cts wen also 1<11t
to lop ~an Oommuniltl .,ell u
Gvatem.al.a Cily Stalioo,l
)prepo~od lhesc ICU«s
(cw cho diu id..., ladet. The "Ncrn: War ApiM r.di.idu.U.• uit wu c:olled,. abo
Included
.,codon coi!W, l>aftsman's - . IIIICI phony bombs to lldoctod
indi~L Such slopns ... '"Hue
Sl')"' and ~v
~Only o.,..~ wcte
paimod on their housu.'"

die.....,.,\""'*"«

J

.....r"''

l

u-.

.......

s

Wanti~C to ao b•yond oren: lbrcau. ll>c dissid<olllu6er ou8S<flod !hat the "WIIern
disp<>W" of o.. of w top OuotcmaloA CoaaNnilu ......,rd have a positive dfcct Gl\ !he
<eaisunte mo-nt and uAd<mline ~ mo<ale. The dia4dcnt lc.Uet's
~ns allod rc. the formatioo o r a - oalon poup to_puform ~......
Ulcgal acu aaainst the go..,.,t. LINCOLN cautioaod ti.e dis&idena le&der. t.owa<:r.
lllot .,ch toehoiquos -re dcsiped cmly to tlestray a penon'• uiONinCIS. By de.stroy "we
4o not ......,. to leal tho man." LINCOUI coblod !.he diuida>~leador. R.csponding La !he
proposai!Mt a top Communin leo4er be bllod.(
]Gu.tcmala Ci<y told (.
]
lie -wt not t - d ass• n inalina 1111 ".s..th letlu" rec:ipiacs 01 tm lim< boca""' it
~ touc:i't olf ........,lesale ropn..ls." Rt:iLCnliat !hat IN: plan..,., "to 'ocate nol kil."
he nevenhelc.u IUSS..tcd thot [
) mi&hl wisb to "nudy the ll>&80!1ion for utility

now or in the lltutc. .., 1

Wl>le ~ par,.,.;lltary and pi)'Ch<>lop wanote pliiMins both included
wgg... iOns wlich implied ususina.tion p<opocalo, dleac: proposals appear fleVC< to have.
been implem..,od. The t
)<Nefhad ""'Pt to use Ca!(illo AnNo • "K" IT""P
sch..,.e butll>ere wu no Slate Depan.rne.11 or \Vhile House·suppon. Such was oloo the.
~when the subjc:a of assanlo.&tioa <ft>aBcd in high-le•cl ~uoc:y and inlor""Seney
pta.nniog diiCUssioru.
·

l
~EERfl'

'
5E€ftl!'r

fp«! Usa
A weekly I'IISUCCESS me<~ in& at Hc.o4quan<n on 9 Mord1l9S~ considcsed ohe
•l<mination o( I S-20 ofOv>tem&lr."s top leaden wilb "Trujillo'• ,,..;..., pistol«os.'"
;
Those auondi"& ~ mcetina wcte (
)DP Oper>lions. aJoaa with SI&U>
r~liva(
].
Ad......,. tbo II'OUP. (
:Jwl,ik """"s dwty tllal"sudo dlrainolion wu p&n oflhc
plan and could loo:: done.• objCCiccl \a the pta.,_l at that cime.(
)""-. u.,.-.stod
lh< ,.;ow 111M ~knod::ina ofr doc leaders flli&hl make n poamle Co< cbe Antty to coke

o.,.,.._

over...

.

·

] awars to be the ~erq ot!ic1a1 who nMvccl
Ill option. · 0a 25 MatcJo be bn>acllod lhc IUbjec:l Wdb

