tr interessant avec copier coller .pdf



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Application of Alg·al Growth Inhibition Test
Frog
to Sewage Samples

Teratogenicity Test

Masaaki MATSUBARA*, Arata HARADA* and Hiroaki TANAKA*

*

Water Quality Division, Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction, Asahi-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305
Japan

Abstract
As sewerage has spread in Japan, evaluation of the effects of sewage and treated sewage on
aquatic organisms has been becoming important. In this paper, applicability of two bioassays
to sewage samples was discussed. One is an algal growth inhibition test using the green alga,
Selenastrum capricornutum, proposed by Environment Canada that is conducted in a microplate for simplicity of handling. Because sewage samples include high concentration of nutrients, the test medium was modified here. The other is teratogenicity test with embryos of the
frog, Xenopus laevis proposed by ASTM. Application of both the assays to sewage samples has
been little reported. Therefore, we applied these bioassays to sewage, treated sewage and its
receiving water at three sewage treatment plants (STPs). MICROTOX acute toxicity test was
also conducted for comparison with the above bioassays. As a result from all the bioassays, the
following findings were observed : i) significant reduction of the toxicity of sewage during
biological treatment in all the STPs, ii) no significant toxicity of disinfection with ozone and
low-chlorine-dose, iii) high toxicity due to disinfection with high-chlorine-dose from
MICROTOX test, iv) toxicity due to high-chlorine-dose from algal test even after dechlorination, v) no significant toxicity of high-chlorine-dose from frog embryo test. Considering the
above results, these bioassays are useful for evaluating the toxicity of sewage samples to each
organism.
Key words: bioassay, sewage, toxicity, algal growth inhibition test, frog embryo teratogenicity test

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Effect of concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of S. capricornutzmz

Bvz= ---:; t- ~ c (7) h \iA~ ~ 1'J --:J tc o i tc , \lA~fti ~2: f:!t 9 6 Jlf (7)
~ f2:---:; v~eli ASTM (7) 15/:t --c· li 1/&l!li iR ~ t-: D25f[li] t

Bml~ff#M~%±.ffi~~t~~~-ttf, lli'Z~M~G(l)~

Fig. 3

HO-

771
~JEt:'

n c :l3 f),

;;$:~~~1:'

'i:J -f ;h~2::Vt-::> c v' 6 :b~, i*Jjm
1 ~It t:z: ;li) tc: IJ

l Off/iJ--r-1i ') :=. 1::: 1::: L.Jc: a
7 1) 7J '/ ;< if x Jv ~2:: ;t Jv ::t /

CD 7

~~Gk~~~~~-MT-ca~G, ~MGITmR
3B:!t:O~:illl!v-c-v'6WI~

@

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IIIII

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t!

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~3tl1JJU-96o

TI'H¥. 5 em 0) v -r'

v ~2:: it:\*4 ~ i&~~&\' ~2:: ;fff~R G tc: 'i:J
~llf.Jtfl ~-= i;t-::> t..:llf ~~J£¥&
:tt..:fi25fflil) -9--:::>J\n, 24± 1 oc 0)1 /:f::L«-:5'-

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(Rf)

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(gonadotorophin)

~~MG-r~~~~G~~t:'~. ~~~~~.:Sa

®

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s~~2:: +7t¥&0)/Jf:0~1~, 6 n~;t :0,-::> t..::t~IS.

oo

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24~FIJ9 ;:." 1::: ~2:: v -t'- v 0) cf' O)i:k::il'"~ ~Jrffillfg G c%L:: G
kfflii~~~IJ~~. it:\M*~~-~60
96S~FIJ91&~2::%L::fflil1*¥&, ~fJf:;O)§B± Gtd[illl~§;)(, 1*

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t..: 'i:J OJ ~JEL::~ :t tc: fi~Jf~§B±:>:~ 1:::

G-rrr~~6o
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fi, ::frit:\•t:z:-c-.z- n-f-~"L:Y,b±lOf!nl
6 :b~, JEL:: ~2:: J:
IJ ±1¥@~§;:\z:bllOf!nlf*J;J T O)t~IS fi~±f¥¥&0)~:fit:b'
6¥t>J~:Ft~~t~~ .:So rr~t:' nt..:¥t>J1*:Ft~2:: 'Jv'c

