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Level: 9th Form
Grammar review
Question words
The most common question words in English are the following:
WHO is only used when referring to people. (= I want to know the person)
Who is the best football player in the world?
Who are your best friends? / Who is that strange guy over there?
WHERE is used when referring to a place or location. (= I want to know the place)
Where is the library? / Where do you live? /Where are my shoes?
WHEN is used to refer to a time or an occasion. (= I want to know the time)
When do the shops open? / When is his birthday? / When are we going to finish?
WHY is used to obtain an explanation or a reason. (= I want to know the reason)
Why do we need a nanny? / Why are they always late? / Why does he complain all the time?
Normally the response begins with "Because..."
WHAT is used to refer to specific information. (= I want to know the thing)
What is your name? / What is her favourite colour? / What is the time?
WHICH is used when a choice needs to be made. (= I want to know the thing between alternatives)
Which drink did you order – the rum or the beer?
Which day do you prefer for a meeting – today or tomorrow? / Which is better - this one or that one?
HOW is used to describe the manner that something is done. (= I want to know the way)
How do you cook paella? / How does he know the answer? / How can I learn English quickly?
With HOW there are a number of other expressions that are used in questions:
How much – refers to a quantity or a price (uncountable nouns)
How much time do you have to finish the test?
How much is the jacket on display in the window? /How much money will I need?
How many – refers to a quantity (countable nouns)
How many days are there in April?/How many people live in this city? /How many brothers and sister do
you have?
How often – refers to frequency
How often do you visit your grandmother? /How often does she study? /How often are you sick?
How far – refers to distance
How far is the university from your house? / How far is the bus stop from here?
Complete with the correct question words

……………………… you live? - I live in London.
……………………….. 's that girl? - She's my sister.
……………………… you go to school? - By bus.
……………………… banks open? - At eight O'clock.
………………………..are you wearing that coat? - Because it's hot!

Write questions about the words in bold.
Example: He drank juice. - What did he drink?
They went to Spain.
He writes novels.
Lacy likes soccer
The girls watched a serial.
He discovered the truth
Choose the correct question word
1. …………………….are you going tomorrow?
2. ……………………. are you traveling?


……………………. would you like to have for dessert?
……………………. are you crying ?
……………………. one do you like?
……………………. do you feel today?
……………………. time are leaving?
……………………. book is this?
……………………. has broken this vase?
……………………. don't you see a doctor?

Forming comparative and superlative adjectives
One-syllable adjectives.
Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the
comparative form and –est for the superlative.
One-Syllable Adjective
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
Mary is taller than Max.Mary is the tallest of all the students.
Max is older than John. Of the three students, Max is the oldest.
My hair is longer than your hair. Max's story is the longest story I've ever heard.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative
One-Syllable Adjective with
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
Final -e
Mary's car is larger than Max's car. Mary's house is the largest of all the houses on the block.
Max is wiser than his brother. Max is the wisest person I know.
If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and
add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form.
One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a Single
Comparative Form Superlative Form
Consonant with a Single Vowel before It
My dog is bigger than your dog. My dog is the biggest of all the dogs in the neighborhood.
Max is thinner than John.Of all the students in the class, Max is the thinnest.
My mother is fatter than your mother. Mary is the fattest person I've ever seen.
Two-syllable adjectives.
With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.
Two-Syllable Adjective
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
more peaceful
most peaceful
more pleasant
most pleasant
more careful
most careful
more thoughtful
most thoughtful
This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning.Max's house in the mountains is the most peaceful in the
Max is more careful than Mike. Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful.
Jill is more thoughtful than your sister. Mary is the most thoughtful person I've ever met.

If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the
superlative form change the y to i and add –est.
Two-Syllable Adjective Ending
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
with -y
John is happier today than he was yesterday. John is the happiest boy in the world.
Max is angrier than Mary. Of all of John's victims, Max is the angriest.
Mary is busier than Max. Mary is the busiest person I've ever met.
Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative
Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with Comparative Form
Superlative Form
er, -le, or -ow
The roads in this town are narrower than the roads in the city. This road is the narrowest of all the roads in
Big dogs are gentler than small dogs. Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.
Adjectives with three or more syllables.
For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with
Adjective with Three or More
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
more generous
most generous
more important
most important
more intelligent
most intelligent
John is more generous than Jack. John is the most generous of all the people I know.
Health is more important than money. Of all the people I know, Max is the most important.
Women are more intelligent than men. Mary is the most intelligent person I've ever met.
Irregular adjectives.
Irregular Adjective
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
Italian food is better than American food. My dog is the best dog in the world.
My mother's cooking is worse than your mother's cooking. Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst.
Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more
and most.
Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form
more clever
more gentle

Superlative Form
most clever
most gentle

Two-Syllable Adjective
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
more friendly
most friendly
more quiet
most quiet
more simple
most simple
Big dogs are gentler than small dogs. Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.
Big dogs are more gentle than small dogs. Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the most gentle.
Complete each of the sentences below with the correct form of the adjective.