Pollowin& Ibis me<ling, [

d~ ofUA lAMUon U

] Who bad j\111
rilluraod a-o.. 11>6 Orpni.ulion o(J.meric&n Stac.. 1Mdi111 U. ~. Vonc:zuela, 11\ol
voiCd 1710 I to <:>OIIIIcatn ............ ia a.w-1&. W"llll(
. ) .... [
•)
lpin pROCOI1l.l )a.tkcd (
il'be bad dw>acd lois lhlnlcilw Jincclhc ~on tltc
popJolc ..thods to sec rid or\he ~go«mmaa~.( ) replied that .. his opinion
"tbo flin••tion otthcoe !n biP positions o( 111c sa•tm~~Je~~L .....,..1<1 brirc abou<its
oollaptc.• He then, quo('~ his ,..,..,..,.~ a<:cordills tc( ~~memo. by~·& tho\ ·
paNfS ·~ & .analler m.mb<r, say 2i>, would be sullirical. '
Leu llwt a weelc lalcr(
).uitcd[
Jon 31 March. The rec«ds
do 1101 iodicase whr(
)llew ~<>(
] ," bul. on that. daluhe(.
J ollioen
-n: asbd 10 ~... up .,.. up-datacl UIB<' ~st. Cril<ria foe iacluaioa Oft lbc ~ list
requir.ol that individuab be (I) hlgh zovemmcot. and o~nal leaders "irre.oeably
u..pi<:oLed in Commullill ctocrrioc and po,cy," (2) "OUIIU'Id COil provao Coaunu nist
ludes1,• or (l) those rew iotdmduals in lccy ~ IUld miliWy positi<>M or Laclical
importance "wbooe reaioval roc psyc:bo~oraoaiutlooal or other rc.uoru is·
mandoJof)' for Ihe JUCCCSS of milil.oty action.
. .
· Tht[
J chieftook !he new lisl wilh bim when he coruuiLCd C&Silllo
(

J

Armas oa 7 Aprii i9S4. (
] aloo bo=-d a copy ohbe
lirt OQ tho ..,.. dar. The t
] chief aod CUtillo ...,_. apparcrnly diso.lued Lhe
'II IIlii olleast ICnlaiM!y OSJ1'od thai any assutiowion would ~ plac>e durirla Llte a<lllal
invuion of Guatemala by C&slillcr ...,_.. forces. Thctc was still no ,;.,..·~ for the
OCUJal besinni"& orboscilkies, however. 14


AaenCJ' CO<l(aoa wid> c.onservotive GuiiWnllan e.cile lca4u(

J

at !he same cimc also produced an a,..ssination 1\st. (

]

prowided a CV. C:UtouL w!Lh aliSI ofCommunistlcoders he )"Quid like Lo occ euculed.
(
. )saw [.
J .. a loose c.annon, ho-vet. They did no\ wane him to become
itwolvc:d in PBSUCCSSS.''

.

CIA. retciYccllirnhct Ocpltlm<ftl of StaLe cnc.ooroacno<lll foe- usossiNiion
plouing in Aprill.9S4. l'uclina the fire for aclion,[
J. in a mu<ing
will! ('
. .
and IPOtber CIA oQiocr,
eonclude<l lbat Mmorc drastic:. a.nd dcfiniti~ SI:Cf'ISto OYC'f1h.row the sovemment {ill

J

6
5ECRF.1'


6EEA£'1'

Gu1 1t~l•l musl be ctken.•• l~ response 10 • ques~ion o!wttechu CN.atcmllan [

J""' ".alva&cablc.•• (

suaacstcd '"be be. efimituted...•:u .

1repUe<l in cllc RCIIOlivc and

On 16 May 19S~ the[
]016ea- &t [
J propooed ilia - )thcoewChid"of( ·
]and[
Jnowoem"'u(
]
thai ......U...ion be incorpo~1ed iolo the psrchoiOJicol pon or PBSUCCESS. The
[
]Ofticet Wd out a •pccifie UWii"'tion ocheduleloding up to O.Day, the aetuol
in.uoa by Cutillo Armas. Ho propoood a rUd on(
.
)onD12. Thiswu lobe a showoflim:e; ao"""wu 10 be harmed and illtat~ck
.,...10 l&ka placo...,., (
]was obsen!(
] Tbl>
]Offic<or,

to{

l.

