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http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/

http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/

‫‪http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ‪..‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻏﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﺸﺘﺎﺋﻤﻪ‪..‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﺼﻔﻚ ﺭﺑﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺳﺒﻊ ﲰﺎﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻠﻤﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ‪..‬‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﻃﻴ‪‬ﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﳏ ‪‬ﻮ ﺣﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺇﺟﺤﺎﻓﻪ‪.‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺁﻳـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﷲ؛ ﻹﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻯ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪٣............................................................................‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ(‪:‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪٧.......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪٩...........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ‪١٢...........................................................‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪١٥.........................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪):‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ(‬
‫) ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﺎﻟﹾﺄﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ(‪٢١............................................................‬‬
‫) ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹺ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺔﹲ(‪٢٩...........................................................‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹸ ﻗﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀِ(‪٣٢.......................................................‬‬
‫)ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺄﹸ ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻠﹾﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪٣٦.............................................................(‬‬
‫)ﺇﹺﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﺪﻛﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪٤١.................................................(‬‬
‫) ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺠ‪ ‬ﹲﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺣ‪ ‬ﺪﺓﹲ(‪٤٣................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪):‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ(‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ‪٤٦.........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ‪٤٨........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪٥٠.........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫﺪﺓ‪٥٤.......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﺔ‪٥٥........................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﺓ‪٥٧.......................................................................‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﲤﺔ‪٥٩..............................................................................‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‪٦٢............................................................................‬‬

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‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣــــﺔ‬
‫ﲢﻜﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﲢﻂﱡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻄﺎﻟﹶﻤﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈـﺮﺓﹰ ﺩﻭﻧﻴ‪‬ـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥﹼ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ‪ ‬ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫـﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳚـﻲﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻞ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻘﺴـﻢ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﺴﲔ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﻮﻩ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ" ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻳﻀـﺎﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻣـﺮﺓ ﺃﺣـﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺰﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﺇﳒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳒﺎﺏ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺸﻮﻩ!" ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﻴـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ؛ ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ‪.‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌـﺎﹰ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻌـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺿﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻣﻘﻮﻻﺗـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﻮﻯ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻓﺘﺒﻨﻮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﻮﺩﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺮﻣﻬـﺎ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑـﻪ ﺍﻟﻜـﺮﱘ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﺷﺖ ﺃﺯﻫﻰ ﻋﺼﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ‪-‬ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪ -‬ﻭﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷـﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴـﻒ‬
‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﹴ ﺧﺎﻃﺊ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺻﺮﹴ‪ ،‬ﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻗﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ ؟ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ؟ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ؟‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻐﻠﻮﻃﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺛـﻮﺏ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺘﻮﳘﲔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺍﳋﻀﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺴﻼﻡ ﻟﻪ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺨﺮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻻ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪،‬ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﺪﺑﻮﱄ‪،‬ﻁ‪١٩٩٦ ،١‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪٦١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﳘﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﳊﻜﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺘﻮﳘﻮﻥ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺗﻜﺮﱘ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻬـﻢ ﺧـﺎﻃﺊ‬
‫ﺷﺎﻉ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﳕﻮﺫﺟﺎ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻐﺾ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳋﻄـﺄ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻊ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ‪.‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﻟﻶﻳـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧـﺘﻼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺓﹰ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﻧﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺑ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﳓﻄﺎﻁ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺗ‪‬ﻬﺎﻡ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻔﺴِﻬﹺﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺤﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻮﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﻭﻳﻼ ﺧﺎﻃﺌـﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻔـﻖ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﻡ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺇﺧﻮﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻭﻧﺺ‪ ‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻜﹶﺮﳝﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻗﹶﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸـﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺣﻘﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲡﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺎﻗﺼـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻭ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻧﻌﺠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗ‪‬ﻜﻨ‪‬ﻲ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ؛ ﳌﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺓ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﲎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﺠـﺮﺓ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﻮﺏ" ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻛﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﻀـﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﺮﻋـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻭﺇﺳـﻘﺎﻃﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﳘﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ!‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻗﺮﺏ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﻨﻘﺾ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ -‬ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﳒﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻜﺮ‪‬ﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴـﻒ ﻻ؛‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻔﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻄﻠـﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺫﻫﻦ ﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﻣﺎ ﳕﺮ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١٥‬ﺹ‪١٧٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻷﻣﲑ‪،‬ﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻧﻴﻮﺯ‪٢٠٠٢،‬‬
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‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺤﻴﺺ ﻭﺗﻜﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻲ ﻳﻨﻬﺾ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻻﹼ ﻧﺘﺤﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺗﻰ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺘـﺪﺑﺮ ﺁﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ‪) :‬ﻛﹶـﺬﻟ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﺼ‪‬ـﻞﹸ ﺍﻵﻳ‪‬ـﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻟﻘﹶـ ‪‬ﻮ ﹴﻡ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻚ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻔﹶﻜﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ( ) ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰﻟﹾﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﱢﺬﻛﹾﺮ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻨ‪‬ﺎﺱﹺ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻝﹶ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘﻔﹶﻜﱠﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ( )ﻛ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻧ ‪‬ﺰﻟﹾﻨ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺏ ﺃﹶ ﹾﻗﻔﹶﺎﻟﹸﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪ ‬ﻙ ﻟﱢ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﹾﺍ ﺁﻳ‪‬ﺎﺗ‪ ‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﺬﻛﱠﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﺍﻷﻟﹾﺒ‪‬ﺎﺏﹺ( ) ﺃﹶﻓﹶﻼﹶ ﻳ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹸﺮ‪‬ﺀَﺍﻥﹶ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﻗﹸﻠﹸﻮ ﹴ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺄﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﳎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺗﻌ ‪‬ﺮﺽ‪ ‬ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﻧﻘـﻞ ﻛـﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺇﻗﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻧﺼﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﲤﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺟﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺎﻃﲑ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳜﺘﻠـﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺇﺫ ﳚﻴﺐ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻝ ﳏﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ ﻋـﱪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ؟ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ؟ ﻭﻫـﻞ ﺃﺟﺤﻔﻮﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻘﺎ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥﹶ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻑ ﻻ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﺤ‪‬ﺔ! ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ؟‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ‪) :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ(ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ( ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﺮﱘ‪ :‬ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻳﻘﺔ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺑﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻳﻮﻧﺲ )ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٤:‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ )ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٤٤:‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺹ )ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٩:‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﳏﻤﺪ )ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٤:‬‬
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‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳋﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﺮﻱ ﻟﻸﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻮﺩﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﱐ ﰲ ﻣﻨـﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻷﺧﱵ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﺔ ﺃﺧﱵ ﻣﻨﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﺘﲔ ﻗﺮﺃﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺷﺎﺭﻛﻨﲏ‬
‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

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‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ)ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ(‪:‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧــﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻧ‪‬ﻄﻠﻖ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؟ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ؟ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﻫﻮ‪ ":‬ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘـﻴﲔ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻼﹰ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﰲ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺑﺪﻗﺔ؛ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺁﺛﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ )ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ( ﻭﱂ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﹺﻫﺎ ﳐﻠﻮﻗﺎﹰ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺎﹰ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻟﻮﻥ ﳐـﺘﻠﻔﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺁﺗﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﺧـﺮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ " ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﰲ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻏﲑﻫـﺎ" ﻭﳒـﺪ‬
‫ﺴﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻹِﻧﺴ‪‬ﺎﻥﹸ ﺃﹶﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻙ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﹶﻟﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻧ‪ ‬ﹾﻄﻔﹶﺔﹰ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻣ‪‬ﻨﹺـ ‪‬ﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪ ،‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﺎﻥﹶ ﻋ‪‬ﹶﻠﻘﹶﺔﹰ ﹶﻓﺨ‪‬ﻠﹶﻖ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﻯ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺠﻌ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺰ‪ ‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻻﹾﻧﺜﹶﻰ(‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﻔﺔ ﰒ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮ‪‬ﺍﻩ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ؛ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪" :‬ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﺍﻣـﺮﻯﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﻯﺀ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻠﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻟﻐﺎﺕ؛ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺻﻠﻴﺒﻠﻴﺎ‪،‬ﲨﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪ ،٢‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪ ١٩٨٢ ،‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٤٠٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ .‬ﻁ‪١،١٩٨٩‬ﻡ‪،‬ﺹ‪٣٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪.٣٩،٣٨،٣٧،٣٦:‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﻪ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﹶ ‪‬ﺮﺃﹶﺓ ‪:‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ( ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴـﺰ ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ )ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ( ﺑﲔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳒﺪ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ؛ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻊ ﻭﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﺃﻧﺘﺠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ ﲣﻠﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺳﺎﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳـﻠﻴﻢ ﳉـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻻ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺑﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻌﻘﺪ ﻳﻜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺪ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪.‬ﻭﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻫﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺫﻛﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻦ ﲰـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﲰﺎﺕ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻦ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺷﺄﻧﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻮﻗﲔ ﺟﺴﺪﻳﺎﹰ ﻭﻓﻜﺮﻳﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻨﻴﺎﹰ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻜﹼﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻔﹸﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴـﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻓﻮﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﻠﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ؛ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ )‪٧٧٤‬ﻫـ(‪":‬ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ"‬
‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫)‪(٦‬‬
‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫)‪(٦‬‬

‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ )‪١٣٧٦‬ﻫـ(‪ ":‬ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ" ‪،‬‬

‫ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪١٥٦‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﻐﻤﻮﻧﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ)‪ (Sigmund Freud‬ﻃﺒﻴﺐ ﳕﺴﺎﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ )‪١٩٣٩‬ﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ‪،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻋﺰﺕ ﺭﺍﺟﺢ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ‪،‬ﺩﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻟﺰ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻦ )‪ (Charles Robert Darwin‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ)‪ ١٨٨٢‬ﻡ(‬
‫‪Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Project‬‬
‫‪Gutenberg Etext, 2000‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪١٤٠١،‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪١٢٦‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‪،‬ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻥ‪،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪٢٠٠٠ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ‪،‬‬
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‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ )‪١٣٩٣‬ﻫـ(‪ ":‬ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺛﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ" ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴـﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺷﻜﻼ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻏـﲑ ﻋـﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺗﺼ ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃ ﹶﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺﹺ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥﹶ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﻥ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻨﺼﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﱐ ﻋﺪﺍﺀً ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﻈ ‪‬ﺮﺓﹰ ﻣ‪‬ﻬﻴﻨ‪‬ﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳـﻔﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲞﱪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺜﲑ ﺍﻷﺳﻒ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ‪ ‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‬
‫ﺃﲨﻊ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨـﺎﺕ ﺃﻓﻜـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴـﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﲰﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑـﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧـﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺃﺭﺿﺎ ﺧﺼﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﻧ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺪﺕ ﺛﻮﺑﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ )ﻣﻘﺪﺳﺔ( ﻻ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪ ...‬ﺣـﱴ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﻓﻜﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﻴﺖ ﺗﺮﺣﺎﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﻟﺘﺮﺩﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺳﻴﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻛـﻼﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺠﺪ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻋﺠﻴﺒﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺄﺩﻭﻥ ؟ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻧﺸﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺪﺍﻭﳍﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺭﺟﺎﻻ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﻛﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺎﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ )‪ ٣٩٩‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺒﺲ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻭﳛﺘﻘﺮ ﻋﻘﻠـﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﻔﻜﲑﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺜﻘﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﻬﻬﻦ ﻭﻳﺮﺷﺪﻫﻦ‪ ، ‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬

‫ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٧٦٤‬‬
‫)‪(١‬ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﻜﲏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬‬
‫‪١٩٩٥‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪١٠٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺡ‪،‬ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﺪﺑﻮﱄ‪،‬ﻁ‪١٩٦٦ ،٢‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺹ‪.٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬ﺹ‪٤٠‬‬
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‫ﳎﺮﺩ ﺁﻟﺔ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻐﺬﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨـﺰﻝ ﻷﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺿﻌﻒ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﲔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﻀﻴﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻪ؛ ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻧﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﺍﻵﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ؛ ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻃـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻜﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻘﺼﺔ ﻭﻋﻴﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ ﳑﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ؛ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﻣﺜﺎﻻ ﳑﺘﺎﺯﺍ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺷﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ )‪٣٤٧‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ( ﻫﻮ ﻧﺼﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺩﻋﺎ ﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳ‪‬ﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ! ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﲨﻬﻮﺭﻳﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻛﻼﺏ ﺣﺮﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺮﻋﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺇﻧـﺎﺙ‬
‫ﻛﻼﺏ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﺎ ﲟﻬﻤﺎﺕ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪،‬ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺫﻛﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ ﻭﺇﻧﺎﺛﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﺸﺌﻬﻦ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﺮﺩﻫﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛـﻞ ﻣﺸـﺎﻋﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳋﺠﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳊﺐ ﲡـﺎﻩ ﺭﺟـﻞ ﻣﻌـﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻣﺸﺎﻉ ﻟﻠﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺳـﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓـﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪Xenophon, The Memoirs of socrates, Canadian Libraries,p.403(e.book,) (١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻳﻀﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻦ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﺑﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﰐ ﳛﻀﻦ ﺻﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻤﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‪.‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳛﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ؟ ﺇ‪‬ﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻦ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻥ ﻣﱴ ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﳚﻤﻌﻦ ﺭﺣﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﰐ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻥ ﻣﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﺘﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﰐ ﳛﺪﺩﻥ ﻣﱴ ﻳﻬﺎﺟﺮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺸﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪Xenophon, The Memoirs of socrates,p.405(٣‬‬
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‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ؛ ﻓﻠﻦ ﳓﻘﻖ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻨﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺧﻄﻄﻨﺎﻩ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﲢﺮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻝ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻠﻜﹰﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺎﹰ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺳ‪‬ﻊ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﻏﻀﺎﺿﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ "ﺑﺸﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ" ﻭ "ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ؛ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺳﻮﺀﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺧﻮﺗـﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳـﻔﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺒﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻏﺪﺕ ﻣﻠﻜﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻤـﺎ ﻳﺼـﻨﻔﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻧﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﻴﻊ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﳚﺰﻡ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ )‪٣٢٢‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻞ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻛـﺮﺍ! ﻭﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﳓﺮﺍﻑ ﰒ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ؟ ﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪":‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﻮﻩ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺸﻮﻩ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ"‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺘﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ؟‬
‫ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﺣﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻓﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻕ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻬﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪،‬‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻹﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺘﻪ‪.‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻧـﺎﺙ ﰲ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ‪،‬ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﺹ‪٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٧١‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٦٣‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ‪،‬ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﺹ‪٦٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٧٦‬‬
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‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺑﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﺴـﻴ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻻﹼ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻝ‪،‬ﻭﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻈـﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻄﺎﻟـﺐ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻓﺮﺿﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﳍﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺯﻭﺟﻬـﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﺮ‪‬ﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻮ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺬﻣﺮ‪.‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﲎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ ﺑﺄﺭﺿﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻗﺪﳝﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺳﻮﺀﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺟـﻞ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﳉﺮﻱﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺳﻔﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﺀ ﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺘـﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻠﻜﻪ ﻭﻳﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﺘـﺎ؛‬
‫ﺿﺎﻗﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﲟﺎ ﺭﺣﺒﺖ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺭﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺑ‪‬ﺸﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﳝﺴﻜﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﻮﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻳﺪﺳـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ "ﺗﺆﻛﻞ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﺘﺰ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻀﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻄـﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻜﺢ ﺯﻭﺟﺎ ﺗﺮﺿﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺭﺙ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺭﺙ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺑﺔ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫)‪Aristotle's politics ;Jowett, Benjamin, American Libraries,p.49(e.book)(١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺇﻣﺎﻡ‪،‬ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﺹ‪١٠٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻣﺬﺍﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺃﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺌﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﺎﻓﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﳊﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺳﻄﻮ ﻭﻏﺰﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﱯ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺘـﻬﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﻨﻮ ﲤﻴﻢ ـ ﻭﻛﻨﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺌﺪ ﺑﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﻮﻓﺎﹰ ﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲑﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺑﲏ ﲤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺗﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺧﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ) ﺩﻭﺳﺮﺍ ( ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺌﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﺟﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺳﱯ ﺫﺭﺍﺭﻳﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﻓﺪﺕ ﻭﻓﻮﺩ ﺑﲏ ﲤﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺭﺩﺕ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻴﻊ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﺧﲑ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﳌﺎ ﲡﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ؛ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔـﻮﺍ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺻـﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺼـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼـﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﳌـﺔ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ)‪٣٥٦‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻏﺎﱐ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﻋﻤﻲ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻓﺪ‪ ‬ﻗﻴﺲ‪ ‬ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ( ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙﹸ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌـﻮﺅﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻭﺃﺩﻫـﻦ‪ ‬ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺎﺗﻪ‪،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻟﺪﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻗﻂ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬ﰒ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ )ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ( ﳛﺪ‪‬ﺛـﻪ‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‪:‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪﻭﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﺤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻟﺪﺕ ﱄ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻗﻂ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﺩ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﲪـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻮﺅﺩﺓ ﻗﻂ؛ ﺇﻻ ﺑ‪‬ﻨﻴ‪‬ﻪ ﱄ ﻭﻟﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻔﺮ‪،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗـﺪﻣ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻓﺄﺧﱪﺗﲏ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﻭﻟﺪﺍﹰ ﻣﻴﺘﺎ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻀﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻛﹶـﱪﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻔﻌﺖ‪،‬ﻓﺰﺍﺭﺕ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ‪،‬ﻓﺪﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺿﻔﺮﺕ ﺷﻌﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻗﺮﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻮﻕ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻋﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﺒﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﻼﺩﺓﹰ ﺟ‪‬ﺰﻉ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻋ‪‬ﻨﻘﻬﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺨﻨﻘﻪ ﺑ‪‬ﻠﺢ‪،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﻘـﺪ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺠﺒﲏ ﲨﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﻛﹶﻴﺴ‪‬ﻬﺎ ؟ﻓﺒﻜﺖ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪:‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﺑﻨﺘ‪‬ﻚ‪،‬ﻛﻨﺖ‪ ‬ﺧﺒ‪‬ﺮﺗﻚ‪ ‬ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﺪﺍﹰ ﻣﻴﺘﺎﹰ‪،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬
‫ﺤﻔﹶﺮﺕ‪ ‬ﳍﺎ ﺣ‪‬ﻔـﲑ‪‬ﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺧﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ‪.‬ﻓﺄﻣﺴﻜﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﺣﱴ ﺍﺷﺘﻐﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﺘﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﲏ‬
‫ﺖ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﻣﻐ‪‬ﻄﹶـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺘ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺖ ﻣﺎﺗﺼﻨﻊ‪ ‬ﰊ؟! ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﺍﻗ ‪‬ﺬﻑ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺏ‪ ‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺑ ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺳﺎﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻓﻐﻀﺐ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺬﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺱ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺗﻮﻟـﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺃﺩ ﺑﻀﻊ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻨﺘﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﺤﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﻨﺘﺎ ﻷﻣﲑ ﳍﻢ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺢ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺧﲑﻭﻫﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺳﺎﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺁﺛﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﻀﺐ ﻭﺳﻦ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺃﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻏﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺛﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ‪،‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺧﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺑﺎﳓﻄﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺹ‪.٦٠‬‬
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‫ﺃﻧﺖ‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻟﺘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺏ؟ﺃﺗﺎﺭﻛﻲ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﻱ ﻭﻣﻨﺼﺮﻑ‪ ‬ﻋﲏ؟!ﻭﺟﻌﻠﺖ‪ ‬ﺃﻗﺬﻑ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘ‪‬ﺮﺍﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣـﱴ ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺘ‪‬ﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﹰ ﳑﻦ ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺘ‪‬ﻪ ﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﺎ‪".‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﺻﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺁﺛﺮﻭﺍ ﺣﺮﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﻓﺪﻓﻨﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻔﻘﺔ ﺃﻭﺭﲪـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻻ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺑﺒﲏ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ! ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳝﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻘﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺄﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﻠﻞ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻭﳏﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﻭ‪‬ﻗﹶـﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺑ‪‬ﻄﹸﻮﻥ‪ ‬ﻫ ‪‬ﺬﻩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﹾﺄﹶ‪‬ﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎﻡﹺ ﺧ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺼ‪‬ﺔﹲ ‪‬ﻟ ﹸﺬﻛﹸﻮﺭﹺﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻣﺤ‪ ‬ﺮﻡ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃﺯ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺟﹺﻨ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﻓﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﺷ‪ ‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎﺀُ ﺳ‪‬ﻴﺠ‪‬ﺰﹺﻳ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﹶ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﹺﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻢ ﻋ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪(‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻜـﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ :‬ﳜﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺑﻨﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﰒ ﻳﻨﻜﺤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻤﺜﻬﺎ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺒﻀﻌﻲ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺰﳍﺎ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﳝﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﻀﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﲔ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺣﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﳒﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻏﻀﺎﺿﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻫﻂ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲪﻠﺖ ﻭﻭﺿـﻌﺖ ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﺻﺒﻬﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻏﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻬﻨﺎ‪،‬ﲰﲑ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١٤‬ﺹ‪٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪ ،(١٠٧:‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻟﻮ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ )ﳒﺪ( ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻐﺴـﻠﻪ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﳍﺎ ﻃﻌﻤﻪ ﻓﺘﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺑﺄﻛﻠﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﺴﻞ! ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺼﻐﺮﺓ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﺑ‪‬ﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻭﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻊ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﳚﺘﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻛﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﺑﻨﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﲰـﻪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﻜﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﺎﻳﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﻦ ﻳﻨﺼﱭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ‪‬ﻦ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﲪﻠﺖ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻦ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﺖ‬
‫ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﳊﻘﻮﺍ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﺄﻇﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﲑ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻓﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺬﻟـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺃﻛﺜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺣﻜﻤﺎﺀ ﲤﻴﻢ‪ " :‬ﺃﻟﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﳍﻮ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻐـﺰﻝ" ﻭﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺃﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﻔﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻛـﻼﻡ ﻻ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻟﺬﻛﺮﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﺮ ﺍﳉـﺎﻫﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲞﺲ ﺣﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺩ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﻐﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﻻ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪،‬ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﺧـﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﻻ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻞ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ـ ﹶﻞ‬
‫ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮﹴ ﺃﹶﻭ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶ‪‬ﻨﺤ‪‬ﻴﹺﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎﺓﹰ ﻃﹶﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶ‪‬ﻨﺠ‪‬ـﺰﹺﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ـﺮ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﹶﺄﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ـﻦﹺ ﻣ‪‬ـﺎ ﻛﹶـﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ( ) ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻞﹾ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮﹴ ﺃﹶﻭ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺄﹸﻭﻟﹶﺌ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺔﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ‪،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺩﻳﺐ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬ﻁ‪٣،١٤٠٧‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﺝ‪ ،٥‬ﺹ‪.١٩٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪،‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺷﻜﺮﻱ‪،‬ﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻷﺭﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣١٠‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٩٧:‬‬
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‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻘﲑ‪‬ﺍ( ﻓﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ؛ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﲜـﻨﺲ ﺫﻛـﺮ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳌﻦ ﺁﻣﻦ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺮﻋﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺪﺳﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ ﺯﻭﺭﺍ ﻭ"ﺩﺣﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘـﺎﰲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﻘﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻇﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﺖ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺒﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻝ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴـﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤـﺪ ﻟﻠﻤـﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﳊﻘﻮﻗﻬﺎ " ﻭﺣﲔ ﻳﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻧ‪‬ﺠ ‪‬ﺪ ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻧﻈـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﲨﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻋﻄﲔ ﺍﳊﺮﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﻠﻄﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺨﺪﺵ ﺭﺟﻮﻟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﻣﺪﺡ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻘـﻞ‬
‫)ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﲔ ﺭﺟﻼ ﻓﻘﻞ ﻟﻪ )ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫ﳚﺰﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ)‪٤٢٨‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﻯ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪":‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻫﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ‪،‬ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳍﻮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻀﺐ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍﹰ ﺳﺨﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬

‫ﺳﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻭﻣﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ؟ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﳑﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻋﻮﺗﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺆﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ":‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻦ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ؛ ﻓﻴﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻧﻔﻘﺘـﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٢٤:‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ‪،‬ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪،‬ﺹ‪١٣‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ‪،‬ﺍﳌﻌﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﻶﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪١٩٥٢،‬ﻡ‪،‬ﺹ‪١٩‬‬
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‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻮﺿﺎ‪،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ" ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﺴﺐ ﻭﺗﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻋﻮﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ! ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﲤﻠﻜﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﻟﻄﻴﻔﺎ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺷﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘـﻪ ﲟـﺎ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺣﺎﻣـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ)‪٥٠٥‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻩ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﺒﺴﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻡ! ﻷﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺓ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻏﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻀﺢ ﺷﺮﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﻩ ﺳﻘﺮﺍﻁ؛ ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﺼـﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﰒ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺑﺄﻥ "ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺿـﻌﻒ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬

‫ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﺷﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻄﺒﻌﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻨـﺎﻗﺾ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫"ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺸﻮﻧﺔ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻟﻠﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻳﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻟﻠﻀﻌﻒ" ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﲔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻔﺎﺩﻉ؛ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺑﺴـﺐ‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺨﻠﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺮ "ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﻭﺍﳍﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﶈﻦ ﻓﺒﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ" ﻭﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻛﻲ ﻳﺮﺃﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﳛﻨﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ":‬ﻭﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻭﺍ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌـﻮﺭﺍﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﻔﻈﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻔﻘﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺭﺣﻴﻤﹰﺎ‬
‫ﳍﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺼﻔﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬ﺃﻭﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﻠﻘﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﱴ ﺷﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﰲ ﺣﺒﺎﻟﻪ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٢١‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ‪،‬ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٨ ،١‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﻫﺮﺍﻡ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺹ‪١٨٣‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﱪ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﻮﻙ ﰲ ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮﻳﺔ‪،‬ﺹ‪١٣٣‬‬
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‫ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻧﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺰﻱ‪،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻓﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺑﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻗﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﲣﺪﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳜﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﻭﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻﻳﻐﺘﻢ ﻟﻮ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﺣﺎﻣﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﻋﻨـﻬﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﲏ ﻗﺮﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺧﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﹺﻕ‪ ‬ﻭﻋﺒﻮﺩﻳـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻـﻒ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﻏﻀﺎﺿﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‪":‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺳﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚـﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻘﻮﳍﻦ" ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﺸﺎﻋﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐﺘﻢ ﻟﻮ ﻣﺎﺗـﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ!‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻋﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺪﺑﺮ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻦ ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺑﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﲟﺸﻮﺭ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺼﲑﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻡ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺸﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﻻ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻛﻲ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﲡﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪،‬ﻓﺄﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺷﺮ ﻭﺧﻄﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻘﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﳋﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ)‪٥٩٥‬ﻫـ( ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺮﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺼﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻗـﺪ ﺧﻠﻘـﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ"ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓـﺈ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻛﻦ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﻋـﺎﺓ ﻓـﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻳﺔ‪،‬ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺟﻬﺪﺍ ﺃﻛﱪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪١٣٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪١٣٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ)ﳐﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻷﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ(ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬ﻁ‪١٩٩٧ ،١‬ﻡ‪.‬ﺹ‪٦٢‬‬
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‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﻌﻠﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﺋﻼ‪":‬ﺇﻻ ﲟﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻠﻔﻦ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺑﺄﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺣﺬﻗﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ " ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺒﻠـﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻦ ﺣﻜﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺭﻳﺎﺳﺔ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﺪﱐ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪":‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﲣـﺬﻥ‬
‫ﺁﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺄﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﻦ‪،‬ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻟﻺﳒﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻮﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ "ﻭﳌـﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻣﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻦ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸـﺒﻬﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺸﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻮ‪‬ﻦ ﲪﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺻﺮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻘﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻴـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻦ ﲜﻼﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﺪﺑﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻷﻗﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺞ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹﻧﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑـﻴ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ"‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﺠﺴﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﻠﻘـﺖ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻨﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺎ ﳓﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻟﺴـﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟـﺔ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ‪:‬ﺹ‪٦٣‬‬
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‫ﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﲔ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﻔﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺸـﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻗﻠـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻳﻦ ﻭﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﲟﺮﻭﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﳐﻠﻮﻕ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﻤﻪ ﺑﻨﻘﺺ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﺎ‪.‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﳛﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﱐ ﻣـﻦ ﻋـﺪﺍﺀ ﻛـﺒﲑ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲞﱪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻜﻢ ﻧﻈﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﺜﲑ ﺍﻷﺳﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺷﻴﻮﻉ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺃﲨﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻲ؛ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﲰﺤﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﺻﻼ‪.‬ﰒ ﳚﻲﺀ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﻨﻬﺾ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻗـﺪ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺷﺮﻳﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻡ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ ﺇﺫ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻐﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﳑـﺎ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺒﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﺘﺒﲎ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪):‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ(‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧــﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺳﺄﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺄﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰒ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻼﺣﻈﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻐﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻋﺠﻴﺒﺎ‪،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪﻧﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺑﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺄﺣﺼﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻶﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﺎﻟﹾﺄﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ( ) ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹺ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺﻦ‪ ‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ـﺔﹲ(‬
‫)ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹸ ﻗﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀِ()ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺄﹸ ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻠﹾﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪) (‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪ ) ‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ـﻲ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺠ‪‬ـ ﹲﺔ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﺓﹲ( ﻭﰲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻶﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻧﻜﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻗﺤﻤﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)ﻭ‪‬ﹶﻟﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺬﱠﻛﹶ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﹾﺄﹸ‪‬ﻧﺜﹶﻰ(‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺟﻌﻠﺘﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻋﺰﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺸـﻬﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﻩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﺻﻔﺔ ﺳـﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺫﹸﻛﺮﺕ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﺄﻟﺼﻘﺖ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺒﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺳﺄﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻲ ﰲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛـﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴـﺮﻳﻦ ﰒ ﲢﻠﻴﻠـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﺎﻭﻟـﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﺍﺏ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪،‬ﻭﺳﺘﻼﺣﻈﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻲ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻐﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻋﺠﻴﺒﺎ‪،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪﻧﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﺑﻌﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻋ‪‬ﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ـﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺿ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ):‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶ ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﹶﺎﻟﹾﺄﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺳﻤ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻢ ‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﹸﻋ‪‬ﻴﺬﹸﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﹺ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻭ‪ ‬ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺎﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟﹺﻴﻢﹺ(‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪٣٦:‬‬
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‫ﻭ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ )ﻭﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ (‬ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ )ﻭﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪(‬‬
‫ﺑﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ)‪٣١٠‬ﻫـ( ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﺠﻮﺯﺍ ﻋﺎﻗﺮﺍ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﻨـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺪ‪،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺗﻐﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻷﻭﻻﺩﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧﺬﺭﺍ ﺷﻜﺮﺍ؛ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺯﻗﺘﲏ ﻭﻟـﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺪﻧﺘﻪ ﻭﺧﺪﺍﻣﻪ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ " ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻭﺿـﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ (‬ﺧﱪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻏـﲑ ﻗﻴﻠـﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻭﺿـﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫)ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ ":‬ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ )ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ‬

‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ (‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳋﱪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﻣﲏ"‬
‫ﻭ‪ ‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ‪):‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻋﺘـﺬﺍﺭﺍ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﰲ ﲪﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﺤﺮﺭﺗﻪ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﲞﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﺘـﺬﺍﺭﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪٣٦:‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪١٤٠٥،‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٣‬ﺹ‪٢٣٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ)‪٤٧٩‬ﻫـ( ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪ (‬ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ "ﺇﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﻪ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪" (‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﱪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ" ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪):‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻓﺎﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪‬ﺎ‪" :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺑﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﳝﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ)‪٥٣٨‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟـﺎ ﻭﺿـﻌﺖ( ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﻬﻴﻼ ﳍﺎ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻫﺐ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻈﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ؛ ﻓﻠﺬﻟﻚ ﲢﺴﺮﺕ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻓـﻊ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ "ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻫﺒﺖ" ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻫﺒﺖ ﻟﻚ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻓﻀـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ)‪٥٤٦‬ﻫـ( ﺇﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﻠﻬﻔﺖ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﻲ ﺗﻮﰲ ﺑﻨﺬﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷ‪‬ـﻢ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻻ ﳛﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺎﺋﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺟﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﻣـﺎ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺑﻄﻨﻬﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺗﻠﻬﻔﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻮﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺰﻋﻬﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻧﺬﺭﻩ‪) .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻧـﺬﺭﻩ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻷﻧﺜـﻰ ﲢـﻴﺾ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼـﻠﺢ ﻟﺼـﺤﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻫﺒﺎﻥ‪،‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ‪،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ‪،‬ﻏﻨﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‪١٩٩٧،‬ﻡ‪،‬ﻁ‪،١‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣١٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻭﻳﻞ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‪،‬ﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﳌﻬﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٨٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﺑﻦ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ‪،‬ﺍﶈﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﰲ ﳏﻤﺪ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪١٤١٢،‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﻁ‪،١‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٤٢٥‬‬
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‫ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ)‪٥٩٧‬ﻫـ(ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ‪ ":‬ﻣﻦ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﳌﺎ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺘـﻪ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ" ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )‪٦٠٤‬ﻫـ(ﻓﻴﻘـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ؛ ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻋﻬﻢ ﻻ‬
‫ﳚﻮﺯ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻘﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﺷﺪﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜـﻰ‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻋﻴﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺧـﺘﻼﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻁ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ؛ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟـﻮﻩ ﺗﻘﺘﻀـﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ؛ ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻄﻠـﻮﰊ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻣﻮﻫﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﰊ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﻫﻮﺑﺔ ﷲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻳﻔﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﺣﻴﺎﻥ)‪٧٤٥‬ﻫـ( ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ":‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺿـﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺄﺗﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻀﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﲟﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﺑﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻬﺎ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﻠﺔ ﺑـﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠـﻢ ﻣﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‪،‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ‪،‬ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬ﻁ‪١٤٠٤ ،٣‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٧٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺐ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪٢٠٠٠ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،١‬ﺝ‪،٨‬ﺹ‪٢٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺑﻮﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺴﻲ‪،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬ﻁ‪،١‬‬
‫‪٢٠٠١‬ﻡ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪٤٥٧‬‬
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‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ)‪٦٧١‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ":‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﺗﻪ)ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻮﺩ( ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ‪،‬‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻮﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧـﻼﻑ ﻣـﺎ ﻗﺼـﺪﺗﻪ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ" ﻭﻳـﺮﻯ ﳏﻤـﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ)‪٧٤١‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ )ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﲎ؛ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻃﻠﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻫﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ )ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳜﺪﻣﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ )‪٧٧٤‬ﻫـ( ﺃﻥ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ "ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ"‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ)‪٩١١‬ﻫـ( ﻳﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻪ‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰲ ﺑﻄﻨﻚ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ‪ -‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‬