(J)

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J: lfi*:FtJ:t ~ /o '/ l, G -r -;/7 7 ~ffnlZ~ 6 o :=.
:=. :b' 6 ~1riHlt~ ~2:: J: f) JEL:: ~2::--:::> v' -r fi LCso (.'f:¥&3'3:%

' """' 1

70

10-1

il&lt), *~12::--:::> v' -r fi ECso (.'f:¥&~?!:'11/!t) ~liT~ G,
~:fit 12::--:::> ~,, -r fHll. i!l= 0) Jil. 6 n td~ 1]:[; 0) ~
t:z: ~
MOG (~:fitmi!l=fi~~Bt) i:::Gc*~6a
3 _2 t~~tm~ (: J: 0 ~~~

oc

~f¥0)f-:5'i:::O)tt~O)k~R,

(Na2Se0,)
-r fi 7
J:_ /

~v/~~~l)~A

Fig. 5

Effect of research materials on Xenopus embryos
and tadpoles

i:::liiiE~:r!Effd

(ZnSO,) ~. ~·l±;f~~']-~'lif 1::: G
Jv ~ ffl v' t..: o :t tc:, 4-1&$JJ!it:\*4 ~¥!&*ill G

-

10 1 10 2
10 3
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Cone. (mg·Z )

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~. ~5ELk·/!t~~T~WffiJil.6ni;t~-::>kk~~~

0 >-> ;< -r Jv/ZJvit :tv F (D MSO) 12::--:::> P -r it:\.~~ Gtc: o it:\~~ G t..: ::fr~JI!f 0) 11&
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£IE ffd :b~O .1 ~30. Omg·l- 1 , 7 J:_ / - Jv :b~O .1 ~50. Omg·
1
5
1
, y ;< -f Jv/ZJv;t :f '/ F:b~1.1 X 10 ~1.1 X 10 mg·l(o.01 ~ 1o.o% (vI v) ) 1::: G t..: o i;t :t3, -tc v / ~ ~ l, ') ~
A 1::: liiiE~£1Effdl2::--:::> v' -r O)jj;r\,~~1l!t fi Se il!!t :l3 J: lf Zn
1Hl!!t 12::
G c ~5E Gtc: o
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J'lJHi J;J T 0) J: -J -c- &:n t..: o

T~i;t~-::>k:=.t~~G. MWM~O);J&~~~~~RJ:

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6 1::: 72R-;JFIJ912t-c-s. 04mg·Z- 1 , 120S~FIJ91&-c-ti2. 64mg·Z- 1
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7

v

/ .:::z 1::: G -r fflv' 6 ~2:: ~it:' 6 12:: raJ v'¥111' :t -c-it:\• ~1i ') ~,
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Jtl[SG~u.KIJfi;~"L;f,'RO)JJilln

@ DMSO:

G:b' G, *'If~~~::. Gtd!nl~fi96~FIJ91&:t -c-~2::fi 1::: !v
i:::'':b'%1.':: Gtc:tc: ~. *Jf~O)§B± Gtcfllil1*i&~HM&-c-~ f.
*~3B±&~ 1::: G -r ~+:JJ';:-c- ~ i;t Pf~i'!:O' ;li)-::> tc: a J: -::> -r,
%L::i:::*~0)3B±i:::~;li)b~-r~~~6f~~~~~6
~,~7]~ ji)

6

Selenium

96h-LC 50 I 96h-EC 50 I 96h-MCIG
35
10
2
__1
1

-



f-----P-h~-~_n0c-11 --= --;--(6:7-~10 ) --~-0
------D-M~SO~I---2--.0-X-1-04 r
-=---l U X 10

4

(mg·/ 1)

0

J:~cO) ;/7
*~Table

Table ] Summary of effects of research materials on
X enojms development

7 :b' 6 ~'!m:J:\ ~= J: t) LCso. ECso• MCIG ~
U2:::ti:::dJtc:a :=.~-c. 1-Jfillf:0'%1.'::~6