Jeremy is 10 years old. Jenny is 8 years old. Jeremy is (old) ____________ ______ Jenny.
The Alps are very high. They are (high) _____ _______________ mountains in Europe.
An ocean is (large) ____________ _______ a sea.
A Rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less.
A Rolls Royce is (expensive) _______ ________________ _____ a Twingo.
John's results were bad. Fred's were very poor. Fred's results were (bad) __________ _____ John's.
This exercise is not very difficult. It's ____________ ______ I expected.
The weather is not good today. It's raining. I hope the weather will be (good) _________ next week.
People are not very friendly in big cities. They are usually (friendly) ____________ in small towns.
In the government of a country, the President is (important) _____ ______________ person.
People say that Chinese is (difficult) ______ ____________ to learn than English

Compound Adjectives
A compound adjective is sometimes called a hyphenated adjective. What are they?
Let's look at the following sentences:
I saw a man-eating alligator.
I saw a man eating alligator.
The first sentence contains a compound adjective.The second sentence doesn't.
However the meaning of the two sentences are very different as can be seen in the picture below:
I saw a man-eating alligator.
We are describing the alligator. What type of alligator is it? It is one that eats men (or people).
I saw a man eating alligator.
This sentence without the hyphen sounds like a man is eating an alligator.
(man is the subject, eating is the verb, alligator is the object or thing that is being eaten).
As you can see, the hyphen (or lack of it) makes a big difference in the meaning of the sentence.
Before we explain in more detail why we put that hyphen between those two words in the first
sentence, we need to do a quick review of Adjectives.
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a word that describes something.
A red car (red is an adjective because it describes the car. How is the car? Red)
A big book (big is an adjective because it describes the book. How is the book? Big)
See our other grammar notes about Adjectives in English. (LINK)
But sometimes we use more than one adjective to describe something.
Compound adjectives
A compound adjective is an adjective that contains two or more words.
In general we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as
a single idea (adjective) that describes something.
I live in an English-speaking country.
English-speaking is an adjective (used to describe the country). We use a hyphen to connect the
word English with speaking to show that it is one adjective (or one idea).
This adjective with two words joined by the hyphen is called a compound adjective.
Some more examples of compound adjectives are:
Our office is in a twenty-storey building.
I have just finished reading a 300-page book.

He is a well-known writer.
There are many types of Compound Adjectives. Here is a list of the most common types:
Compound Adjectives + Periods of Time
When he have compound adjectives using numbers + a time period, that word referring to a time
period is in singular form and is joined to the number with a hyphen.
I work eight hours every day --> I work an eight-hour day
I'm going on vacation for three weeks --> I have a three-week vacation
There was a delay of 5 seconds --> There was a five-second delay
Notice how we normally write the number as a word, not in numerical form.
Adverbs and Compound Adjectives
Adverbs modify a verb.
She walks slowly. How does she walk? Slowly. Slowly is an adverb that modifies (or describes) the
verb. Adverbs can also be used to modify an adjective.
It is very hot today. (Very is an adverb)
She is extremely intelligent. (Extremely is an adverb)
Notice how we do not put a hyphen between an adverb and an adjective (not even before a noun).
It is a very hot day.
She is an extremely intelligent girl.
Adverb + Past Participle
However when we have an Adverb + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to
make it a compound adjective.
This is a brightly-lit room.
She is a well-known actress.
We live in a densely-populated city.
Noun + Past Participle
When we have a noun + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.
We should start using wind-powered generators to cut costs.
I love eating sun-dried raisins.
Noun + Present Participle
When we have a noun + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.
I bought some mouth-watering strawberries.
That was a record-breaking jump.
Noun + Adjective
When we have a noun + adjective, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound
She is a world-famous singer.
This is a smoke-free restaurant.
Adjective + Noun
When we have an adjective + noun, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound
It was a last-minute decision.
We watched the full-length version of the movie.
Adjective + Past Participle
When we have an adjective + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.
That is an old-fashioned dress
Reptiles are cold-blooded creatures.
Adjective + Present Participle
When we have an adjective + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a
compound adjective.
She is a good-looking girl.
It left a long-lasting taste in my mouth.