r-e-. proposed the dispo<OI of[
D·IOuamuns ofpanl~cltc[

J, on

. ·
] Th.[
]OJilcor sugated 111111 ( .
·
1be killed on D-8. na ~
10 the(
]016=. cl¥nat•
lilt(
J dwaetu oflhc AReAl resilne. The(
JOllie« called for the
· diapolol"" ~ of (
] iD the Guatemolan
CommwUst Patty (!GT) [
] TbiJ would
lcneO...C...W.'sl
] lCfbdi.......t. On

•=rdlna

[)..ol (

1

J """ld

be clionin11od. [
was Co be diminalod ..,11111 the rob<~
forooo ,_lei ftO( have to WOit't'f a1>ous bim .,. deal with him aftu .;aory. The [
J
Ol5oer considered the poa>~iliry ofreprisals u a ...alalcss ill his od>oote.. !rut derided \hot
-~ adions were ""J'JC'Ced ~-" Tbe (.
10l6cct ar&l'ed thai his propoAI. if
.odopted, .-14 not Oldy be pbyl:i<;ally impressive but psychok>fically aplicaal by
p~ a Jllow of~ for the opposition. It I¥OIIId abo "JOIIcn up" the cnen>y. He
.odded thatlU ftm thRc su88t&flo"' bad the previous opproval of [
J .,. ·

On 21 May(
]ukod He.odquartctJ for pcnnission 10 impWIIonube [
)
O.llic:u's proposal and ukod for OU8&eftjont abcutcke opcci6c indlvidualtto be
laiJisod ... No reply &oin Headquarws to(
]baa boen found.. On 29 May 19S4,
bowevu, dlo (
] cNef roques~ed lhe...,..,. oft he -rout men" he and the
[.
.J()tl5c.u diJCUued ...,.,maUng. M.- chan ~kdy, If)([
J chi.Cwanled
to lllce up th~ issue opin v.ith Cutillo Annas. Again, no cable reply from Heodquona:>
or [
Jhas bun found." . AI tho t.amelim6, [
] ooatinued compilina
in(...,.... ion oa [
.
and T1$1s of hom~ od&csxo for indioiduals named on <he
• disposal ~,.· drafted in April." (
]believed (
J wu a "wOrthy tarpt.•'!

J

Jtr..

Mcanwt,;lc,l
e!ed 10 Wuhing<on arnl wt<niucd a p<oposal on I June
1954 Lloat suaaested that u an altcrnalivc approo.ch to the pat>lrVIitory action prosrom ..
.spc:cifi<: s.botose and possibly political UA$Sin.a1ion should~. carefully ..OO.cd <M and
elfcclod."M
)took up
l\I&&<Stion in diStlltsions with (. .
J
on I 11>d l June. 1\ccording to (
) considered the propo,... and then ruled it
ouL, '"a.tlust [Of lhe immodi1.te fuLure," on Lhe: sround thil it would ptove eountcr~
produc:.tivc. (
) wante<l more spc;.i[K pluas ~;QA.;cmi11& lhc il\di't'idualtaraets, tlrning.
ond ,,.tun<:nl of purpose. Doth [
1 and (
] IIVood tl\lt the advan"B<'$ pin<d
by this type of aetivi1y needed to be clurly .spcllOO out." Thi• appears oo he the end of

t

t

]

7

SF.t;RF.T

5£€1\f:T

serious pi'&Mins in

wl lhingcon ror che inclu-Sion of ~vc &SSI.Ssi.Ntion proposal.$ u,

1

PllSUCCESS. Rdut1V.ng (roM Wut.;ng~<>n t•(
), on llun<: 19s-4,(
however, ~poned c.o his
du.l the conxnsus ia. W~on wu t N.t '" Arbenz mun
,o: how docs. AOC maUCI....

•.!"