‫ﻋﻮﺭﺓ ‪ -‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺗﺼﻨﻌﲔ؟ ﻓﺎﻏﺘﻤﺖ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪) :‬ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻄـﲏ ﳏـﺮﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﲏ ﺇﻧﻚ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻢ( ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﲏ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﻟﻚ‪ ) :‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ)‪١٢٥٠‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺬﺭﺍ ﺧﺎﺩﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺷﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗـﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﰊ‬
‫ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ):‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ( ﻣﻦ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﲤﺎﻡ ﲢﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﲢﺰ‪‬ﺎ؛ ﺃﻱ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‪،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪٦٧‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ‪١٩٨٣،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪،٤‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪١٠٥‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺇﲰﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪١٤٠١ ،‬ﻫـ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٦٠‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﺮﺩ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺃﺕ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪١٩٩٣ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪١٨١‬‬
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‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺩﻣﺎ ﻭﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻋـﺬﺭﺕ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺼﺪﺕ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻳﻔﺼ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ)‪١٢٧٠‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮ‪‬ﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫)ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ؛ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻧﻔﻰ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﺠـﻨﺲ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺜﻰ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻬـﺬﺍ ﺍﳉـﻨﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺿﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺼﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﲤﻨﺘﻪ ﻟﻨـﺬﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺼﺪﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻘﺎﻟﺖ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺺ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﻔﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺷﺒﻬﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻻ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ؛ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤـﺎ ﻟﻌﻄﻴـﺔ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻄﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﰊ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻫﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﱄ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺧﲑ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻟﻠﻌﻬﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻨـﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴ‪‬ـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﺎ‪) :‬ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻭﺿﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﲢﺰ‪‬ﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜـﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻗﻮﳍﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺰﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﲔ ﻓﲏ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٣٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﻊ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺝ‪،٣‬ﺹ‪١٣٥‬‬
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‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ)‪١٣٧٦‬ﻫـ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺇﱐ ﲰﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﱘ ( "ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻸﻡ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺏ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺘﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ)‪١٣٩٣‬ﻫـ( ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻃﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﹼﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﹰ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﲔ ﻛﻮﻧﺎﹰ ﻭﻗـﺪﺭﺍﹰ ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ﻭﺷـﺮﻋﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻﹰ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎﹰ ﲤﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻌﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﺗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﺕ ﻣﺮﱘ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬
‫ﺿ ‪‬ﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻓﺎﻣﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺂ ﺃﹸﻧﺜﹶﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻋ‪‬ﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﺇﱐ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ):‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ) ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺗﺒـﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻟـﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻌﺖ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﲏ ﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﺍ ﻛﺎﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺟﺎﺯﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻓﺮﻉ ﻣﻨﻪ‪،‬ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺻـﺪﻕ‬
‫ﺩﻋﻮﺍﻩ! ﻫﻞ ﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪،‬ﺑﻐﺾ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺻﻄﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﺰﺓ ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺁﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺗﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻘـﻂ‬
‫ﻳﻔﻀ‪‬ﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺻﻄﻔﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ؟ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ! ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﻣـﻦ ﺷـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﲪﺎﺳﻪ ﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺃﻱ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺘـﺐ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴـﲑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﺂﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ‪.‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﺮ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪١٢٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪،‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٧‬ﺹ‪٤١٥‬‬
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‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪.‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ )ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺬﺍﺭ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺮﱘ ﺇﱃ ﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣـﺎ ﻧـﺬﺭﺕ ﺑـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻫـﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀـﻞ ﻟﻨـﺬﺭﻫﺎ ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ ﻣـﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻟﻄـﱪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﻋﻄﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉـﻮﺯﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ؛ ﻓﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺬﻛﺮ‪،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣـﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺎﺀ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪ ‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘـﺎﻥ‪):‬ﺭﺏ ﺇﱐ ﻭﺿـﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ(ﻭ)ﻭﺇﱐ ﲰﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﱘ( ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﲟـﺎ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ( ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻫﺒـﺖ ﻟـﻚ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ ‪ ):‬ﻟﹶـﻴ‪ ‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﹶﻛﻤ‪‬ﺜﹾﻠ‪ ‬ﻪ ﺷ‪‬ﻲ‪‬ﺀٌ(ﺀ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻚ‪) :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻫﺐ( ﻭ)ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻛﺎﳊﺮ(‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﳒﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻔﺴﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺰﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﺇﺫ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪،‬ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‪،‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪١٩٩٦ ،١‬ﻡ ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪،١١٨‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬
‫ﻫﺸﺎﻡ‪،‬ﻣﻐﲏ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻴﺐ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٥١٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪:‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻛﻤﺜﻠﻪ‪.‬ﻓﺎﻟﻜﺎﻑ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻈﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫)ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻠﺮ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻝ ‪‬ﻋ ﹶﻠﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﺟﺔﹲ(‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﻟﻶﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻋﺠﺒﺘﻜﻢ‪،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﳌـﺆﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﲔ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺣﻴﺾ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﰒ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺮﺿﺔ ﻷﳝﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺣﻠـﻒ ﺃ ﹼﻻ‬
‫ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﺮﺑﺺ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‪،‬ﰒ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺟﻞ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪):‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻄﹶﱠﻠﻘﹶﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﺼ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺄﹶ‪‬ﻧﻔﹸﺴِﻬﹺﻦ‪ ‬ﺛﹶﻠﹶﺎﺛﹶﺔﹶ ﻗﹸﺮ‪‬ﻭﺀٍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺤ‪‬ﻞﱡ ﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﻜﹾ‪‬ﺘﻤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺧ‪‬ﻠﹶﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺭﺣ‪‬ـﺎﻣ‪‬ﻬﹺﻦ‪ ‬ﺇﹺ ﹾﻥ‬
‫ﻛﹸﻦ‪ ‬ﻳ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﹾﻴ‪ ‬ﻮﻡﹺ ﺍﻟﹾﺂﺧ‪‬ﺮﹺ ﻭ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﻮﻟﹶﺘ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﺣ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺮ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺫﻟ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﹾ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺇﹺﺻ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎﺣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺜﹾﻞﹸ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶـﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻑ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﻝ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺ ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪ ‬ﹲﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﺰﹺﻳ ‪‬ﺰ ﺣ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪(‬‬
‫ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ) ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹺ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺﻦ‪ ‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺟ‪‬ﺔﹲ( ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻻ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻳﺮﺟﺢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻘـﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻭﺃﻭﱃ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ؛ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻏﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﳍـﺎ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻗﺎﻝ‪) :‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ( ﻋﻘﻴﺐ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪) :‬ﻭﳍـﻦ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ("‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻫﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﱪ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺻﻔﺢ ﻭﺇﺣﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﲤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ ﻗﻮﻻ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ":‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﺰﻳﻦ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﰐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢـﺐ ﺍﻣـﺮﺃﰐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺰﻳﻦ ﱄ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪):‬ﻭﳍﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ("‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٢٨:‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪:‬ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪٤٥٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٢٣٠‬‬
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‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ( ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻫﻲ "ﺑﺎﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻳﻌﲏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ" ﻭﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﳍﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻻ ﰲ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪،‬ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪،‬ﻭﳝﺜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ":‬ﻓـﻼ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺴﻠﺖ ﺛﻴﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺒﺰﺕ ﻟﻪ؛ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﳓﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ" ﻭﱂ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﺒﺰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻭﺇﻧﻔﺎﻗﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬

‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴـﺮﻳﻦ ﻛـﺎﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧـﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ":‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ" ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺄﻣﻠﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴـﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﺠـﻲﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﻬـﺎ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀـﻲ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ" ﻭﻳﺮﺟ‪‬ﺢ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳍﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺣﺎﻣﻬﻦ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺃﻭﻓﻖ ﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‪،‬ﰒ ﻳﻔﺼ‪‬ـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻫﻬﻨﺎ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﺯﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺃﻣـﻮﺭ ﺃﺣـﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٠٠‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٢٧٢‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﶈﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٣٠٦‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺴﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺩﺱ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼـﻴﺐ ﺍﻟـﺰﻭﺝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﲑﺍﺙ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻠﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻡ ﺃﺑﺖ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻻ ﺗﻘـﺪﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻇﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﺎﻷﺳﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﰲ‬
‫ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﺃﻇﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﳑﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ‬