Compound Adjectives with Proper Nouns
A proper noun is the name of something or someone (e.g. John, Susan Sanders).
Compound Adjectives made from Proper nouns don't need a hyphen though must have capital
letters. I bought the James Jackson tickets for us.
James Jackson is a compound adjective describing the tickets (What type of tickets? James Jackson
tickets). Since the adjective is a Proper noun, we don't need a hyphen between the two names.
How do we know when to put a hyphen?
If you can use the word “and” between the two adjectives or words, then a hyphen isn't necessary.
She has a big blue book.
(Big and Blue are adjectives)
Can we say: She has a big and blue book. (Yes, it is possible)
He is a world famous singer
Can we say: He is a world and famous singer. No, it doesn't sound correct so we need a hyphen to
join the wordsworld and famous. Also, look at the following:
It's an old coal-mining town
Notice how we didn't put a hyphen between the word old and coal. If we had have done that, we
would have been referring to old coal, as in coal that is old. We want to emphasis that the town in
old and not the coal.
Here we can say it is old and a coal-mining one.
Match the definitions to the compound adjectives. There are more words than needed.
short tempered
Anna always gets what she wants. She is……………………………..
You shouldn’t trust him. He is…………………….He smiles at your face but he keeps talking behind you.
The characters in that film were horrible. They were…………………………….My dad gets angry very
easily. He is…………………… Laura does a lot of work for charity (helping others). She is ……………….
Hieu is very calm. He can overcome most difficulties easily. He is…………………… The new
manager never accepts other people’s ideas. He is………………………
Compound adjectives are often used to describe character. Write the proper adjective to complete the
Absent-minded Good-natured Laid-back Narrow-minded Open-minded
Quick-tempered Self-conscious Self-centered Thick-skinned Strong-willed
1. A determined, resolute and single-minded person is …………………………………
2. A…………………………….person is extremelly self-aware and has a tendency to be shy and introvert.
3. Some people are receptive to different ideas or opinions of others. They are ………………….…..
4………………………………..people don't bother to take the time to understand another person's points of
view or feelings. They only care about themselves.
5. A person who is easily distracted and shows inattentive or forgetful behavior is…………………………
6………………………….people are very relaxed, calm and easy-going. Nothing disturbs them.
7. A………………………….person is tolerant and has a pleasant and easygoing disposition.
8………………………….people lack tolerance or sympathy. They are intolerant and prejudiced.
9. Someone easily aroused to anger is ……………………………
10. A ……………………………..person is not easily offended and is usually unaffected by the needs and
feelings of others.
Compound Nouns
Compound nouns are words for people, animals, places, things, or ideas, made up of two or more words.
Most compound nouns are made with nouns that have been modified by adjectives or other nouns.
In many compound nouns, the first word describes or modifies the second word, giving us insight into what
kind of thing an item is, or providing us with clues about the item’s purpose. The second word usually

identifies the item.
Compound nouns are sometimes one word, like toothpaste, haircut, or bedroom. These are often referred
to as closed or solid compound nouns.
Sometimes compound nouns are connected with a hyphen: dry-cleaning, daughter-in-law, and well-being
are some examples of hyphenated compound nouns.
Sometimes compound nouns appear as two separate words: full moon, Christmas tree, and swimming pool
are some examples of compound nouns that are formed with two separate words. These are often referred
to as open or spaced compound nouns.
Compound Noun Examples
The more you read and write, the more compound noun examples you’ll encounter. The following
sentences are just a few examples of compound nouns. Compound noun examples have been italicized for
easy identification.
Compound nouns can be made with two nouns:
Let’s just wait at this bus stop.
I love watching fireflies on warm summer nights.
While you’re at the store, please pick up some toothpaste, a six-pack of ginger ale, and some egg rolls.
Compound nouns can be made with an adjective and a noun:
Let’s watch the full moon come up over the mountain.
Please erase the blackboard for me.
Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a noun:
Be sure to add bleach to the washing machine.
Let’s be sure to stay somewhere with a swimming pool.
Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a verb:
He always gets up before sunrise.
I really could use an updated hairstyle.
Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a preposition:
Checkout is at noon.
Please remember to schedule your dog’s annual check-up.
Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a prepositional phrase:
My mother-in-law is the kindest person I know.
Compound nouns can be made with a preposition and a noun:
Do you believe in past lives?
This city is vibrant, so it’s hard to believe it has a thriving criminal underworld.
Compound nouns can be made with a noun and an adjective:
We need a truckful of mulch for the garden.
Using compound nouns, can you shorten the following phrases?
1. a room for stores
2. a tape for measuring up to 300 cms
3. the assistant manager of the restaurant
4. a station for express trains
5. size of cables
6. reduction in cost
7. two periods of three months
8. plugs with 3 pins
9. two steel boxes for tools
10. the husband of my daughter

Comparison: comparisons of equality (as tall as his father)
As … as …
If two things are equal in some way, we can use a comparison with as …as …. The comparisons may
involve adjectives (adj) or adverbs (adv) after the first as, and noun phrases (np) or clauses after the
second as:
He’s grown so much. He’s as tall as his father now. (adj + noun phrase)
The team is still as good as it was five years ago. (adj + clause)