On 16 June 19S4 Cutillo ~ ClA-aJpportod Coroo of anncd exilu entcrCC!
<J,atanal1. While !'-' fonlOI ..mnced laalivdy lrllhe ~.[. ']::lualcmala
Oty on 16 111d 17,.,.- with aladina<io"'""'''• militor)' .............S., inlhe hopes

ofconvincina 10m 10 la.d • ooup opiAII kt-L ln thcoc dioa.uslotu, the rnilil.ll)'
~crltUucdheW(IUI<!IIIH...,_( ·
· ·
·
).ldllc4.
1 &wnlcd I>)' !he continued in&ction of!be
Guatemaloa ...aiLuy coonniiJidcr, tGid Nat that irbo -ad ~ 1cillcd be lbould do iC
hi..-lt DapitolheGuatemalan mill~ CO'M'ndcr's....m.docl, a( Jaoblc indicaled
tllat "" rcmailled
WI [
IJwj 10 be dirai.aalod...,
W'olh lbc Oua~ A!J<rr's position"""""'""' ucl tile 0101-.e still in doubt, •
few days lllct, ~M l
1c:hie( in (
l roquu&od pcsmission to bornb tbc ·
]and (
] LlNCOUf cciiJIOilllcd on l2 Juaa lhat il did no<
woatto Wlll& w strikos on[ ].x
]wllilo a boldcwauwcill& at Zacopo." The
( ]and(
}also svppo(teddtc(
1dlid's~c•llobornb(.
• ]..itb o d.......Uc cable ...hidt ended "8ocDb ll l'f"88 BC>IIIIb." * ~OLN and
.Hadqlwl.oro hold r.a and(
·
wu booobed. "We do oot talcc action with
l&f'LYO fo~ policy i....lil;ali- """"P' U &3<nlfi>r lhc poli<ymakcn," Dulles e&1>lod
LINCOLN.
.
Presidall Atbcftz, on 17 June 19S4, in a biiiCI!y acli-MM:rican !JlOCCh. <C$igncd his
ollioe and ooushl uyfum in the Mexican embusy in Gw.t..;w. Cit)'. l
··

n.t

"""""'*

l

l

J

·

)." M« CuliUo Atm., auu.-1 tbc
p<esida.:y, hoW'oYer. ~..,..allowed to leave chc counlly l'ac' Mexico. whidt l"'"tcd
IUm polltlal asylum. In addition, 120 oil>« Mcnz. go>crnmUII oflic:i&ls or Co<.wnunisu
depotted OU.tanal• o.llld« • we passaae ~will> the Cutlllo .........
goyemmont.11 'rhcte is no evidence IIW Ill)' O.W.....W.. wu. .....,lod.
CQNCLVSION
CIA otlian mponsiblc: ror pbMiog and dnpluncolinr, COY<!\ ..,..,• •, • •_ the
AltJe,u. &OYef'M'ICftt cngsged itt exteASive disc:ussions ova a two...ud a half year puiod
lboul the possibility or' ... ,.;naling GuatcmrJan olticial~(
Consider.tion o( using U$Utlna1iOI'!lO [
) ~rp OuatcmaJa or
Communist Cl\lluenu was born of the c:l.'lrtmc tnta'nllionaltensions in ttac eM'ty Cold WM
yun. The ,o.gcncy did not act ~nilatually, 1>u1 consulted with State Ocp&tlrnent ofl;Qals
with mponsibiUty for policy toward Lalin·Att>cric.a. In the <nd, no au:usinations or
0\lalana.lan oO"tclah wete carried out, according co all available evidcfloe .

J

8

seeR£'!'


SCERCT
. PtOpo ..ls for .... ,~oa1ion P<fVad«l bo1h PDF OilTUNE and P8SVCCESS,
tather lhaa belog coniine<! 10 Ill <;arly stage of<h<sc P"'B'*""· £...., bd""" ofticia l
appt<>•JJ of PBFOitTUNE, CTA ollic::en """'Piled dimiluoti0o1 1i.u and dita~...d Ule

coacepl of ususU.ahoo ,.jth 0 . . . . - opposition leaden. Vn~ the clay that Alt>eln
raiancd in June 19$j lhc op!ioe of......ina.liom was still b<lns c:ooaid....S.

