TCEII .pdf



Nom original: TCEII.pdfTitre: Microsoft PowerPoint - Techniques de Communication et d’Expression II [Mode de compatibilité]Auteur: Dahane

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

Techniques de Communication
et d’Expression II
Communication and Expression Technology’s (TCEII)
First year of license degree in biology
2015/2016

Mr DAHANE Miloud

1

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

A. How to do A scientific work Study

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

a. Observe

b. Analyze
c. Taking note

d. Written expression
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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

1) What is a The scientific method ? 
is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making 
observations and doing experiments.

2) The steps of the scientific method are to:
1.Ask a Question

2. Do Background Research

3. Construct a Hypothesis
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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment

5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion

6. Communicate Your Results

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

B.Doing a literature review

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

literature review ?

The process of reading , analyzing, evaluating an
summarizing scholarly materials about a specific topic

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

1) Why do I need a literature review?

When readers come to your report or scientific document, they will not just assume
that your research or analysis is a good idea; they will want to be persuaded that it
is relevant and that it was worth doing. They will ask questions such as:

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

1. What research question(s) are you asking?
2. Why are you asking it/them?
3. Has anyone else done anything similar?
4. Is your research relevant to research/practice/theory in your field?
5. What is already known or understood about this topic?
6. How might your research add to this understanding, or challenge
existing theories and beliefs?
These are questions that you will already probably be asking yourself.
You will also need to be ready to answer them in the case you are
asked to.

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

2) Literature review example
Merriam (1988:6) describes the literature review as:

“an interpretation and synthesis of published work”.

This very short statement contains some key concepts, which
are examined in the table below.

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

3) A critical review
It is important that your literature review is more
than just a list of references with a short
description of each one

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

Explanation

Associated critique

Published work Merriam’s statement was  Increased ease of access to a 
made in 1988, since which  wider range 
time there has been further of published material has also 
extension of the concept of  increased the need for careful 
being ‘published’ within  and clear critique of sources. 
the academic context. The  Just because something is 
term now encompasses a  ‘published’ does not mean its 
wide range of web‐based  quality is assured. You need to 
sources, in addition to the  demonstrate to your reader 
more traditional books and  that you are examining your 
print journals.
sources with a critical approach, 
and not just believing them 
automatically.

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

Explanation
Interpretation You need to be actively 
involved in interpreting the 
literature that you are 
reviewing, and in explaining 
that interpretation to the 
reader, rather than just listing 
what others have written.

Associated critique
Your interpretation of each piece 
of evidence is just that: 
an interpretation. Your 
interpretation may be self‐
evident to you, but it may not be 
to everyone else. You need to 
critique your own interpretation 
of material, and to present your 
rationale, so that your reader 
can follow your thinking.

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

Explanation
Synthesis

Associated critique

The term ‘synthesis’ refers to the 
bringing together of material from 
different sources, and the creation of 
an integrated whole. In this case the 
‘whole’ will be your structured review 
of relevant work, and your coherent 
argument for the study that you are 
doing.

Creating a synthesis is, in 
effect, like building 
interpretation upon 
interpretation. It is 
essential to check that 
you have constructed 
your synthesis well, and 
with sufficient 
supporting evidence.

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

4) Who can help?

Staff and students in your area can be good sources of ideas
about where to look for relevant literature. They may already
have copies of articles that you can work with.

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

C. meaning of abstract

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

Statement of what a scholarly or complex written
work contains, presented as a summary it can be
written by someone other than the author of the work.
An abstract aims to present only the essential of the
subject questions, stresses brevity, and makes no
attempt to preserve the style of the original.

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

We can also say that an abstract is written

To give my readers an overview of my findings,
Or
I created an abstract that presented a brief summary of my work.

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

D. main constituents of Scientifics report

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

1) Structure of a scientific paper :

A scientific article has a standardized structure,
which varies only slightly in different subjects.
Ultimately, it is not the format that is important, but
what lies behind it - the content. However, several
key formatting requirements need to be met :

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

I.

The title

The title attracts readers' attention and informs them
about the contents of the article.
Titles are distinguished into three main types:
1. Declarative titles (state the main conclusion),
2. Descriptive titles (describe a paper's content),
3. Interrogative

titles

(challenge

readers

with

a

question that is answered in the text).
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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

II. Affiliations

The names and affiliations of all authors are given.
Affiliations : appurtenances or belonging
In witch university or laboratory does each person
work

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

III. ABSTRACT
An abstract summarizes the work (in a
single paragraph or in several short
paragraphs) and is intended to represent
the article in bibliographic databases and
to furnish subject metadata for indexing
services.
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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

IV. Keywords
Keywords are the words that academics use to
reveal the internal structure of an author's
reasoning. they are also used in a strictly
grammatical sense for structural composition,
reasoning, and comprehension.
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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

V. INTRODUCTION

The content should be presented in the context
of previous scientific investigations, by citation
of relevant documents in the existing literature,
usually in a section called an "Introduction".

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

VI. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Empirical techniques, laid out in a section usually
called

"Materials

and

Methods",

should

be

described in such a way that a subsequent
scientist, with appropriate knowledge of and
experience in the relevant field, should be able to
repeat the observations and know whether he or
she has obtained the same result.
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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

14/03/2016

University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

VII. RESULTS
The results of the investigation, in a section
usually

called

"Results",

data

should

be

presented in tabular or graphic form (image,
chart, schematic, diagram or drawing). These
display elements should be accompanied by a
caption and discussed in the text of the article.

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University ORAN1

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

VIII.DISCUSSION OR CONCLUSION
Interpretation of the meaning of the results is
usually

addressed

in

a

"Discussion"

or

"Conclusion" section. The conclusions drawn
should be based on the new empirical results
while taking consideration prior knowledge, in
such a way that any reader with knowledge of the
field can follow the argument and confirm that the
conclusions are sound.

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Mr DAHANE Miloud TCEII L1 S2
2015/2016

University ORAN1

14/03/2016

Faculty SNV Mr DAHANE Miloud

IX. REFERENCES OR LITERATURE CITED

Finally, a "References" or "Literature Cited"
section lists the sources cited by the authors
in the format required by the journal.

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