The second game didn’t go as well as the first one. (adv + noun phrase)
The company is not performing as successfully as it did when Arthur Carling was the President. (adv +
When the second part of the comparison is a clause, the clause is often a reduced clause (a clause with
ellipsis) or one with a substitute verb do or a modal verb:
If the sales figures are as bad as predicted, the company will probably go bankrupt. (as bad as economists
have predicted)
I worked as hard as I had ever done in my life for my final exam. (…as hard as I had ever worked in my life)
We tried as hard as we could.
Noun phrases
If we use as … as … with a noun phrase, we must use much or little + uncountable noun or many or few +
plural noun:
She had as much work as she needed and did not want to take on any more.
There are as many students in Class 2A as there are in 2B.
He spent as little money as he could.
Negative forms
We can form the negative of as … as … with not as … as …, or with not so … as … The form not as …
as … is more common:
He didn’t run as fast as he did in the European Championship.
He didn’t pay as much tax this year as last year because he earned less.
She’s not so shy as she used to be. (less common)
I don’t read so many novels now as I used to. (less common)
Exercise on how to make comparatives of equality in English.
Write the comparison of equality for the sentences below. Use the words in brackets ( ). Do not use
contracted forms. Example 1
John is 32 years old. Dave is 32 years old. (John/be/old)
John is as old as John.
Example 2
John does not work very hard. Dave works harder. (John/work/hard)
John does not work as hard as Dave.
1) John is 1 metre 80cms tall. Dave is 1 metre 80cms tall. (John/be/tall)
2) Seville has temperatures of 40ºC. Cordova has temperatures of 40ºC. (Seville/be/hot)
3) John is not very clever. Mary is cleverer. (John/be/clever)
4) The blue car is not expensive. The red car is more expensive. (The blue car/be/expensive)
5) Mrs Jones talks very quietly. Mrs Smith talks more loudly. (Mrs Jones/talk/loudly)
6) The brown house is 100 years old. The green house is 100 years old. (The brown house/be/old)
7) Steve did not do well in the English test. Melissa did better in the English test. (Steve/do/well)
8) The impala runs 90km per hour. The cheetah runs 120km per hour. (The impala/run/fast)
9) The first exam was difficult. The second exam was difficult too. (The first exam/be/difficult)
10) Ciudad Real is not very beautiful. Seville is more beautiful. (Ciudad Real/be/beautiful)

While and Whereas for contrast
While to introduce a time clause:
While can be used in a number of different ways. We use it, first and foremost,
when we want to talk about things that happen simultaneously. In this sense, it is
similar to ‘as’ and ‘when’. All of these conjunctions can serve to introduce a longer
background situation which started before the shorter action. Consider the following
and, at the same time, note the use that is made of the past continuous in these
'I completed the crossword as I was talking on the phone.'
'I remembered that I had a letter to post when I was walking past the post box.'

'While I was reading the newspaper, my wife was ironing my shirts.'
As you can see from the above examples, while is particularly useful if we are
discussing long actions and wish to draw attention to the duration of the activities.
Consider the following:
'I’ll prepare breakfast while you’re having a shower.'
'While I was recovering in hospital, my wife was enjoying a holiday in Cyprus.'
Note that if the subject is the same in both clauses, a participial construction may be
used, particularly in written English. Compare the following:
'She completed her first novel while working for the local newspaper.'
'She completed her first novel while she was working for the local newspaper.'
while / whereas to link two ideas that contrast with each other:
Note that while does not always refer to time. It is also used to balance
two ideas that contrast with, but do not contradict, each other. In this
sense, it is similar to whereas. Consider the following:
'While I like all types of fish, my girlfriend always chooses meat dishes
when we go out to eat.'
'Some married couples argue all time, whereas others never do.'
'We would always choose somewhere in the mountains for a
holiday, while our children always want the seaside.'
Note that whilst we would use while or whereas within sentences to
contrast two ideas, across sentences we would need to use ‘however’ or
‘on the other hand’. Compare the following:
'In the UK the hottest month of the year is usually July,whereas in
southern Europe the hottest period is usually in August.'
'In the UK the hottest month of the year is usually July. On the other
hand, in southern Europe the hottest period is usually in August.'
'Britain secured only one gold medal in Atlanta four years ago, while at
Sydney 2000 we ended up with eleven.'
'Britain secured only one gold medal in Atlanta four years ago. At Sydney
2000, however, we ended up with eleven.

Possessive Pronouns
We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging
to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).
We use possessive pronouns depending on:
number: singular (eg: mine) or plural (eg: ours)
person: 1st person (eg: mine), 2nd person (eg: yours) or 3rd person (eg: his)
gender: male (his), female (hers)
Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some example sentences. Notice that each possessive
pronoun can: be subject or object refer to a singular or plural antecedent



gender (of "owner")

possessive pronouns



male/ female





gender (of "owner")

possessive pronouns


male/ female








male/ female



male/ female



male/ female/ neuter


Look at these pictures. Mine is the big one. (subject = My picture)
I like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my flowers)
I looked everywhere for your key. I found John's key but I couldn't find yours. (object = your key)
My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely. (subject = Your flowers)
All the essays were good but his was the best. (subject = his essay)
John found his passport but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her passport)
John found his clothes but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her clothes)
Here is your car. Ours is over there, where we left it. (subject = Our car)
Your photos are good. Ours are terrible. (subject = Our photos)
Each couple's books are colour-coded. Yours are red. (subject = Your books)
I don't like this family's garden but I like yours. (object = your garden)
These aren't John and Mary's children. Theirs have black hair. (subject = Their children)
John and Mary don't like your car. Do you like theirs? (object = their car)
Notice that the following (with apostrophe [']) do NOT exist: her's, your's, their's
Notice that the interrogative pronoun whose can also be a possessive pronoun (an interrogative possessive
pronoun). Look at these examples:
There was $100 on the table and Tara wondered whose it was.
This car hasn't moved for two months. Whose is it?
A. Directions: A pronoun is possessive when it shows ownership. Underline all the possessive pronouns
in the following sentences. There are 15 in all.