llisa>ar- of t.JIUiinolion ~ a bish level within llle ~· Amon& !bose

illvol¥011 _ , [

abo·-

]is

lmown to t.w beea prcscalll one meoq where lhe IIUbjcd oft.SAS,;,Iion came qp. 11
iollibly lhol[
] ....
in.s=-1 1"'11"' 11111 uswillllioa .,..
Ulllls discusoion. Beyond plumi1'& como -..1 p...,aradoru wetO made. Some uw.W
-..sol~. tniJios llqpn, ond ~"hit lilts" ~ lhwn up.
Y• .., ..,....,. ocrioa plm iiMIIYin8 ......waioas of Guuemaloao wao ever

·

1.pp10'ild ot ~. Tho ollicUI ~oe ofPBSUCCESS wu to ~ lhe
~ aova-at 00\'UIIy"wiillaalt blooclobed ilpolllibk" 61irninatiool tiJts _..
OCYOr firw•ml U1U1ina1ioo PI'II'Osolo ....,.;Md ~ willoia lhe ~.and it
that mo ~ •ooodoted 10iitJI J..rl>eou _.. assaainat<d. Both CIA one!

•wmn

Stale Ilql.m-t ollicor1._.. diW!ed (...S undecided) obo•l UJil18 , .....;oation.
Oit>C>Wio• ol wllcdlu (O USIUUuiiG Guol-olan c-nisu and leodeq
C)'Dipolloebc 10 Co""""'""
took pl&ce in • hiJIOric.ol <l1l q•i<e dillire111 &om the
pn:O..... Scmol c-.nDm blld earned a repuwion ofq - . r ....,., _..

pro,...,.

tl<j>OIIicnl to od-Moocow's in1cnss1s ~ly. CoosideN!B Moooow's
mod1inoliocu in .Eutcm l!un>pc, role in the Korean Wu, spo01onhip of~
lflroualo Communilt ~ ill !beThird World, and upo~~sal of an idoolo8)1 that
_,ed 10 ba~ .alobol hea<mo•.Y a tbe ullimale obj<elive, Amerieast officiols aCICIIhe
Americso public allke ~ fotel&n Conuronist P&lties u Sovie1 pa....,. and ••
lhratenina co .Ua!IJS sec.Mty il>lcresls.
Cold Wu roallties and pet<qlliom conditioned Atne<ieaa &llitudu toward wbo.t
po1itico1 WUpotU W<tc Jeejlilnal<o to we in the stnl88le -sainst Communlsn. II would be
ovu two docada aller lhe events in Guatemala before DCI William Colby prohibit<d ony
ClA irwolvancnt ;, ususimation and a subsequ ..t E>ceeu!Nc Or<lcr b... ed any US
·
govctrmenl involvem~ in uwsination.


&EGRET

Soc. PicJo Clcijucs. SM«,m II~: :n..r G'wtHI#lo.t RftJOII/flolt -~ tJrt u.llei SJtJU.r. 19 UJ1SI(I'ti." """": l'ri...,.. IJ•Mu;,j9KA,I9SII~ pp.l1741. Uni<ooifNlo4oooi...... C.......W.
~ producdoft. canO'OIIcd Ule laeeraliorW ~ oC Cen&(al AIDcric:l.. and Q IIICtdwll l\a:r tud •
........ -opolyofGIJIC .................
)1- -ooly iO ihoOUalaulaa.....-as
1

olli,....

'" ~·

.

no.

' Soe Gldjco<.<, SAo~"'" If~ w - . . t H. Jn.. ClA "' O..lnlola: Fon;p
101iqof/oo<t.-.l,.., (Aualn: IJ~ ofT-P'nla, 1912)
wiow>oflho~
io
l9l01 and IJS n:oalcol. Soc oboMa~ U S - 10 O..f<lnll•
Ut u =al of lJ Otlobc:f' ItSl in DcjiUIInCDt ot Stile, ,..,.., b f_.,., oftH ~St.la. TIN
A - ' - bpW"" IISI1-/9JI, • : JO!Il. (lb<iMIIoo< cilal ool'ltt!i).