Vol.20 No.ll(l997)

* "-" shows that very little or no effect was observed and
so quantitative dose-response relation was not obtained
--81

772

~iJ'f.!c(lib.:,

,

~[£iJO)~!Mw~t!tO)ijf8ftJ:J-r-fi

tJ IJvO)/Jf

~~R~~6•ttm~~-~6~t~l'~~~~ko
f~t~ c!lt~~!l::i'LI:J:?f-0) 1J 7 7 v / A~?liw t L-c~'l:iJ:tw

12:Jflv' 612: ti, ~ 6 l2:rl'!JP~/i1Jr ;t -c-~IE~ 6 iJ>{iJLO)~?JJ~­
~1fri~'li- 6 &:;,~iJ' ;15 6 o DMSO 12: -:::J P 'l li, ~[i]~~jt ltdJ~l:ltJl{8[Ill 0) cp l'' lil.l X lO"mg·l- 1.DJJ::.l'RY::fHll. ~;/]:\
,J;- 6 n, 3. 3 X l0 3 mg·Z- 1 ~J,Tl'IHEL::, 1'ff:f!}, J~:BHll.~
t '8 1::: m-;~M' 1:1- .:, n ~ iJ' ~ t(: ~ t iJ' 6, mil* t L- c mp
6 [\~12: filj:r~)~frJ~~~1$Z 1-j=JO)t/ifl;IJ:\3. 3 X l0 3 mg·/- 1 , -9 ~;b-!;,
~.ill_;\~-t /I, -c-o.3%J;.(TI::: ~ 6 ~ t iJir£ ;t l- v' ~ t

Vibrio jischeri ~ 5 9t Bz. U157'tFI39~ffi'& L te 1~, ~*.:!i ~
~ / ~ D ~ Jv t .tt$3<-9 6 ~ t 12: J: IJ EC 50 (50%
§E*m~~J!t), :rs J: 1..F EC2o (20%~*~li~i/ii!t) ~*d)

)flUJ:E l-,

ko~~l'U,.ttO)~~~ft~f)~~<~m~6klib,

lJdi-&i{ll: TU 14 l0)~ ;Z 15 ~ 'if!JA L, TU(EC 50 ) =100/
EC 50 , TU (ECzo) = 100/ECzo tIE~ L, ECso:t3 J: U EC2o
O){iJ\LiJ>6.:Cn.:C'n TU ~~t-Lteo
)i~_ill.~9i~ll3. ~~i~~

4. 1. 3
{~ltr\~

l-'lf;;f<~-t

t

~ }ij

cornutum)

~

7 A (Selenastrum caprilj:r~~§tf:J:96J'\'71 J D / v~ ~ tj=l l''

v',

vj- A

iJ':7Y;~ nt(:o L-t(:iJ'~ c~~fri~'&i!t~!Cb <~IE~ 6:!~i'JI:::

1l"~tdJ::.'ilc2.4~~.\'Do ~~fi0.45,um 71 ;v)l~-c-[l!f;~

li{il!,0)1iifr)f!; '81§t~>J-~ 6

r?J@L, 83.3%, 41.7%,

4.

I\

1

:;t 7 'Y

&::,~;i]S' ;15

6

0

-tz 1 (: J: 6 T 7.k • I~±Jb.k 0) Ef1iffi

T7.k~~~l'O)~~RJ:6TJ.k0)$tt0)~~.