I took my dog to a dog show.
His hair was longer than hers.
I saw that her dog was smaller than their dog.
Someone asked, “Is that dog yours?”

I replied, “Yes, he’s mine.”
I wonder whose dog is the smallest?”
My dog won a first place ribbon.
His ribbon was big and its color was blue.
My parents and I were proud of our dog.
Everybody thinks that one’s dog is special.
I’m sure your dog is special, too.
B. Directions: Fill in the blank with the proper possessive pronoun:
mine, ours, his, hers, yours, its, theirs

I paid for my scarf, so it is _____.
Pick any of these desserts. The choice is _____.
The math book belongs to Ralph. It is _____.
All my brothers love video games. Playing them is a favorite pastime of _____.
We bought this game together, so it is _____.

Reflexive Pronouns
A reflexive pronoun is a special kind of pronoun. It is usually used when the object of a sentence is the same
as the subject, as you will see below. Each personal pronoun (such as I, you, and she) has its own reflexive
form. This introduction will explain what the different forms of reflexive pronouns are, and when they are
The forms of reflexive pronouns

Personal Pronoun

Reflexive Pronoun



you (singular)


you (plural)












When to use a reflexive pronoun
Reflexive pronouns are used in three main situations.
1. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object are the same.
I hurt myself.
The band call themselves “Dire Straits”.
He shot himself.
2. They are used as the object of a preposition, when the subject and the object are the same.
I bought a present for myself.

She did it by herself. (She did it alone.)
That man is talking to himself.
3. They are used when you want to emphasize the subject.
I'll do it myself. (No one else will help me.)
They ate all the food themselves. (No one else had any.)
Fill in the correct reflexive pronouns.
I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO …………….
The girl looked at ……………… the mirror.
Freddy, you'll have to do your homework………………….
You don't need to help them. They can do it …………….
I introduced ……………….to my new neighbour.
Boys, can you make your beds ………………. ?
She made………………. a pullover.
What happens when a fighting fish sees…………… the mirror?
The father decided to repair the car ……………..
We can move the table ……………….

Expressing Obligation
Must (subjective obligation)
We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example:
I must go.
Structure of Must
Must is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure is:
subject + must + main verb
The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").
Look at these examples:

auxiliary must

main verb













Like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by to. So, we say:
I must go now. (not *I must to go now.)
Use of Must
In general, must expresses personal obligation. Must expresses what the speaker thinks is
necessary. Must is subjective. Look at these examples:
I must stop smoking.
You must visit us soon.
He must work harder.
In each of the above cases, the "obligation" is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. In fact, it is not a
real obligation. It is not imposed from outside.
It is sometimes possible to use must for real obligation, for example a rule or a law. But generally we
use have to for this.
We can use must to talk about the present or the future. Look at these examples:
I must go now. (present)
I must call my mother tomorrow. (future)
We cannot use must to talk about the past.
Must not, Mustn't (prohibition)
We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, for example:

Passengers must not talk to the driver.
Structure of Must not
Must is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure for must not is:
subject + must not + main verb
The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").
Must not is often contracted to mustn't.
Look at these examples:
auxiliary must + not

main verb




my keys.






must not




NB: like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by "to". So, we say:
You mustn't arrive late. (not You mustn't to arrive late.)
Use of Must not
Must not expresses prohibition - something that is not permitted, not allowed. The prohibition can be
subjective (the speaker's opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples:
I mustn't eat so much sugar. (subjective)
You mustn't watch so much television. (subjective)
Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective)
Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)
We can use must not to talk about the present or the future:
Visitors must not smoke. (present)
I mustn't forget Tara's birthday. (future)
We cannot use must not to talk about the past. We use other structures to talk about the past, for example:
We were not allowed to enter.
I couldn't park outside the shop.
Have to (objective obligation)
We often use have to to say that something is obligatory, for example:
Children have to go to school.
Structure of Have to
Have to is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a modal verb. It is
not even an auxiliary verb. In the have to structure, "have" is a main verb. The structure is:
subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to)
Look at these examples in the simple tense:

auxiliary verb

main verb have

infinitive (with to)


to work.





do not


to see

the doctor.





to go

to school?

Use of Have to
In general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a
separate, external power (for example, the Law or school rules). Have to is objective. Look at these
In France, you have to drive on the right.
In England, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.

John has to wear a tie at work.
In each of the above cases, the obligation is not the subject's opinion or idea. The obligation is imposed from
We can use have to in all tenses, and also with modal auxiliaries. We conjugate it just like any other main
verb. Here are some examples:
main verb have


auxiliary verb

past simple



to work


present simple



to work


future simple




to work






to wait.

present perfect




to change

the time.

modal (may)




to do

it again.