llr-' •..,

..,..,.ty

'See PBSIICCESS l'laNU!J--., --or~ Lido.........,.. Dmlion

.Raconll,lall -19-10t025A. CJ,\ .Aid>Mit (S). Soe-JfSC "'"· 11 Mood> tfll, FIIU$ ' ' 1'lhad/.
1001110r«DOP, "!olmwof$1)1101iooloG·-lo; lii-19.S2prlaledla
Mklood w.,_, od. no CIA wodv H""1 n v - ~DC: Ccn1ot lbrU.. SlocJyof
JaleW- CIA, I"'~ pp. 451-Sl,
'J. C. ~ a.Jc(, W....,.lb\lspllclc DHdao, dJII»IU, 2 l - 1tsl, Do>c 7 (S).
' .!eo._. oflnl<r·Am~ Alraill, "AIIorNIMI'dic:yU- IUJ; ""' NSC,

c.JO,..

"'•o-....•If...._

"Jl,l'ltu:l', 4: 107' ·IOU.

'Sol eolok toNics, "CcalCmoco..;th ••." • ........ 19.lZ, - 6HS~
o..JJoo. ~---. 'hly J9.ll, llol61 (S) .....
o
·rlldlloi iO~ •O.UciGOCMoh .••. " • " ' - "'l.-0($).
.
's.- ( l "CM>nologd-.J. .'al.cooll"'oo ~ oll'rqja<1.A, 'IOc:tobcr 19.ll, Boo
6t (S); 10 [ ..)
I ~ IJJ2, Boo 69 (S); _. 01 Dalla, "Go.oJ.tAWl Situotioo; 9 July

•s.. .................

"tl._.,.

Jts:Z..Boa".
• Soe (

) "CIIml'ooiiiC)'·"' l.lecDnp

Jnd'oc "' ~ ol"rrv;... "-• ro. s.o ....

,...,.,..,.cu toa.-oh,pp.I:ZO.ZZ. Bo:a_ot_ll'_UIIIIkbooaiwcotGaaaJSoonoa
-........s
io -rtiDJ tho n:llolllooPIII'OimiNB wu ooonQJied o/1". - . ,

lilt,._.• ""'

al- Douo , . _ - DO Slllilll 1D ""P 1M opaoliocl . .Oc:tobcr I9SZ.

L

1

"s.. Cable 2"29 OI'(:I()S()IWHD ..
M ,....., I9S:l,lloo< 1 (S~ fo< I Jisl of
U. _...S.....,.P'JQJ
C h i e f ; - WAJflno Opa-.. UNOOOI to AJI Soalf
OCIIclctr, "Sdecllon ollooli¥iduals fGr~ bJ1.,..Gnlu!>."lll\lardll9l4,11ol_l4S.

cia,.-,

.

"w.,..,.,..,c.ble[

)to(

)29-'-71!1.12, Bot:7(8).
•(
)oo K~ 191-.ry
(SJ.
"S.. oo~ )'Ooolooulo c-..w.111 Palo- tob<OIJ)>oood oiOuioc MWuJy OpcnDo.,
alCAU.lGEJUS, (Claillo ""-). I&~ 1952, Boo< 134 (S).
"Soc. ~ n oo( 1"~ , , _ -<:AU.IWl!IIJS
Tnjillo or Soolo
·
~·I I~ 19lZ.bo.< J:U (S). A"'"'"""'"-•....,..._ lreq_O>Oio!Ooooc......
paliti«. Att>c<liN,_IIbucfooalfna <he: l:imoc olllis aJdl rtniiW CM pruldt"Y I ....a., Atono io.

"'2. -•o

...s-

,,.,_

" Soz •• (
($). 5oo t1oo,

1-

. "Cca~~o<o:-: J Decallbtt 195l, .,.. 134 ($~

-od

] ......., -c.m-..,.l'luuUn.~ of Colli..,;. O...,...lioe. • Jllloccftkr 19S1, Boo 134
Adiftl Oil<( (
_
]8WCII<nl ~ DM!ioo W I

"To(

;. No-< -ccr ttl l lAd c...ur1o ~- SIVd)Oq rw- ofliqui<luioo ldl.< - - . . . . r.. ""'

.-. ·rw c..rc--.· s .........,_ 19S1, 11oc< "

",.,.,.,....IN!