~J:U

~~~uJJII-c·~tr~*4~1** L-, 7.k±:t:!:J?JJI:::x;J·~ 61IT:S~J"1

::t 7 '/ -t 1 1::: J: 1J WF-filli L- t(: o :Xt~¥i1TJ IIIi, T7.k:?l1J!f!:!~iJ'
r:, O):fj)!:~l!A<-~ l.kiW, t ~ 6 -tt--tt r:, ~" ~ J: U153zifrtA<.iJsJ.kJi.O)
L-'l,

;tt(:, ;\'1 ;7J'7'J-1z1 t

J::.~C\O)llii!Ji~Y@~ll. ~~~. tJ

I

;vMffi-tiJ-JT:;;t!:~~,

:!3J:U?1 ;;vi' '/YA;§'!'t!:lHi~~~Jijv't(:o

4.1 1J 5!
4.1.1

t~

*

A~~~UY/1~7.k~m7.k~Jij0)-tt-ttr':J~R~~l-'l

100/IC 50 , TU (IC 25 ) = 100/IC25 t

nf m

90.0%, 45.0%, 22.5%0)2{i"f:ffi-;fR,
~~R~Lko

:L-:tJ~~~tsiJ'

f:> O):i/i.IJ*U~~* tIE~ l-, LCso ~"-*lib teif,
TU (LC 50 ) = 100/LCso t !E~ l-'l TU )~~tJ'\L L teo
4.2 *i!i~B J: u~~
4. 2. 1 ? 1 ~ o I' ·:; ~ A ll1:vli•·l'1~~frJ
Table 2 1::: '71 Y D i' '/ Y A ;§tg:-·ii~I~l''f~ 6 nte
14

li, if'J*O)t(: d)O):IE;_*i±AliiJ'M10.1mg·Z- l'':l5 IJ, .=:liD
If' I) O)yuJ)II 1:::~1m l-'l v' 6 o :fj)!:im5tdi1TJII li~tliE7]\.l~tOJ l:f
7 iJS':JC/Z O)yi1J"JII7.kil:J: f) iJ'~ f) iH,i}~iJr,-c·;J5 6o C :?!1~
fi51iY/1.EJ!l.7.kO)~~~ ~ ;;t '/ / Y/1JJ!l. L- t(:{)£_, *5i!7.kl'IJffl 0)-tJ:-tl:
f:> ~" 1::: ~~liE L- 'l v' 6 o 1t -tt.- G ~~ 0) 7.k li ~ ~ c 1J3ztliE7J<.iJs7J<.

n i".
~

A Y/1.E_'l[:f:@l::::l3v'cli, iliEA T7J<.(A-1 ), i3JiX~1EI±\7J<.(A
-2 ), t6i-ixmEtl:l7.k (A- 3 ), :fj)!:~7.k (A- 4 ), ~~1Et-tltr2:T
l!1E600m tt!J.,s~O)-tt·tt-.:, ~"O)J.k(A- 5 ), /il0mti!tr2:T~1E1,400
m t-Ut9,0)-ti.--tt f:> ~, 0)7]<. (A- 6), B ~.E.ffi:!~l::: :13 v' 'l li, 1tx.
~tiltr2:@:J::.iJiEO)yuJJII7.k (B-1 ), iliEA Tl.k (B- 2 ), iVJiX
~H:l7.k (B- 3 ) , K~¥XimtB7]<. (B- 4 ) , ~~7]<. (B- 5 ) ,
1J3z:iJ1UUtr2:TiliE300m Jt!J.~O)yi1J"JII7]<.(B- 6 ), ;t te C :9/.P.H.U®
l2:~v'ct,i, ~1EA T7]<. (C-1 ), i'lJYA:~tl:l7J<. (C- 2 ), ~
iX~1Etl:l7]<. (C- 3), 1J)!:~7]<. (C- 4), 1tx:¥mtili,r2:T151E900m :till
,Si,0)-1±-\i: 6 i'§' O)J.k (C- 5), :1J3z:¥J1EJ:fu~T~4, 700m :tlli,r2:CTJ
1t -tt f:, ~ 0) 7]<. (C- 6 ) , 0) f: i'L .:C' h 6 ;fil:l!f:l'j ~ A ;t0 i' l'':J*
7]<. l- teo '71 Y D i' '/ Y A ~:i'!J:$'11iiJ\~fri v2: -:::l v' l fi, :J*
7]\.1~1'J1t~ L- te .ti~h- ~ 1 O~FI39.DJ.Ps l:::~tr\14 t L 'l }§ P, JJil,

e: ~jf;

ATJ.kO).ttU~B,C~~~t'bm*~·WJ;tl'U~
~O):i/i.lim,MR±~~~RJ:~c·&~6MrRJ~1:1-6n,
t4¥x~1Etl:l7]<.fi*'liiJ~lt:P,Iib

f:> h~v' v~;v-c·;J5 ~ t(:o~)],
B Y/1J_ffi:f:@:l3 J:
lf:t :.l/Y/1:f.ffi~1i-__) 'l v' 6 c ~~:t@l::: :!Ov' 'lli1.f~~
··liiJ:\~f}).:, i"L~ (,) V~Jvl'':l5 ~ teiJ~, m7J<.TIJJt.l O)te lib
12: J;W;*¥±Aii. 0) :fJ, v' A ~.E.ffi:b&'l 1::: :to- v' 'l fi ~~11.7]<. 1::: ~lEA
Tl.kJ: IJ '85!fiv'~'[1:iJ'iiiG(Iibr':Jnteo l-iJ>L T~1:::fRJiJ'7
l:::fftt-,•ti v~;vfi1JtT L-, ~imo 0)1, 400m T~1f.-c·ti
~t!:fi~lib f:>Jt~v' V~Jvl:::~ ~ cv'teo A Y/1:f_ffi:f:@~ym
Table 2 EC 50 and EC 20 of sewage samples in MICROTOX
acute toxicity test
Point

---__;;._~3

~0~A~~;

24H#!lfl.DJ.P'J 1::: ~~fit ~11: ~
?1~o~'/~~att:tt~•

81.8%, 40.9%, 20.5%, 10.2%0) 2{tf1fi;fR,
Lko~~R~~tt~*~m

-=:-

15mln

···· ----,

· z~5r-

A-__5__

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A-6

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;tk, ~~U*~Lk~gl'~~L. =!*7.k~

5min

__1\::4_

lib, ~M~*~~~~ftRU~~~O)m*RJ:6&~~
m~6§~l'=!*7]<.~R7A~~~

,

EC50(%);TU(EC50) EC20(%) 1TU(EC20) EC50(%)[TU(EC50) EC20(%)!TU(EC20)
_A_::l_ . __ _4:_5J I . _ _12
3.2[___31.1 __.111L_
412.0~1_50.8
A-2
49.6!
2.0
6.21
16.0
32.71
3.1
24B

..8=3

82-

mw~~t!v~~libf:,

TU(ECso) C: TU(EC,oHi[Qlf*O)jt_§i[R]~:7f;L-tetelib,
~ l''li, TU (EC 50 ) ~ ;;·· 7 7 {[:; l-, Fig, 6 1::::7f; L teo im