Expressing obligation

Expressing there is no

Inquiring about

Forbidding, refusing


-You have (got) (to go / ...)
-We / you ..must (leave / ...)
-Do behave yourself!
-It is compulsory.
You are to .. (be there at 4 / ...)
-We are forced to do so.
-We were obliged to (pay / ...)
-It's not necessary / not necessarily.
-No) you needn't / you don't need to ... (go out / ...)
-No need to (wait / ...)
-You don't have to .. (wait / ...)
-You haven't got to (wash the car / ...)
-It is not compulsory.
-It is not absolutely vital.
-Why should you?
-You aren't obliged to ...(wait for them /...)
-Must we ( go / stay /...)
-Do you have to ( wash our hands / wait/...)
-Have I / we got to ( go now /...)
-Is it compulsory?
-Am I / Are we required to ( take an exam / ...)
-Need we (stay / ...)
-Am I to (wait here / ...) ?
-Am I obliged to (leave / ...)?
-Are we supposed to (read this book / ...)?
Parking is strictly forbidden / prohibited here.
-Trespassers will be prosecuted.
-No begging / parking / waiting / ...
-They won't let me (go out / ...)
-Nobody is to (enter this area / ...)
-I was refused permission to ( use my car / ...)

-You may not (drink alcohol / ...)
-We weren't allowed to (talk / ...)
-It's out of question.
-Smoking / drinking alcohol .. is not permitted/ is prohibited.
Choose have to / has to or don't have to / doesn't have to.
Every man ………………….do military service in my country. It's obligatory.
When do we ………………….pay for the next term?
Policemen………………………wear a uniform
A pilot …………………….train for many years.
Does Susan ……………………work long hours?
I ……………………get up early on Sundays. I can stay in bed.
You…………………….have a visa to come to Ukraine.
You……………………… do it if you don't want to.
My daughter ………………………to cook, because I cook for the whole family.
We……………………pay. It's free.

‘May’ or ‘might’?
May and might are both ways of expressing possibility. Is there a difference between the way in which they
should be used?
Some people insist that you should use may (present tense) when talking about a current situation
and might (past tense) when talking about an event that happened in the past. For example:
I may go home early if I’m tired. (present tense)
He might have visited Italy before settling in Nuremberg. (past tense)
In practice, this distinction is rarely made today and the two words are generally interchangeable:
I might go home early if I’m tired.
He may have visited Italy before settling in Nuremberg.
But there is a distinction between may have and might have in certain contexts. If the truth of asituation is
still not known at the time of speaking or writing, either of the two is acceptable:
By the time you read this, he may have made his decision.
I think that comment might have offended some people.
If the event or situation referred to did not in fact occur, it's better to use might have:
The draw against Italy might have been a turning point, but it didn't turn out like that.
Complete the sentences
Where are your keys?
Lily called. She said
Why are you taking an umbrella?
You should buy the tickets today. If you don’t,
I can’t find my credit card. I think
Who’s that?
Steve is late.
Where are Johnny and Sam?
What’s in the parcel?

They might have gone out to play football.
there might not be any left.
It might Karen’s brother. She said he was coming.
It might be the books I ordered online.
They might be in my bag.
The forecast said it might rain
She might be late
Yes, I think he might have missed the train.
I might have left it in that last shop;

Modals of Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better
These three verbs are modal verbs.
Should / ought to / had better
Modal verbs are helping/auxiliary verbs that express ideas like ability, advice, and obligation. Many
modal verbs have more than one meaning. They are always followed by the simple form of a verb. For
example: Amanda should go to the doctor.

This shows that we think it is a good idea for Amanda to visit the doctor.
Modals for Advice
Let's learn how to give advice!
English speakers use the modal verbs “should,” “ought to” and “had better” to express that they think
something is a good (or a bad) idea. “Should” is the most common way to give advice.
Look at these examples:




A: I failed my test.
B: Really? You should
study harder.

Young children shouldn't
watch violent TV shows.

I have a problem. Should I call my
parents or my friend?

A: It's really cold
B: You ought to wear a
warm jacket.

(“ought to” is not usually used in the
negative form)

(“ought to” is not common in
question form)

A: You had better slow
down. You are driving
too fast!

You had better not forget to pay
your tuition. If you do, the university
will kick you out!