' (S). Tho . . .o~~~cu
\lie AReo1
........ ..d ........ Culillo Annas for -·>lion.
" See (
) JO !olan:h 1953, Boo ISO (S~
11
Soc ( 'Pemotud'oll'h. ..Propocod ~ r1i Aaion lt Plan .is Noc: Cor!&IN1Cd ir. PteKN
.............. boll probobly 19SJ.- Jl< (S).
" w.....,. Kaalrploe« Ol•;doa, m...,.. "PBFORll.INE; 2a """"' 19.11. llo<72 (S).
• .!eo( ) onuno to (
)'Gual<IUil • 0coenJ Piall o( Adion," 11 Sqltomber 1953, Box l
{T$~ Sc>e abo IN llll<llod mcmo•.ndum from
l Ia ( ]9
I!I.IJ (TS}

_

Sc:p"-

l

10
• SEeR£1'

-

'

:Sa:

Oi~ldl. COS CUI.(maft 0..,.-. UNC:Ol."'. ·~t- ,.,.,.;""-- 1t A~
u NSC P4ilfcyh,flct., U Au~ ltU. n.:Uf•:IOIJ,

o.o~ 'tt (SJ.

PbA"""""' · ,..,

rc........

s..t

")•.

.J

110(
·Gt.uol
en• .... [
Spoci~~ f01PeSUCCESS.-=--o C«..chc~ •rroJ'Mlb PD-SUCCES$.- ll ...,_u e~ tt Sl,

eo. m <C>. s.e"" ......•r 1 ·s.....w, o1 o;....;- Old , _. . . . PeS~~CCilSs: ,
_
.... 19.ll.8o• l<l(S).(
l ... -..,wty-. ............. - .
"(·
) ........ Pco •.a.u.s..[
] .. __... ,,.....,.
ttS<. a...t tsl ... (
)to~u.....,..,,,_eo-1!5~ , •.,.,,.,. ..

Hoa<q...,....., 9 - I . S .. Bo.c U<SI: (

• Sa: 11w [
~to ou.t. (
f~ ltS< , IIox llll$). Soclho.Oilcl.("

}oo~c"' ,_..,.ItS<, Boo I~~-

]. "CI\LI..IQ!IUS 8~ ll01a." I

l-"'

L ]·c..ots-r.ri'IJSUCC8SS." n s:;,, .... us.. eo.<l (S~ tl>liMiobc10ol,_
.Seoalio[
}10~-"&Mai7"''- -7S (S)&M[
Jt ..
........,_ IIJ--r lt$4, Box I (S~

"n.(

)~ •S.(
) . " II Soia*~ Its!. he)) (S) &lid
JUK(-r.r~~~e.-. •r•cc:~..r....... llclilr(
]" IHdiN&or ltl<,l!oH<
($).. Sao-(
~ ,_ItS<,- l (S~ Th: ~ . . . . , . . . ,

(

or.-~......,

...Ju.



,,_,,,.,.,...,~, ...,.,..........,

... $1o4t«..._......... ..

-.....-.... ...... ""~ - . . , . ..."'""' - - " ' ..[

- - , . . , .. io llox ,,, (S).

)t.,. [

} Tho ><tiUl

J "'

~ S.. (
·
)ro ll<o*t........_ ll... ltl4. e.. l (S) • [
lb4qwnen. I luo ItS<, J ($).

• Sao 1<( ' ]~I U. "Cw>-a\1 F'laa.olq ofCALUGI:RJS O.pnir•.;. .." I I " - -'
ItS>, Be• \l< (SJ Oft! 'OooiOa Rqooo\.. I) ,._""7 I?J<, ($).
.
• S..l>ilpo.... ti.
.
] . "Tnl.U"". " """ Ill<. 8odJ
(Sccns, PBSUCCI!SS. l\j1>ot).