~~~-~~~koS~~Mm~~~:!OJ:UtJI~MOO
"*f~j'iill:r~~wl::: -:::J v' l fi, ~trm-~J~i?'Jm~ l~~~~11"7 te

4~~R~~L

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4.1.2

l-'l TU 14 ) ~~J'l[

4.1.4 1:J.IJJ,nE1~=tiJ-~·1'1~~fri
7 7 1J tJ '/ / tJ' I Jv cr) ~ v' c WI Jzt 0) 3 . 1 t [1'1] f* 1:::
~~~~~teo ~r41i0.45,um 71 Jv:7~---c·ll)f;~yp:i/i.IJL,

~~~:7f;L-ko~tj=JO)f-J

1

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Lteo

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t(: libt~*i±A:Ii:iJ'~!J 5 mg·Z- 1 t .im'flt J: I) rB'J v'o B ~.£!!!:!~

~~Lko

3J&I~rv:::

t .ttw~ 6 ~ t 12: J: I) ICso, ICzs ~ "-* dJ, TU (ICso) =

T7.k~~7.k~~~~O)~g*R~~61IT:W~-~6k
dJ, ~&HI!'7]<.iJ'i.=f:{.if\:O) 3 t;pfrO)TJ.kY/1I!Hf@~ J: Y}f:O)~

l:ft/v!:::'~61ib6¥i1J"JIIl'':l56o

20.8%0)2{i"f1'!H~,

~~Lc~~R~l-kon~OOO)~M~~~/~v~~

B-1
s-2

s-4

3.5

iiJI

---

·-r-- ------w1·=t

-:

-';

-1

-!