‫ﻣﺎﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻓﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳـﺪ ﻟﻠﺮﺟـﺎﻝ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺿﺮﺍﺭ ‪‬ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻗـﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻘﺎﻗﻪ ﻟﻠﺰﺟﺮ ﺃﺷﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﳍﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ( ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ‪،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﻧﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‪،‬ﰒ ﺃﺳﻬﺐ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ‪):‬ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ( ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﱂ ﻳﺒﲔ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ( ﻓﺄﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻓﻀـﻞ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺮﻑ ﻭﻛﻤﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺛﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ" ﻭﺃﻇﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﻜﻼﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪،‬ﰒ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﻼﻣـﺎ ﻋﺠـﺰﺕ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻣﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﲏ ﻓﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻟﻜﲏ ﻋﺠﺰﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﺪ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧـﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪):‬ﻧﺴﺎﺅﻛﻢ ﺣﺮﺙ ﻟﻜﻢ( ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋـﺮﻑ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٦‬ﺹ‪٨٣-٨٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪،‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪١٠٣‬‬
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‫ﺃﻥ ﺣﻘﻠﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻏﹶﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﺭﺍﻉ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺿـﺢ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ؛ ﺃﻥ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﺭﺍﻉ ﺑﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﹸﻛﺮﻩ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀِ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﺿﻰ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ؛‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﲡﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ؛ ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻟﺪ‪‬ﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺔ" ﻻ ﺃﻇﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼﻣﻪ ﳛﺘـﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺟﺪ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺣﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺩﻧﺎﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻴﻤﺔ؟ ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﻞ ﺭﻏﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻋﺘﻪ ﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣـﺔ‪،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ‪،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺼـﺎ ﺁﺧـﺮ ﻻ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﳒﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ‪،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻟﻪ ﳊﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ ﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺰﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺮ‪‬ﺟ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻗﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪‬ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀِ(‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺣﺴﺒﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺩﻭﳕﺎ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﻟﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﲤﻤﻨﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﺗﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ‪،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﰲ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﳌـﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‪،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ ﺗـﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻳﻀـﺎ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠـﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣـﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪١٠٤‬‬
‫)‪" (٢‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻪ ﳊﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ" ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪٤٥٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٣٤:‬‬
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‫‪http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺰ‪،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ)ﻭﺍﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﻦ( ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳒﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻗﻠﺐ‪،‬ﺣﱴ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺮﺅﻭﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻮﻥ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ‪):‬ﻭﺍﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﻦ(‪،‬ﻭﻛﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠـﺔ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺟ‪‬ﺎﻝﹸ ﻗﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﺀِ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻓﻀ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﺾﹴ ﻭ‪‬ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻧ ﹶﻔﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻧﹺﺘ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﺎﻓ‪‬ﻈﹶﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻟ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻐ‪‬ﻴﺐﹺ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻔ‪‬ﻆﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﺎﺗ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺗﺨ‪‬ﺎﻓﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﻧ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻮﺯ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﻌ‪‬ﻈﹸﻮﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻫﺠ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ـﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻀ‪‬ـﺎ ﹺﺟ ﹺﻊ‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺿ‪‬ﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹶﺃ ﹶﻃﻌ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺒﻐ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬﹺ ‪‬ﻦ ﺳ‪‬ﺒﹺﻴﻠﹰﺎ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﹶﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﹺﺒﲑ‪‬ﺍ(‬
‫ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟـﻼ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼـﺎﺭ ﻟﻄـﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ؛ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ؛ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼـﺎﺹ؛ ﻓﻨﺰﻟـﺖ)ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ( ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ‪":‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﻘﻮﻟـﻪ ﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻨﺎﺅﻩ؛ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺒﻬﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻬﻦ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﷲ ﻭﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪،‬ﲟﺎ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ؛ﻳﻌﲏ ﲟـﺎ ﻓﻀـﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﻢ؛ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﻗﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻦ ﻣﻬﻮﺭﻫﻦ‪،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ‪،‬ﻭﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻦ ﻣﺆ‪‬ﻦ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﻫﺠﺮﻭﻫﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺟﻊ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻻ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﺢ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻴﻘـﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﻓـﺄﻭﱃ ﺍﻷﻗـﻮﺍﻝ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪):‬ﻭﺍﻫﺠﺮﻭﻫﻦ( ﻣﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﺎﳍﺠﺎﺭ" ﺇﺫ ﻳﻌﻠﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬ﻫﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﲑ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﲝﺒﻞ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﺸﺪ ﻭﺛﺎﻗﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﻀﺠﻌﻬﺎ ﰒ ﻳﻀﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﲤﺘﺜﻞ ﻷﻣﺮﻩ‪،‬ﰒ ﻳﻀﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﱪﺡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺐ ﻭﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘـﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻧﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍﻢ؛ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻘﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻓﻠﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﳜﻮﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪،‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺴﺘﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻴﻞ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﺷﻌﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺅﻭﻁ‪،‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪١٤٠٨ ،‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٢٢١‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٥‬ﺹ‪٥٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬ﺹ‪٦٦‬‬
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‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ‪ ‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﻴﻬﺠﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﻳﻀﺮ‪‬ﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﱪﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻭﳓﻮﻩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸـﺮﻱ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺎﻫﲔ‪،‬ﻛﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﺴﻴﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﻞ؛ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻬﺮ‪.‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﻋﻈﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻻ ﰒ ﻫﺠﺮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻀـﺠﻊ‬
‫ﰒ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﱪﺡ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻆ ﻭﺍﳍﺠﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴـﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻓﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﲟﻌـﲎ ﺍﻷﻣـﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺼـﺮﺡ ﺑﻌﻀـﻬﻢ ﺑﺄ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻂ‪،‬ﻭﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳍﺠﺮ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺷﺪ ﻭﺛﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﺧﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺃﰎ ﻋﻘﻼ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺫﻛﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺮ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ؛ ﻓﺼﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﻄﲔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺆﻭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬ﻛﻲ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻧﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪ ):‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻫ‪‬ﻞﹺ ﺍﻟﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏﹺ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﹾ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﻘ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻄﹶﺎﺭﹴ ﻳ‪‬ﺆ‪ ‬ﺩﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﹾ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﺪ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺎﺭﹴ ﻟﹶـﺎ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻳ‪‬ﺆ‪ ‬ﺩﻩ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﻣﺖ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﺎ( ‪ )،‬ﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺳ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺍﺀً ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻫ‪‬ﻞﹺ ﺍﻟﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏﹺ ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﺔﹲ ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﺔﹲ ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﺁَﻳ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠـﻪ‪ ‬ﺁَﻧ‪‬ـﺎ َﺀ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺴﺠ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ )، (‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺸ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﺍﺗ‪ ‬ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ( ‪ )،‬ﻭﻃﹶﻬ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻠﻄﱠﺎ‪‬ﺋﻔ‪‬ﲔ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﹾﻟﻘﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﲔ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ﱠﻛﻊﹺ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻴ‪‬ﻞﹺ ﻭ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪ ‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٤٢٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٥٣٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٥٧:‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺁﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١١٣:‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳊﺞ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٦:‬‬
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‫ﻗﹶﺎ‪‬ﺋﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ(‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﺸﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴـﻠﻂ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ‪،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ :‬ﻓﻼﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺪﻣﺘﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻓﻼﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ؟ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﲜﺴﺪ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺴﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺮﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺸﺆﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺴﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﺍﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﻦ( ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﻆ )ﺿﺮﺏ( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﰲ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪ ":‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺫﻟـﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﳓﻮﻩ ﻭﺻﻨﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺿﺮﻭﺏ‪،‬ﻭ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺜﻼ؛ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻭﺑﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﳍﻢ‪ :‬ﺿﺮﺏ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺑﻜﺬﺍ؛ ﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺿﺮﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ؛ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻨﻔﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ"ﻭﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻭﺁﺧ‪‬ـﺮﻭﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻳﻀ‪‬ـﺮﹺﺑﻮ ﹶﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ( ﺃﻱ ﻳﺴﲑﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺿ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑﺘ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽﹺ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﺟ‪‬ﻨـﺎﺡ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺼ‪‬ـﺮﻭﺍ ﻣ‪‬ـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻼﺓ( ﻓﺎﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻓﻼ ‪‬ﺗﻀ‪‬ﺮﹺﺑﻮﺍ ﷲِ ﺍﻷﻣﺜـﺎﻝ ( ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺗﺼـﻔﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‪ ) :‬ﺿ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﷲُ ﻣ‪‬ﺜﹶﻼﹰ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪﺍﹰ ﻣ‪‬ﻤﻠﻮﻛﺎﹰ ( ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ‪،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﺃﹶﻓﹶ‪‬ﻨﻀ‪‬ﺮﹺﺏ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟـ ﱢﺬﻛﹾ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﳊﺠ‪‬ﺮ ( ﺃﻱ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ‪،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺻﻔﹾﺤﺎﹰ ( ﻭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ‪،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﺿ‪‬ﺮﹺﺏ‪ ‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﺼﺎﻙ‪ ‬ﺍ ﹶ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﹶﻓﻀ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺫﺍﻧﹺﻬﹺﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ( ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ‪،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻌﻨﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ؛ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ )ﺿﺮﺏ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒـﺪﱐ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﻟـﻪ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻕ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﹶﻓﻘﹸﻠﹾﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺿ‪‬ﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﻩ‪ ‬ﺑﹺ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪):‬ﻳﻀ‪‬ﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹶﺩ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺎﺭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ( ﻭﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‪ ):‬ﻓﹶﺎﺿ‪‬ـﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻓﹶـﻮ‪ ‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﹾﺄﹶﻋ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎﻕﹺ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﺿ‪‬ﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﻞﱠ ﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ـﺎﻥ‪ (‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺷـﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﰲ ﻓﻬـﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﻮﺯ‪،‬ﻭﻣﱴ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺍﳌـﺮﺃﺓ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﺝ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٣٣:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٧٣ :‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٥٠:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٢:‬‬
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‫‪http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺷﺰﺍ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺕ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﻓﹶﺎﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﹶﺎﻧﹺﺘ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﺎﻓ‪‬ﻈﹶﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻟ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻐ‪‬ﻴﺐﹺ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺰ ﻫﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﲢﻔﻆ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻔـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻐﻴﺐ ﲟﺎ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻱ ﳛﻔﻈﻦ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﻴﺒﺘـﻬﻢ‪،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻔـﻆ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﲔ ﻓﺮﻭﺟﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻓﻈﺎﺕ(‪.‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺎﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺰ؛" ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺸـﻮﺯﻫﺎ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ"‬
‫ﺤ ﹾﻠ‪‬ﻴﺔ‪(‬‬
‫)ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ‪‬ﻳﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﹸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﳚﺰﻡ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺙ‪،‬ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻳﻨﺸﺄﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ ﻟـﻴﻜﻤﻠﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﺻﻤﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺣﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻘﻠـﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻧﺸﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺰ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‪).‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ(‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﲝﲑﻯ‪،‬ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪http://marwa2.ektob.com/119116.html،‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ‪:‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ؟ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺧﻄﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺮ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﹰﺎ ﻏﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺿﺮﹺﺑ‪‬ﻮﻫ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻓﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪» :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟﹶﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﹶ‪‬ﻴ ﹺﻬﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻃ‪‬ﹾﺌ ‪‬ﻦ ﹸﻓﺮ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍﹰ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﻜﺮ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻓﹶﹺﺈ ﹾﻥ ﻓﹶ ‪‬ﻌ ﹾﻠ ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﹶ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺒﺮ‪‬ﺡﹴ« )‪ ،(١٢١٨‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺩﻉ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻧﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ‪» :‬ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻻ‬
‫ﻳ‪‬ﻮﻃ‪‬ﺌﹾﻦ‪ ‬ﹸﻓﺮ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻜﹸﻢ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﺣ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺍﹰ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﻜﺮ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ،«‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻮﻁﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺵ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﺐ‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﰒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺧﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻛﱪﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺣﺾ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺛﻴﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻦ »ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ«‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻟﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﻁﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺵ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬
‫»ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ« ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺷﺎﺭﺡ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‪» :‬ﺇﻻﱠ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﲔ ﺑﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻌﻠـﻦ‪ ‬ﻓـﺎﻫﺠﺮﻭﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺟﻊﹺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﺿﺮﺑﺎﹰ ﻏﲑ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﺮﹺﺡﹴ« )‪ ،(١١٦٣‬ﻭﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺁﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﻮﺯ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺑﻼ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺑﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳍﺠﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﲨﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﲔ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺣﺸﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻏﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﺃﳌﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺪ ﺑﺄﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﻭﻓﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳍﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﻴﺔ‪.‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ؟‬
‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺩﻳﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻈﻠﻢ ﻣﺜﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻓﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﺑﻼ ﻧﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﻻ ﺣﱴ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇ‪‬ﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻏﻔﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﺴﺮ ﻭﺃﻛﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻘﻴﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺴﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﺯ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺷﻘﺎﻕ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺣـﺪﺩ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻓﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ‪).‬ﺇﺳﻼﻡ ﲝﲑﻯ‪،‬ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪( http://marwa2.ektob.com/119116.html،‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٥:‬‬
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‫ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺎ ﲡﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﲣﻠﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺗﺒﲔ‪.‬ﻭﺳﻴﺠﻲﺀ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴـﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳋﻮﺽ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬
‫ﺕ‬
‫ﺨﺬﹶ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﻠﹸﻖ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺧﺮﻑ‪ ):‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺩﻩ‪ ‬ﺟ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﺀًﺍ ‪ ،‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟﺈﹺﻧ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ ﻟﹶ ﹶﻜﻔﹸﻮﺭ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﹺﲔ‪ (١٥) ‬ﹶﺃﻡﹺ ﺍ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﹶﺎ ﹸﻛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺎﻟﹾﺒ‪‬ﻨﹺﲔ‪ (١٦) ‬ﻭﺇﹺﺫﹶﺍ ﺑ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺿ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ٰ‬ﻦﹺ ﻣ‪‬ﺜﹶﻠﹰﺎ ﻇﹶﻞﱠ ‪‬ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺍ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪(١٧) ‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺃﹶ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺼ‪‬ﺎﻡﹺ ﻏﹶﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺒﹺﲔﹴ )‪ (١٨‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺎﺋ‪‬ﻜﹶﺔﹶ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ٰ‬ﻦﹺ ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﺎﺛﹰـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺄﹸ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻠﹾﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﹶﺷ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺧ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻘﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻜﹾ‪‬ﺘﺐ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎﺩ‪‬ﺗ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﹶﺄﻟﹸﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (١٩‬ﻭ‪‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ﻟﹶﻮ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﺎﺀَ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪ٰ‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺑ ٰﺬﹶﻟ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ‬
‫ﻋ‪ ‬ﹾﻠ ﹴﻢ ﹺﺇ ﹾﻥ ‪‬ﻫ ‪‬ﻢ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺻ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ )‪(٢٠‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪ ":‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﺃﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣـﺒﲔ( ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺰﻳﻦ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﳐﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻤﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻤﻪ ﺑﱪﻫﺎﻥ ﻭﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻌﺠﺰﻩ ﻭﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺟﻌﻠﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺯﻋﻤﺘﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪،‬ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﲟﻦ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ‪:‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ‪":‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﺘﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﲝﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﳊﺠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﺮﺩﺩﻩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‪،‬ﺣﱴ‬