~

L

"TollNOOUI. Mar 191<, "TIJclicall -(ron 111: (SJ """ To<.ll<COU<.
""""""""''Ilene w., A&>~ as~ !Nmd••lt." •"""' ''"· ao. so <S~
'' Sec cos OulC~ a.,.. ., w~ Hc-.i~ Olvititn. ~~~~.- eo• •,. (C) w
O.OtDn&l• 01)' SlJ 10t.J)((X)<.N,I 4 MJ) ' 1954. Soc abo IN COS..41..t<>. O....-• C~
t.n<COUI. """' ...... ' " (SI. L
.
.

1

'

• Soc( ). .,.,.. l'ow II>< ,_d. "Woddt PBSUCCESS Mcai,. .;Ill( )• 9 MJtc. "" ·

S.. IS4{TS~ &_ bel.., .... ~f

'}aog..o11Nt lloe1DJ10....mal. . la4cnhlp

.... ......,;"""" duriolc ... ~.........., o(tJ>c - · nq 1oM .................. .,. ...
--.· u ... ,....... (
)..,._t. "lfu.o
""Y ,.;ll~oc .....,;,. ,._,

-

,_,..,._ • So<[

.

....,or...,.'"""'"'..,,
(

]Tap:ll,BodOt(S~

(. )""""".U-ti"' D<Wls." I) April ltl<. a.. 'JI) (S);£ ·

r-c...• ltl•.- '10 (.$1.
"(

),...,. loo tJ>c .-.!. • .._, ol Mt.(

' '"· &o• .., (T$).

) ., OA.S Co(l("'ooc," l ! Mao<h

J

'" Soc. OiJ. Eclllt~o~nic Warf,a~ (
lltl(fiiiiO t.e ~~~ Sl•l1' 011-cxn. ""Sclc:aio" o(
l~ f.., Di..-Jioy J..u <:-p. " )t .....U IOS4,0oo t<l {S). w,._...(
].;,;,.s

(

Soc(

]o• dlis.S.k r....ihl.(

).;,;""'""~"· Hcs;,.od;•••[

)l.o&-b' l iMa.d>l9l0.0ooUI(S~
11
fo(~. ~ l 0 (S).
.
,. .SC llftot-rN an6 li~Al nQCCI 01\ ~ fll!CIDO ._.._;e ll indica(( I WI{
&.he. fdc o~t I June ltSC, &o~t 10 (S)
·

"(

'lonliO.WC•.
-)n:tliiiMd ~ lifl 10

1
J

1950.

(

Sec_,_,. (

J,.[

·J·s....-ary ot()s>cc>oi""-" It ~Iii 19$4. Do< IH IS~ :SOC oliO
~
_....., _

y.wculnO.....,...._.,.,...,HU<,S...IJ<($1. ...., . , __

___ ... -

..-. ..· -·(M(,.......... n. lloA \02~ S«MD{_

}o

[

J ' """""'·
-Ill($).
•s.._,..r
.. ~~o<.-..,·s,..uo..u.r(
J·, ..-.a-.,
resucass - · . - ;"',1 "-"' n~: u "erii
m <SJ.
•s..(
')olllcor,(
J,....,.. "'l Jo-(. l .,_ clFonx e.r...D-o:q,·
~..,. ltsc, - 141 ($cooo. PIISUCa!SS, JJIIoQ. So< • t 1 -..c
Jom-.

.,,._e..

"Mial ;• . . - ( ~·y--..._d!Jo uA-o;.r,(
)"Ba<IU(Socno.
PlmiCCI!SS. IIIW~
• Soe(
)• 0..,_, 11 M.,- 193<.11oa 4 (S) • (
} IOllicr-.11
Mq .,,._-. (S~
.
":S.Cio ~ ;a, M.,- lfSC. loo< IllS). 1\dlopJ(
)Q!Iionr. (
) -'
cloil((
"looooDf ou au6 .,,......_.._[ · )oa H•ael1>4. s...[. ·
)-c" - ' -" 1 - " S<.IIoc 1'6 ~ PIISUCCESS, II,)IIoO.

• • ...,..~{_

).,[

}-u..c-.(

yvw.,.m<,-

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