· 241

42.2

. JJl.. "8:3- . 1.2:.1 -1,

--=

=::::112.81:51-....66.7
78

_40Q :::-1o§L__1_QSJ
5~ ____:>24'
4,5__

. ----_::~-----

19~2~---

38.6'

-·=-=r-_

B-6
C-1

C::2
· c=3--

c-=4
c-5
·· c-6··

* "-" shows that very little or no inhibition was observed and
so quantitative dose-response relation was not obtained.

773

Plant A

Plant B

A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6

B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6

11

Plant C

9
7

5
3

Fig. 6

Evaluation of toxicity of sewage samples with MICROTOX acute toxicity test

*~•tt~~~~m~~~~-~~~t~~6h, ~~
-~~~m•~~~~<. ~~~~mm~~~~~~

:JCJ< T¥1±-t ~~:!ll~~~~:::x-t 1__, -c t
~

C:. t

iJ1:iFP~~

4. 2. 2

~•12 :&f~t-tnr~g·r±.tJr~

hfC:o

Sl5f!fi:ll!j9@:~.ll ~~~~

Table 3v=:~!Jil'[J:Ii'N)'@Iill.~~~-c-1~6htc:*Ei*121Fl,

tc:o *r:p~:J:!5~JJ11'.J·~ ~~f@fi, 83.3%.t:.JT~1illlii' 6-JHE!l
1__, td~Ji: filll -c- ~ D, r- J fi ~.ll ~ tJ1 f:-I t 1v c:·~;r, l5b 6 h -r,
)E;~~m~ffffl00~~~6h~~?kC:.t1?1FTo

TU(IC 50 ) t TU(IC2 5 ) fifilli*~{tl'![i'i]1?:iFL,tc:tc:llJ, ::::.::::.
"C'fi, TU0Cso)1?:7''77{l:;L,, Fig. 7v=::iFL,tc:o :zls:~-~
IU3v''L t, ~A T*"C'l:J- 6htc:-·i±.tJ1~tt~1EH:l*"C'fi
i~H:l ~ h T', A, B, C :7/J;Jo]l}~ t t ~~J;.i1J1JH=: J: ~··I±~
{ff;~W15¥l:iJ1l;:i(!Jb 6 htc: N>, ;l:g~?'~-1~~ A J;.i1JJ.:!:~~~~1E
*"C'5$v'*'l±tJ10Z!. 6 htc:o l,ii' L ~!Jil'[t('jfj@!~li~~~~=:
ffl v' tu.K fit:llb.KS'!H=: 7 .A ::lJv t:'' / l'W -T J, 1) r) .b. 12: J: ~ ;l:g
~~J%:7CJ;.i1:E!l! 1? L, -c P ~ tc: !Jb, Y.'HlJJ:g~0)1~H¥~~~·
~~~<.

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tJ1Jffii2SJ t fit~~ htc:o ;t tc:.'iifi A J;.i1JJ.:b.Jlo2~1Etilif.?:T~
-c-{g;~

tc:o

l, 'Lv' ~ t

-15,

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6

~~15)1:~~1,400m j.iQ,~-c·

i:E;~?'~·v«Jv~{ff;v'

B J;.!1JJ.:I:~,

t

~!E(/Jb

6h
:!3 J: tf;f '/

/J;.I1~~CJ;.!1~~~~~*~~-tt~~/Jb6h~~?

tc:o C:.h6~*55¥l:J: t);l:g~ff:.A~iJ1§iv'J~fifi?'~·L,tc:
~~*~J:D~~~~~9il'i~W6~~~-1?~~~::::.t
iJ1:iFU~~htc:o ~@]1\llil«tc:~*.fi:':--:Jv''Lfi, ~ir~*Ei*~

Table 3 IC 50 and ICzs of sewage samples evaluated in
algal growth inhibition test

Point

IC50(%) I TU(IC50) IC25(%) I TU(IC25)
A-1
(92.0)
1.1
1.5
65.21
A-2
(108.6)
0.9
67.9
1.5
...
--:
A-3
-I
A-4
2.0
49.61
2.8
35.71
---A-5 ~.0)
(88.3)j
0.7
1.1
A-6
(235.9)
0.4 (131.9)i
0.8
B-1
-:'
r--------··
'
B-2
43.7
2.3
30.91
3.2
B-3
50.4
2.0
31.11
3.2
B-4
-I
-_L
i
B-5
-.
B-6
C-1
45.8
2.2
34.0!
_____l.Q
C-2
43.3
2.3
29.81
3.4
C-3
-I
-l
_,
C-4
_i_
r--C-5
·-~

~~-

C-6

-

-

..

--

-

-

* "-" shows that very little or no inhibition was
observed and so quantitative dose-response
relation was not obtained.