‫ﺷﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮ ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ "ﻗﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﲤﺎﺛﻴﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻀﺮﺑﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﺔ ﻭﺫﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺒـﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻫـﻢ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺸﺌﻮﻫﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﰒ ﻋﺒﺪﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ "‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٥‬ﺹ‪٥٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﻣﺔ )‪ ١١٨‬ﻫـ(‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٥‬ﺹ‪٥٧‬‬
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‫ﻭﻳﺮﺟﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﲟﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻘﻴﺐ ﺧـﱪ ﺍﷲ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻧﻪ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫)‪(٦‬‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪،‬ﻭﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻗـﻮﻝ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬ﻗﻮﻝﹶ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪ ":‬ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺼـﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﰉ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮﻻ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺟﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﻳﲔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳊﻠﻴﺔ"‬

‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟـﻤ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺻﺎﻏﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫـﺐ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻀﺔ ﻭﺣﻠﻮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ؛‬
‫ﺳﺎﻛﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﲣﺬﻭﺍ ﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ"‬
‫ﻭﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‬

‫)‪(٩‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ‪،‬ﻭ ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲎ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‬

‫)‪(١٤‬‬

‫)‪(١٠‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‬

‫)‪(١١‬‬

‫‪،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‬

‫)‪(١٢‬‬

‫)‪(٨‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‬

‫)‪(١٣‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻗـﻮﻝ‬

‫ﺭﺃﻱ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ‪،‬ﻭﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ‪،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺸـﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﻓﻴﺴـﺘﻄﺮﺩ ﰲ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﱐ)‪١٨٢‬ﻫـ (‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٥‬ﺹ‪٥٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٥‬ﺹ‪٩٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪٢٤٧‬‬
‫)‪ (٥‬ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ‪،‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﲑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٧‬ﺹ‪٣٠٦‬‬
‫)‪ (٦‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ‪،‬ﺍﶈﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻴﺰ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٥‬ﺹ‪٤٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٧‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٧‬ﺹ‪١٧٤‬‬
‫)‪ (٨‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١٦‬ﺹ‪٧٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٩‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺰﻳﻞ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪٢٦‬‬
‫)‪ (١٠‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪١٢٦‬‬
‫)‪ (١١‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﺜﻮﺭ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٧‬ﺹ‪٣٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (١٢‬ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٥‬ﺹ‪٧٠‬‬
‫)‪ (١٣‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٧٦٤‬‬
‫)‪ (١٤‬ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪٥٤٩‬‬
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‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺧـﺲ ﻭﺃﻧﻘـﺺ ﻭﺃﺿـﻌﻒ‬
‫ﺨﺼ‪‬ـﺎ ﹺﻡ ﻏﹶﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳋﻠﻘﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺟﻞﱠ ﻭﻋﻼ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ):‬ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﺄﹸ ﻓ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﺤ‪‬ﻠﹾﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻓ‪‬ﻰ ﺍﹾﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺒﹺﲔﹴ( ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻧﺴﺒﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﺴﺒﻮﺍ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﻧﻘﺼﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﺿﻌﻔﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﻠـﻞ ﻟﻴﺠـﱪ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺼﻪ ﺍﳋﻠﻘﻲ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺪﻋﻢ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﺣﺠﺘﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓـﺈﻥ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺫﻛﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﻭﻗﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲨﺎﳍﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻠﻲ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻌﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻲ ﻳﻮﺿـﺢ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﺼﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻠﻴﻐﺎﺕ ﻓﻼ ﻋﱪﺓ ﺑﻨﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﻻ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻟﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﻜﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﺑﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻑ ﻭﲨﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺛﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ‬
‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺴﻮﺱ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻜﺎﺑﺮ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﳌﻦ ﻓﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺎﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ‪ ":‬ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻔﺴـﻚ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﱘ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﻷﻧﻚ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻧﺎﺙ!"‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻭﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻋﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ! ﻭﻟﻨﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﲨﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻴﺴﺮﺓ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﲟﻦ ﻳﻨﺸ‪‬ـﺄ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ؛ﻫﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٣‬ﺹ‪٢٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٢٥‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪:‬ﺹ‪٢٤‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪،‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﳒﻲ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٤‬ﺹ‪١٠٣‬‬
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‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪:‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻢ‪) :‬ﻫﺒﻞ( "ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﲪﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻـﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺘﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮ ﻟﻪ ﻳﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ" ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﲤﺎﺛﻴﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻀﺮﺑﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﺔ ﻭﺫﻫﺐ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺒﺪﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻧﺸﺌﻮﻫﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠـﻚ ﺍﳊﻠﻴـﺔ ﰒ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‪ ):‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ(ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪:‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﲔ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻧﺜـﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ)ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺸ‪‬ﺄ( ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ؟ ﰒ ﻋﻼﻡ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ )ﻫﻮ(؟ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ )ﻫﻦ‪ (‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ):‬ﺃﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺸ‪‬ﺄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪:‬ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﰐ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ ﻭﻳﺲ‪):‬ﺧ‪‬ﻠﻖ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻧﻄﻔﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺼﻴﻢ ﻣﺒﲔ( )ﺃﻭﱂ ﻳﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺧﻠﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻄﻔﻪ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺼﻴﻢ ﻣﺒﲔ(‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪:‬ﺯﻋﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺺ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﻲ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ‬
‫ﳍﻢ ﺟﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻥ ﲡﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﳛﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻭﻳﻠﺒﺴﻮﻥ ﺛﻴﺎﺑـﺎ ﺧﻀـﺮﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺪﺱ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﱪﻕ ﻣﺘﻜﺌﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺋﻚ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺣﺴﻨﺖ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻘﺎ( )ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﻨـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺎﺕ ﺟﻨﺎﺕ ﲡﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﳛﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻭﻟﺆﻟﺆﺍ ﻭﻟﺒﺎﺳﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﺮ(‬

‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻧﺎﻗﺼﲔ ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲢﻠﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻳﺮ! ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨـﺔ‬

‫ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ؟‬
‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ‪،‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ‪،‬ﺕ‪.‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺯﻛﻲ‪،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪،‬ﻁ‪٣،١٩٩٥‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٤:‬‬
‫ﻳﺲ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٧٧:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﻒ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٣١:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺞ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٣:‬‬
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‫)ﺇﹺ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﹸﻛﻦ‪ ‬ﺇﹺ ﱠﻥ ﹶﻛ ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﹸﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪(‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪،‬ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ):‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﻯ ﹶﻗﻤ‪‬ﻴﺼ‪ ‬ﻪ‬
‫ﹸﻗ ‪‬ﺪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ﺩ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﺮﹴ ﻗﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺇﹺﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻣ‪ ‬ﻦ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻦ ﹺﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻛﹸ ‪‬ﻦ ﻋ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪(‬‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺻﺎﺭﺕ ﺃﻟﺼﻖ ﺑﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺳﻲ‪،‬ﺣﱴ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﲔ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬
‫ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻔﺖ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻭﻗﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ)ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪،‬ﺣﱴ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﻟﻐﺰﺍ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪":‬ﻣـﺎ ﺍﻟﺸـﻲﺀ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺧﻠﻘـﻪ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻈﻤﻪ!" ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﺎﺀﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎ‪.‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﺒﺚ ﻭﺍﳌﻜﺮ‪،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺁﺛﺮﺕ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻴـﺪ ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧـﻪ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﰲ‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ؛) ‪‬ﻭﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﲔ‪ ) (‬ﻗﹸﻞﹺ ﺍﺩ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﺷ‪ ‬ﺮﻛﹶﺎ َﺀ ﹸﻛﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﻛ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶـﺎ‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻊ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﹸﺛ ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﹶﺗ‪‬ـﻰ( ) ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﺎﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ ﻟﹶﹶﺄﻛ‪‬ﻴـ ‪‬ﺪ ﱠﻥ ﺃﹶﺻ‪‬ـﻨ‪‬ﺎﻣ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﺗ‪ ‬ﻮﻟﱡـﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺗ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ ) (‬ﻓﹶﺘ‪ ‬ﻮﻟﱠﻰ ﻓ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻋ‪ ‬ﻮﻥﹸ ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫)‪(٦‬‬

‫‪‬ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺑﹺﺮﹺﻳﻦ‪) (‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﻜ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃﻛ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪ ‬ﻛﹶ‪‬ﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ(‬

‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﺎﻧﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻴـﺪ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ‪،‬ﻭﻛﻴـﺪ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬
‫)‪(٥‬‬
‫)‪(٦‬‬
‫)‪(٧‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٨:‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٨:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٨٣:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٩٥:‬‬
‫ﻃﻪ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٦٠:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٥٧:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺭﻕ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٦-١٥:‬‬
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‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻷﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ‪ ‬ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻴـﺪ ﺍﳌـﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ":‬ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺑﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻖ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪ ":‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻗﻤﻴﺼﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﺧﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﳍـﺎ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻴﺪﻛﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻨﻴﻌﻜﻦ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻴﺪﻛﻦ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ"‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ‪):‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻴﺪﻛﻦ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ( ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻋﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﺼـﺮ‬
‫ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛـﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻭﺳﺄﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻗـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪ ":‬ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻷﻣﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻈﻢ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻟﻄﻒ ﻛﻴﺪﺍﹰ ﻭﺃﻧﻔﺬ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﻦ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻴﻘﺔ‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﻓﻖ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻐﻠﱭ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ ﺃﻧـﺎ‬

‫ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺧﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ )ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶﻴ‪‬ـﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺎﻥ‪ ‬ﻛﹶـﺎ ﹶﻥ‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺿﻌ‪‬ﻴﻔﺎﹰ("‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ‪‬ﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻴﺪﻫﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻹﻟﻪ ﻛﻴﺪﻫﻨ‪‬ﻪ‬