(“had better” is not usually used in
question form)

These examples have the same basic advice message, but “had better” is a bit stronger. It includes the idea
of a warning: something bad will happen if you do not follow my advice. For example:
You had better not forget to pay your tuition. If you forget, the university will kick you out
You had better do your homework. If you do not do your homework, the teacher will give you a low mark.
Note: “You had better...” can be contracted to become “You'd better....” This is correct grammar, and very
common in speaking. Some native speakers say, “You better ...,” but this is incorrect. The “had” is necessary
in good grammar.
In the above examples, you can see that the modals are followed by the simple form of a verb in these
Subject + modal + basic verb + ... You should study harder.
You should to study harder. Wrong!
You had better slowing down. Wrong!
She ought to to drink more water. Wrong!
Remember that “ought to” is a modal verb and is followed by a simple verb. The “to” is not an infinitive“to.”
Modal + subject + basic verb + ...?? Should I call my parents or my friend?
WH- (information) questions can also be formed by putting the WH- question word immediately before the
modal. For example:
What should I do about my problem?
Where should we have dinner tonight?
Why should you believe them?
When should they call their boss?
1. A: I think that the grade my teacher gave me on my test is wrong.
B: Really? You ______________ to her after class today.
ought to talk / ought talk / should to talk

2. It's raining and I don't want to get my dress wet. I _________________ an umbrella.
had better to bring / had better not bring / had better bring
3. A: I'm so hot.
B: You _________________ your coat!
should take off / should to take off / should put on
4. The airline only allows two pieces of luggage. You _________________ pack too much or you
will have to take it out at the airport!
better not / had better not / had not better
5. Dave loves chocolate, but he _________________ too much or he will get fat.
should eat / shouldn't eat / should eat not
6. I need help, doctor. My baby doesn't sleep well. What ________________ ?
I should do / should I do / had I better do
7. My mother isn't feeling well, so I told her that she _______________ to the doctor.
Ought / ought go / ought to go
8. I'm going to visit your country. Where _______________ if I want to go shopping?
should I go/ I should go / ought to I go

Modal Verbs : Permission, Prohibition, Obligation, No obligation
When we want to express permission, prohibition (not allowing something), obligation or no obligation we
use modal verbs.
Permission – can, may, could
'Can' is most often used to ask for or give permission but 'may' and 'could' are also possible even though
they are not used as often as 'can'.
Can I borrow a pen?
You can sit here, the seat is free.
Could I open the window?
May I ask a question?
'Can't' and 'mustn't' (must not) are used to show that something is prohibited (not allowed)
You can't go into that restaurant without a tie.
You can't drive in this country unless you are over eighteen.
You mustn't use your phone in class.
'Can't' usually gives the idea of something that is against the rules. Mustn’t usually means that it is the
speaker who is setting the rule.
'Have to' and 'must' are both used to express obligation. There is a slight difference in the way that they are
both used.
'Have to' shows that the obligation comes from someone else, not the speaker. This is usually referring to a
rule or law.
We have to be at the airport at least two hours before the flight.
I have to work on Saturday.
They have to wear their uniforms at school.
'Must' shows us that the obligation comes from the speaker.
I must hand in my thesis by tomorrow.
I really must call my parents.
Here is an example of the difference between 'have to' and 'must':
My doctor said that I have to stop smoking or I'll risk serious problems. (I have no choice)
I must stop smoking. It’s costing me too much money. (it’s my decision)
We use 'don't have to' to show that there is no obligation. You can do something if you want but it is
not an obligation.
You don't have to wear a tie to go to that restaurant but it would be nice.
You didn't have to call for me. I could have got a taxi.
Students don't have to wear uniforms to school.

Now choose the correct verb for these sentences:
1. You ___ come to the meeting but it would help us all if you’re there Mustn’t / don’t have to
2. I can’t get a connection on my phone. ___ I borrow yours? Have to / can
3. The rules say that you ___ only invite one guest to the club. Have to / can
4. I ___ stay on for a few hours because I’d rather work late today than over the weekend.
Must / have to
5. There’s a lot of noise coming from outside. ___ I close the window? Must / could
6. You ___ start saving money if you want to retire early. Have to / can
7. Did they tell you that you ___ come into this area. It’s restricted to staff only. Don’t have to /
8. We ___ be there fifteen minutes before the concert starts.Can / have to
Expressions of Warning
Study this dialog. Pay close attention to the underlined expression!
: “Mom, let me go out for a while, please?”
: “Where are you going to, Win?”
: “I’d like to visit Ririn. She got accident this morning. She is in the hospital now.”
: “Okay, but take care when you drive! The road is very slippery.”
: “Thank you, Mom.”
If we want to warn someone, we may have the following expressions:
Watch out!
Look out!
Be careful!
Take care when you drive!
Whatever you do, do it carefully.
These tablets should be kept out of the reach of the children.
Read the instruction attentively
Keep of the carpet. It has just been cleaned.
A warning means giving information of the danger or unexpected situation that my happen if a person does
something. He/she wants that person will be more careful. When we see a snake on a tree, for example, we
may shout our friends "Watch out" It means we inform them be careful and to pay attention to the snake.
A warning is usually in the form of imperative, but it may occur with the modal"must" and "should"
Expression of warning :
- You should/should not_______________
- You must/must not___________________
- Don't_______________________________!
- Beware!
- Beware of___________________________
- Look out!
- Watch out!
- Watch out for_______________________!
Here are other examples of expressing warning.
Your little sister wants to cross the busy street. Then you warn her to cross carefully by
saying,"Mind the traffic!"
There is a long wire connected to the computer. At present you are using your computer and your
little brother is playing a toy car behind the computer. You see what he is doing and warm,"Dont touch
the wire!"
There is blackout in the neighbourhood. A father lights a lantern and puts it on the table. His son is
amazed and plays with the lantern. When the father sees, he warns,"Keep away from the fire!" or
"Don't play with the lantern!"