~~~~M[i'i]~, ?1:7o~~:7.AAtt•tt~~t9il'iW

L,-c:BD,

~~~mtfilJ@m~~?kom~m•~~•

Plant A

Plant B

Plant C

A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6

B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6

0. 5
0

Fig. 7
Vol.20 No.ll(l997)

Evaluation of toxicity of sewage samples with algal growth inhibition test
-83

774

vz= -:J v) -r vi, "'1 :7 o r- ·:; :7 A ;~:11~t1~~fri-r· IH3M¥JJ:g
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~htco

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4.2.3

1~ i? h tc LC5o t TU (LCso) vi Table 4 0) J: ':5 vz= iJ'-=>
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·1:1 ;01 iJ' n'-=> tc J~f=l :{? EIJlli'{Jf iJ' il": iJ1t1J 60 Gh iJ' v) t IE~ L

ko *k, MRI¥J~~%0)~~:BJ:Vfj)jm~~~m~~
liifis!J GhiJ' :b)-=> tc o TU IZ:: -:J P c :'7" 7 7 --c-~9 t Fig. 8
0) J: ':5 vz= iJ' fJ, 3 YLI,J!J!:I:~ t '8 ~¥/tb1Et±l7..k. fi<:lJil)l\., ti<:b1E
7t;7..k!F§-vz:: ~_) P -r liffil:A TJ]\., 11J¥/t131Et±l7..k -r·h- i? htdi t''
O)~tt~•l±l~hiJ'~-=>ko
~~

~~O)•m~~m~

iJ':B,

t "'1 :7 o r- :; :7 A ;g·l'1:j:ij;'i:1~~fri-r·sm ~,)~'lin' h- G

h tc A

Yl!,J-~:1:~ 0) 1l)OfiE7..k vz= -:J

v) c, FETAX -r· vi IRJ C: J: ':5

Table 4 LC,o of sewage samples in XenojJllS embryo test
Point
f-----

A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
C-1
C-2
C-3
C-4
C-5
C-6

96h-LC 50(%) I
42.41
46.31
(3.1 X10 3
(2.6 X 10 4)'1
-

96h-TU(LC 50 )
2.4
2.2
3.2 x 1o- 2
3.8 x 1o- 3
-

-[

-

)l

=r----

46.11
57.2i
-j

-I

i

- -f - - - ·

58.4i
56.31
(3.5 X 104)!

-I

-1
-I

-~

----

1.7
·1.7
1.8
---2.9 x 1o- 3
·-------

* "-" shows that very little or no effect was observed and
so quantitative dose-response relation was not obtained

2. 5

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1~Lcv)0 ~ tn'Ti(fllifJ~htco

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L;O)Lf;t;OIG,

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r- ·:; :7 A ~ti~·i±~~ft'i~i.

:t].t~--r-9

<" vz=~~:{?:f'J '?

~L~. ~1¥Jfg:*O)~~~m~L~-=>ko *k,

Plant B

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B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6

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Mm~~~L~yg•m~~~~~O)~W:{?il'f1~96~t

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Fig. 8

~

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;~;t~

?1:'7o

Evaluation of toxicity of sewage samples on Xenojms development

775
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,J;J!~jjllj±.,J;J!~ t1lPtu\'1 :t 7 '/ -lz 1 7J'T*~;pp;::::@Itlj"E!f
~l';lS6Z:t~;if;~, ~~~T*~~ -~~fl~~~
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f!3 ~J\l~L~ '8 ;lS 6 n',

:= ~~; ~±.

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(Ili1:1i'/1i5'Z11 19974- 5 J=l2913)
(Ili1:~Wi'3't:fli!

VoL20

NoJ1(1997J

19974- 9 J=l30 13)

1) fl)jjtrEAJJ, f~llifffili_%\ EEl rj:llb:fJFj (1996) /ilJJII?Kll\f'§f:EllHUH:T 6
;{-1 ;t 7 ·:; -t -1 OJ$FH OJI:lli."f!f;: -:J v> c, 1994 El :<$:ii1JJII7J\~~Prii!ffii,
1007-1019.
2) EBcp~SJJ, ?Ri~~=t1~, f~Llifffil$, :llii:E8fi\;,Z£: (1994) lii'J1l,JJ\f~
ff]Ptc:T'l]\OJ;"--1 ;t 7 ·:; -t 1, %28@!8:<$:7J<..lljtij!"j!:~~~~~



3)

454-455.

ii~Jjj{JESJJ,

E8tpZ£:1J,EJ, WHUfffil$ (1996) ;{ -1 ;t 7 ·:; -t -1 OJT.7J'<.