‫ﺇﻻ ﻷ‪‬ــ ‪‬ﻦ ﻫﻦ‪ ‬ﻫﻨﻪ‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﲑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺳﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻨﺘﺰﻉ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻪ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﻹﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﺩ ﺃﺻﻨﺎﻡ ﻗﻮﻣﻪ‪،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﺄﻧـﻪ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‪،‬ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٣‬ﺹ‪٣٨٤‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،١٢‬ﺹ‪١٩٦‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﻮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ؛ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﻧﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻑ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢‬ﺹ‪٤٣٥‬‬
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‫ﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﺘﲔ‪،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﻮﻍ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻫـﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻈﺮﻳـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻧﻄﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ! ﻭﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺿﻤﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪):‬ﻭﺃﻣﻠـﻲ ﳍـﻢ ﺇﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﺘﲔ(‪.‬ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻨﺪﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﲝﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﻻ ﲢﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﺭﺅﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻻ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪،‬ﺑﻞ ﺗﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻠﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﲟﻌﺰﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ﹲﺔ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣﺪ‪‬ﺓﹲ(‬
‫)ﻭ‪‬ﻟ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﻌﻀﻜﻢ ﱂ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﲣﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﺠﺔ؟ ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺆﻳﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻧﻌﺠﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻧﺴﺎﺀ! ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺰﻋﻤـﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺴﻌ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺠ‪‬ﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺠ‪‬ﺔﹲ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺣ ‪‬ﺪﹲﺓ‬
‫ﺴﻊ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺗ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﺠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪) :‬ﹺﺇﻥﱠ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﹶﺃﺧ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﺗ‪ ‬‬
‫ﹶﻓﻘﹶﺎ ﹶﻝ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﻔ‪‬ﻠﹾﻨﹺﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺰ‪‬ﻧﹺﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﻄﹶﺎﺏﹺ(‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪ ":‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻏـﺰﺍﻩ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﺣﱴ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﺘﻞ؛ ﻧﻜﺢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ" ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺭﻳﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼـﻮﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫)ﺗﺴﻊ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ ﻧﻌﺠﺔ( ﺃ‪‬ﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‪،‬ﻓﻴﻌﻠﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪ ":‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﲎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﺠﺔ ﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﺸﻰ‪" :‬ﻗﺪ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺭﺍﺋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺷﺎﺓ ﳏﺎﺫﺭ ﺣﺬﺭﺍ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﳍﺎ" ﻳﻌﲏ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺭﺟﻞ ﳛﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻇﻠﻤﺖ ﺑﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲔ‬
‫ـﻤﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬‬
‫ـﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ؛ﻛﺎﻟﺴــ‬
‫ـﺜﲑ ﻣــ‬
‫ـﺮﺃﻱ ﻛــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟــ‬
‫ـﻖ ﻣﻌــ‬
‫ـﺎﺋﻪ" ﻭﻳﺘﻔــ‬
‫ـﻦ ﻧﺴــ‬
‫ﻣــ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺹ‪) :‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٢٣:‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٣‬ﺹ‪١٤٣‬‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﻱ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﳐﺸﺮﻱ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻧﺎﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺳﻲ‪،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺪﻱ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ﻟﺪﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻨ‪‬ﻊ ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﳚﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﺍ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪ ":‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ؛ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ؛ ﻭﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ؛ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺷﺪﻫﻢ ﻓﺠﻮﺭﺍﹰ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﻜﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ؟‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺸﻮﻱ ﺍﳋﺒﻴـﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻟﻌﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻨﺴﺒﻪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ" ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪" :‬ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻖ ﲟﻨﺼﺐ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻼ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﻮ‪‬ﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺎﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ _ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ_ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ" ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻋﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﻟﻨﱯ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﻜﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﺎﺝ ﻫﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺅﻩ‪،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮﻭﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺃﲡـﺮﺃ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‪،‬ﰲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻃﱯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﰊ ﺇﺫ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜـﻦ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﳏﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳊﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ _ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ_ ﻟﻀـﻌﻒ ﺍﻷﺑـﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﻗﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ":‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﺃﺷـﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻠﻴﻖ ﺑﻨﱯ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﻗﺼﺼﺎﹰ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﺮﺯ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺒﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﻄﻼ‪‬ﺎ"‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‪،‬ﻓﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٢٦‬ﺹ‪١٦٥‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﺸﻨﻘﻴﻄﻲ‪،‬ﺃﺿﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺝ‪،٦‬ﺹ‪٣٣٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻴﻤﲔ‪،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‪http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/noor/article_6533.shtml،‬‬
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‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬ﻳﻌﻠﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻌﺠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻌﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﻃﱯ‬
‫ﻋﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﻮﺏ! ﰒ ﻳﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﰊ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺳـﺒﺐ ﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﲔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ‪.‬ﺃﺗﺴﺎﺀﻝ ﻫـﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ؟ ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻌﺠﺔ ﻓـﺈ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺛﻮﺭﺍ ﻭﲪﺎﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﺣﻆ‪" :‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞﹶ ﺛﻮﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓﹶ ﺑﻘﺮﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ـﻤ‪‬ﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﲪﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺗﺎﻧﺎ‪ ً،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻧﻌﺠﺔﹰ"‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻞ ﻧﻘﻴﺲ ﻛﻼﻣﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ؟‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﺼﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﳏﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﲪﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪ ):‬ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﹶﻟ ﹶﻘﺪ‪ ‬ﻇﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﺴ‪‬ﺆ‪‬ﺍﻝﹺ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌﺠ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹺﻧﻌ‪‬ﺎﺟﹺﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﹺﺇﻥﱠ ﻛﹶ‪‬ﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ﻠﹶﻄﹶﺎﺀِ ﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻐ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﺑ ‪‬ﻌﻀ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﺾﹴ ﹺﺇﻻﹼ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﺁﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻮﺍ ﻭ‪ ‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻗﹶﻠ‪‬ﻴﻞﹲ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫‪‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻭﻇﹶﻦ‪ ‬ﺩ‪‬ﺍﻭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﹶﺘ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎﺳ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻐﻔﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﺧ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻛﻌ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ (‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺧﻠﻄﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ؟! ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﳌﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻘﺘﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻭﺷﺎﻃﺤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﺎﺣﻆ‪،‬ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﲝﺮ‪،‬ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪،‬ﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻫﺎﺭﻭﻥ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻴﻞ‪،‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ ‪١٩٩٦‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺝ‪،١‬ﺹ‪٢١٢‬‬
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‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪):‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ(‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧــﻞ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‪ ) :‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻞﹾ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎﺕ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮﹴ ﺃﹶﻭ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺄﹸﻭﻟﹶﺌ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ـ ﹶﺔ‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻈﹾﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻘﲑ‪‬ﺍ( ) ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮﹴ ﺃﹶﻭ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶ‪‬ﻨﺤ‪‬ﻴﹺﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺎﺓﹰ ﻃﹶﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ـﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶ‪‬ﻨﺠ‪‬ـﺰﹺﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﹶﺃﺟ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﹶﺄﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ( ) ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮﹴ ﺃﹶﻭ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻧ‪‬ﺜﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻣ‪ ‬ﺆﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺄﹸﻭﻟﹶﺌ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﺪﺧ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
‫ﺍﹾﻟﺠ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺔﹶ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮﺯ‪‬ﻗﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﻓ‪‬ﻴﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﹺﺑﻐ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺮﹺ ﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﺏﹴ(‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﳏﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﷲ ﳍﻤـﺎ‪،‬ﻭﰲ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺮﳝﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﲰﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﺳﺄﲨﻞ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﺔ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫـﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺳﺄﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻷﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪) :‬ﻭ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺻ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﺈﹺﻧ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ ﺑﹺﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹸﺃﻣ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﺮ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ـﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﺿ‪‬ـﻌ‪‬ﺘ‪ ‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻛﹸﺮ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻠﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻓﺼ‪‬ﺎﻟﹸﻪ‪ ‬ﺛﹶﻠﹶﺎﺛﹸﻮﻥﹶ ﺷ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﹺﺫﹶﺍ ﺑ‪‬ﹶﻠﻎﹶ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺷ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﹶﻠﻎﹶ ﹶﺃﺭ‪‬ﺑﻌ‪‬ﲔ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﺭ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻭﺯﹺﻋ‪‬ﻨﹺـﻲ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﺃﹶﺷ‪‬ـﻜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﹺﻧ ‪‬ﻌﻤ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﱠﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺃﹶ‪‬ﻧ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻲ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻰ ﻭ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻱ‪ ‬ﻭﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﺻ‪‬ﺎ‪‬ﻟﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺿ‪‬ﺎﻩ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹶﺻ‪‬ﻠﺢ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺫﺭ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻲ ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﺒﺖ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﲔ‪(‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﰒ ﻳﻮﺻـﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺒـﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﳊﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ) ‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﺫﹾ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹾﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻴﺜﹶﺎﻕ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻨﹺﻲ‬

‫)‪(١‬‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫)‪(٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٢٤:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٩٧:‬‬
‫ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٤٠:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٥:‬‬
‫‪46‬‬

‫‪http://www.arabiclinguistics.net/‬‬

‫)‪(١‬‬

‫ﺇﹺﺳ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍﺋ‪‬ﻴﻞﹶ ﻟﹶﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹺﺎﻟﹾﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﹺﺇﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ( )ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻋ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ـ ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺـﻪ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ـﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹺﺎﻟﹾﻮ‪‬ﺍﻟ‪‬ـﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪ ‬ﹺﻦ‬
‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﹺﺇﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ( ) ﻗﹸﻞﹾ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍ ﺃﹶﺗ‪‬ﻞﹸ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺣ‪ ‬ﺮﻡ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪ ‬ﹺﺮﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﺑﹺﻪ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺌﹰﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﺑﹺﺎﻟﹾﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﹺﺇﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ(‬