~~~~O)~fflttOJ~~. m~~T*~~~~~~~~-.

301- 303,
4) ifrt*:ftl!, ~TliH". :tLLLif:li:IVJ (1996) t!k7l\!lEiW.¥JJ/7 /;; I,
/OJ~MffiW~-Rl6~/.Yo7~/t~-~~T7J\~~7]\

OJiiJ:ttiW{ilfi, 7]\.lljt:fj!"j!:~f,;&, 19, 861-870.
5) Blatchley, E. R., Hunt, B. A., Duggirala, J. E., Zhao, ].,
Halaby, T., Cowger R. L, Straub, C lVL and Alleman, ]. E.
(1997) Effects of disinfectants on wastewater effluent toxicity, Wat. Res., 31, 1581-1588.
6) #WJ:l:l~.\t, t'IIAJIE, ~t1ill~113, LUIIl@. (1994) T7J\~J1!lJ:J)HU3
I:J0~ttOJ::i¥!ll.iJ, %28@1 B ;<$:7J<.lliti:f.l"f:~if.~~W1*, 456-457.
7) Environmental Protection, Conservation and Protection,
Environment Canada (1992) Biological test method: Growth
inhibition test using the freshwater alga Se!enastmm capriconmtmn, Report EPS 1/RM/25.
8) St-Laurent, D., Blaise, C, MacQuairie, P., Scroggins, R.
and Troffier, B. (1992) Comparative assesment of herbicide
phytotoxicity to Selenastnon capriconzutmn using microplate
and flask bioassay procedures, Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual.,
7, 35-48.
9) Blanck, H., Wallin, G. and Wangberg, S. (1984) Species
-dependent variation in algal sensitivity to chemical compounds, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safely, 8, 339-351.
10) Standard guide for conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis assay- Xenopus (FET AX) (1993) Annual Book of
ASTM Standards, E1439-9L
11) Browne, C Land James, N.D. (1979) Toxicity of Selenium
to Developing Xenojms !aevis Embryos, ]. Toxico!. Environ.
Health, 5, 699-709.
12) Dumont, ]. N., Schultz, T. W. and Jones, R. D. (1979)
Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Aromatic Amines to XenojJus
!aevis, Bull. Environm. Con/am. Toxicol., 22, 159-166.
13) Dawson, D. A., McCormick, C A. and Bantle, J. A. (1985)
Detection of teratogenic substances in acidic mine water
samples using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay- Xenojms
(FETAX), ]. Applied Toxico!., 5, 234-244.
14) USEPA (1985) Technical support document for water quality-based taxies control, EPA/ 440/4-85/032.

-85



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