‫)‪(٣‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺁﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‪،‬ﳌﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻟﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﺸـﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨـﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻤـﻞ ﻭﺍﻟـﻮﻻﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺷﻜﺮﻩ ﺑﺸﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﺫ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ):‬ﹶﺃﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﺷ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﺮ ﱄ ‪‬ﻭﻟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﻟﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﻚ‪(‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﻤﺨﻠﻮﻕ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻭﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻜﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻌﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﺰﻳﻦ ﺑـﺎﳊﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﻷ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻞ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻷﻣﻬﺎ‪‬ﻢ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻧ‪‬ﻌـﺪ‪‬ﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻘﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﷲ؟ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺳﺒﻐﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻬﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻼﰐ ﲪﻠﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻭﺿـﻌﻮﻫﻢ ﻛﺮﻫـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺭﺿﻌﻮﻫﻢ ﻭﲢﻤﻠﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺘﻬﻢ‪.‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺣـﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﻔﻮﻫﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻌﺎﺝ؟ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ؛ ﺑﻞ ﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺘﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺭﺟـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣﻪ‪،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺮ‪‬ﻩ ﺑﺄﻣـﻪ ﻣـﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻪ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﺄﺩﻳﺐ؟ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺮ‪ ‬ﻳﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻳﻌﺘﻨﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻔﻬـﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﻴﻨﻈﺮ ﻷﻣﻪ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺳﻴﺤﺘﺮﻡ ﺷﺨﺼﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ؟ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺪ‪‬ﻋﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺗﻨﻘﻠﺐ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻞ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻣﻬﺎﺕ‪،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﻀﻀﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﳍﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻘﻴﻤﺎ‪.‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻝ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﻗﻮﺓ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻑ ﻭﲨﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﺛﺔ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺧﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺴﻮﺱ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻜﺎﺑﺮ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ‪،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘـﺪﻩ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٨٣:‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(٣٦:‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ‪):‬ﺁﻳﺔ‪(١٥١:‬‬
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‫ﰲ ﺃﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺷﺎ ﺃﻣﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﱐ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻄﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻣﻬـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻩ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ؛ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ! ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﺠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻶﻳﺎﺕ‪،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ‪،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ‪،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ؛ ﰒ ﻧﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻛـﺎﻣﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺁﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﺮﻫﺎ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﻜﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻮﺛﻮﻕ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺤﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ﺳﺒﺄ ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﳍﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺁﻫﺎ ﺍﳍﺪﻫﺪ ﰲ ﳑﻠﻜﺘﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻞ‪):‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻣ‪ ‬ﺮﹶﺃﺓﹰ ‪‬ﺗﻤ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻜﹸ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﻢ‬
‫ﺸﻤ‪‬ﺲﹺ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺩ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﺯ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ ﻟ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫‪‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﺗ‪‬ﻴﺖ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻛﹸﻞﱢ ﺷ‪‬ﻲ‪‬ﺀٍ ‪‬ﻭﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺵ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ﻴﻢ‪ (٢٣) ‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ‪‬ﻗﹶ ‪‬ﻮﻣ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ‪‬ﻳﺨ‪ ‬ﹺﺮﺝ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‪‬ـﺐ‪َ ‬ﺀ‬
‫ﺴ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﺪ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺒﹺﻴﻞﹺ ﻓﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ )‪ (٢٤‬ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ﻳ‪ ‬‬
‫ﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻄﹶﺎﻥﹸ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎﻟﹶ ‪‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹶﻓ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﻔﹸﻮﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (٢٥‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﱠﺎ ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﺭ‪‬ﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺵﹺ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﻈ‪‬ـﻴﻢﹺ )‪(٢٦‬‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻭ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﹾﹶﺄ ‪‬ﺭﺽﹺ ﻭ‪‬ﻳﻌ‪‬ﹶﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ )‪ (٢٧‬ﺍﺫﹾ ‪‬ﻫﺐ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﻜ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺑﹺﻲ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻓﹶﹶﺄﹾﻟﻘ‪ ‬ﻪ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹸﺛﻢ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﱠﻝ ﻋ‪‬ـﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶـﺎﻧ‪‬ﻈﹸ ‪‬ﺮ‬
‫ﺻﺪ‪ ‬ﹾﻗﺖ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨﺖ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﹾﻜﹶﺎﺫ‪‬ﺑﹺ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﺳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﹶ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻢﹺ ﺍﻟﻠﱠـ ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻌ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (٢٨‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺄﹸ ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃﹾﻟﻘ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻲ‪ ‬ﻛ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﻛﹶ ﹺﺮﱘ‪ (٢٩) ‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﹶ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ ‪‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺑﹺ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬ﺣﻤ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﻴﻢﹺ )‪ (٣٠‬ﹶﺃﻟﱠﺎ ‪‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻲ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹾﺗ‪‬ﻮﻧﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﲔ‪ (٣١) ‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺄﹸ ﺃﹶﻓﹾﺘ‪‬ﻮﻧﹺﻲ ﻓ‪‬ﻲ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﹸ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻃﻌ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺗ‪‬ﺸ‪ ‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ (٣٢) ‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧﺤ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮﺓ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺑ‪‬ﺄﹾﺱﹴ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﹾﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻈﹸﺮﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮﹺﻳ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺴﺪ‪‬ﻭﻫ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺟﻌ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﺃﹶﻋ‪ ‬ﺰﺓﹶ ﺃﹶﻫ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺫﻟﱠﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻛ ﹶﺬﻟ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻳ ﹾﻔﻌ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (٣٤‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ـﻲ‬
‫)‪ (٣٣‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﻥﱠ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻙ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﺫﹶﺍ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﺍ ﻗﹶﺮ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﺃﹶﻓﹾ ‪‬‬

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‫ﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﹶﺔﹲ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺔ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻨ‪‬ﺎﻇ‪ ‬ﺮﺓﹲ ﹺﺑﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪ ‬ﺮ ﹺﺟﻊ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺳ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (٣٥‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀَ ﺳ‪‬ﻠﹶ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻥﹶ ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﺃﹶ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﺪ‪‬ﻭﻧ‪‬ﻦﹺ ﹺﺑﻤ‪‬ﺎﻝﹴ ﹶﻓﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺁَﺗ‪‬ـﺎﻧﹺ ‪‬ﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﱠﻪ‪ ‬ﺧ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺁَﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻛﻢ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﻞﹾ ﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺘﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺ ‪‬ﻬﺪ‪‬ﻳ‪‬ﺘ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﺗﻔﹾ ‪‬ﺮﺣ‪‬ﻮﻥﹶ )‪ (٣٦‬ﺍ ‪‬ﺭ ﹺﺟﻊ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪ ‬ﹺﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﻠﹶﻨ‪‬ﺄﹾﺗ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﹺﺑﺠ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻗ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ـﻞﹶ ﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ـﻢ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﻬ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﲔ‬
‫‪‬ﻭﻟﹶ‪‬ﻨﺨ‪ ‬ﹺﺮﺟ‪‬ﻨ‪ ‬ﻬﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶ ‪‬ﺫﻟﱠﺔﹰ ﻭ‪ ‬ﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺻ‪‬ﺎﻏ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ )‪ (٣٧‬ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺄﹸ ﺃﹶﻳ‪ ‬ﹸﻜﻢ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺄﹾﺗ‪‬ﻴﻨﹺﻲ ﹺﺑﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺒ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺄﹾﺗ‪‬ﻮﻧﹺﻲ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪ ‬‬
‫)‪ (٣٨‬ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ‪‬ﻋﻔﹾﺮﻳﺖ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﹾﻟﺠﹺﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺁَﺗ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﻪ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺒ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ‪‬ﺗﻘﹸﻮﻡ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻣﻘﹶﺎﻣ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻭﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﹶﻴ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹶﻟﻘﹶﻮﹺﻱ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻣ‪‬ـﲔ‪ (٣٩) ‬ﻗﹶـﺎ ﹶﻝ‬
‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻱ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻋ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﹾﻜ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏﹺ ﺃﹶﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺁَﺗ‪‬ﻴﻚ‪ ‬ﺑﹺﻪ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺒ‪‬ﻞﹶ ﹶﺃﻥﹾ ﻳ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗﺪ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻃﹶﺮ‪‬ﻓﹸﻚ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺭ‪َ ‬ﺁﻩ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﻨ ‪‬ﺪﻩ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ‪‬ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻣ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﹶﻓﻀ‪‬ﻞﹺ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻲ ﻟ‪‬ﻴ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻠﹸﻮ‪‬ﻧﹺﻲ ﹶﺃﺃﹶﺷ‪‬ﻜﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﹶﺃ ﹾﻛﻔﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺷ‪‬ﻜﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﺈﹺ‪‬ﻧﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﺸ‪‬ﻜﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﻟ‪‬ﻨﻔﹾﺴِﻪ‪ ‬ﻭﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﹶﻛﻔﹶﺮ‪ ‬ﹶﻓﹺﺈﻥﱠ ﺭ‪‬ﺑ‪‬ﻲ ﻏﹶﻨﹺﻲ‪ ‬ﻛﹶـ ﹺﺮﱘ‪(٤٠) ‬‬
‫ﻚ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﻧ‪‬ﻜﱢﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺷ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻧ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻈﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﺗ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻱ ﹶﺃﻡ‪ ‬ﺗ‪‬ﻜﹸﻮﻥﹸ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‪‬ﻳﻦ‪ ‬ﻟﹶﺎ ﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺘﺪ‪‬ﻭﻥﹶ )‪ (٤١‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺟ‪‬ﺎﺀَﺕ‪ ‬ﻗ‪‬ﻴﻞﹶ ﺃﹶﻫ‪ ‬ﹶﻜﺬﹶﺍ ﻋ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺷ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺻﺪ‪‬ﻫ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ‬ﺗﻌ‪‬ﺒﺪ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺩ‪‬ﻭﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻠﱠـﻪ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ـﺎ‬
‫ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﻛﹶﺄﹶﻧ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﻫ‪‬ﻮ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﺗ‪‬ﻴﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪ ‬ﹾﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺒ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹸﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻠﻤ‪‬ﲔ‪ (٤٢) ‬ﻭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺸ ﹶﻔﺖ‪ ‬ﻋ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺳ‪‬ﺎﻗﹶﻴ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﻝﹶ ﺇﹺﻧ‪ ‬ﻪ‬
‫ﻛﹶﺎ‪‬ﻧﺖ‪ ‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻗﹶ ‪‬ﻮﻡﹴ ﻛﹶﺎﻓ‪‬ﺮﹺﻳﻦ‪ (٤٣) ‬ﻗ‪‬ﻴﻞﹶ ﻟﹶﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﺩﺧ‪‬ﻠ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪ ‬ﺮﺡ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﹶﻠﻤ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺭﺃﹶﺗ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﺣ‪‬ﺴِﺒ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻪ‪ ‬ﹸﻟﺠ‪‬ﺔﹰ ‪‬ﻭﻛﹶ ‪‬‬
‫ﲔ )‪(٤٤‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‪‬ﺎﹶﻟﻤ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻊ ﺳ‪‬ﻠﹶ‪‬ﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻟ‪‬ﻠﱠ ‪‬ﻪ ﺭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺏ ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﻇﹶﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤﺖ‪ ‬ﻧﻔﹾﺴِﻲ ﻭ‪‬ﺃﹶﺳ‪‬ﹶﻠ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺡ ‪‬ﻣﻤ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺩ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﻮ‪‬ﺍﺭﹺﻳﺮ‪ ‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺻ‪ ‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﲢﻜﻲ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲪﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﻘﻠﻬﺎ‪،‬ﺑﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ ﻛﺮﱘ‪ ):‬ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺖ‪ ‬ﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﹶﻳ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‪‬ﻠﹶﺄﹸ ﺇﹺﻧ‪‬ﻲ ﹸﺃﹾﻟﻘ‪‬ﻲ‪ ‬ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻲ‪ ‬ﻛ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﻛﹶ ﹺﺮﱘ‪ (‬ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﻟﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﻣﻬﺎ‪،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺁﺛﺮ ﻗﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺃﻭﻟﻮ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﻭﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ‪ ):‬ﻗﹶﺎﻟﹸﻮﺍ ‪‬ﻧﺤ‪‬ـ ‪‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﻗﹸ ‪‬ﻮﺓ‪ ‬ﻭﺃﹸﻭﻟﹸﻮ ﺑ‪‬ﺄﹾﺱﹴ ‪‬ﺷﺪ‪‬ﻳﺪ‪ ‬ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻟﹾﹶﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﹺﻟﹶﻴ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻓﹶﺎﻧ‪‬ﻈﹸﺮﹺﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﺎﺫﹶﺍ ﺗ‪ ‬ﹾﺄﻣ‪‬ﺮﹺﻳﻦ‪ (‬ﻓﺒﺬﻟﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﱪﻭﻫﺎ ﲟـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻓﻮﺿﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﺘﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺷﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻭﳍﻢ؛ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﻬـﺎ ﺃﰎ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻳﻐﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﺎﻧﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜـﺎﻟﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜـﺎﺩﻉ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻛﹼﺪﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻓﺴﺪﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‪):‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬

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