You are walking on the pavement with your friends in the rain. Suddenly you see a big hole on the
pavement. You want your friends by pointing at the hole and saying,"Look out!"
In the zoo, many cages of wild animals are applied with a warning board saying,"Beware of the
wild animals!"
Asking to do things – asking for permission
There are many different ways of making polite requests in English. If you don't want to sound rude when
speaking English, then you need to know how to make a request in a polite way.Requests in English are
usually made in the form of questions

Saying Yes

Saying No

Can I...?

Yes, sure

Well, I'm afraid...+ reason

Yes, of course.
Yes, that's fine.

Well, the problem is...

No, not at all.
No, of course not.

Sorry, but...

Could I...?
Could I possibly...?
Is it all right if I...?
Do you think I could...?

Do you mind if I...?

Asking others to do things – making requests

Saying Yes

Saying No

Can you...?

Yes, sure.

Well, I'm afraid + reason

Could you...?
Is it all right if you...?
Do you think you could...?
Will you...?
Would you...?

Yes, of course.

Well, the problem is
Sorry, but...

Do you mind -ing...?
Would you mind -ing...?

No, not at all.
Of course not.

Use 'Would you mind if I...? Could I possibly...? Could you possibly...? Do you think you could...? to
sound more polite.
Remember that 'Do you mind...?' and 'Would you mind...?' mean 'Is it a problem for you?' so the polite
answer when we 'say yes' is 'No'.
Choose the correct alternative for the following:

1. _ I borrow a pen, please?
Would / will / could
2. 'I've forgotten my wallet.' - Don't worry. I _ lend you some money if you like.
Would / will / could
3. _ you like to come to the cinema tonight?
Would / could / can
4. Do you mind _ the window please?
Closing / closed / to close
5. Would you mind _ me with these boxes?

Helping / help / if helping
6. _ I left early tomorrow morning? I have a doctor's appointment.
Do you mind if / would you mind if /could
Making suggestions
4 ways to tell your friends what you would like to do in the next few days:
1) WHAT ABOUT/HOW ABOUT ... + Base form + -ING
What about going to the pictures tonight?
How about going to the pictures tonight?
2) WHY + Negative
Why don't we go to the swimming pool tomorrow?
3) IMPERATIVE: Let's + Base form
Let's go to the restaurant now!
We could visit Paris next week.
Put these words into the right order to build a sentence.
1. have a cup Let's tea of .
2. huge a about buying What car ?
3. together to go Why we ? cinema don't the
4. Madrid the could We . take to train
1- Choose the best option for each sentence:
1) Hey Jim,(would you like to / how about / shall / do you like) go to the movies with us?
2) So, we all want Italian, right? (would you like to / let’s / how about / shall) that restaurant near the
3) What can we do this evening? (do you like / shall / let’s would you like to / how about) we watch the
game in a bar?
4) A: It's so hot in here!
B :(shall / let’s / would you like to / what about) get out of here and go that bar near the bay!
5) Helen called and said she's going for a walk. (let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) going with
6) I'd like to do something different this weekend...(let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) go sailing!
7) A: What shall we do?
B: I don't know... It's not very warm and it looks as if it's going to start raining...
(let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) a play? I think there's a new one in the auditorium.
8) A: Next month we have some days off. Is there anything special you want to do?
B: Yes!! . (let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) go to Madrid! The Cirque du Soleil's new show will
be there that week!
9) It's warm and sunny, .(let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) go roller-skating!
10) A: Would you like to go shopping on Saturday?
B: I can't, I don't have much money right now. (let’s / how about / would you like to / shall) hiking?
The weather is really nice...and it's cheaper!

Expressing certainty and uncertainty
Certainty is the state of being completely confident or having no doubt about something. However,
uncertainty is when nothing is ever decided or sure.
Expressing certainty
When you are sure that something will or will not happen in the future, use these expressions.
For example to the question:
"Will John pass the exam?"
you may respond as follows:
Yes, I'm absolutely sure he will.
quite sure

of course.
No, I'm absolutely sure he won't.
quite sure
definitely not.
certainly not.
of course not.
Expressing uncertainty
When you are not sure whether something or someone will or will not happen, use the following expressions.
For example, to the question:
"Will John follow a career in business?"
you may respond as follows:
I suppose, but I wouldn't like to say for certain.
Well, it's possible,
it's impossible,
I'm not sure
it might be,
I doubt it.
I have my own doubts.
it might not be,
it could happen,
it's doubtful.
It's highly / very unlikely.
you never know of course,
no one can know for certain.
I can't tell you for sure.

When to Use “That,” “Which,” and “Who”
The proper use of the relative pronouns who, that, and which relate the subject of a sentence to its object,
hence the name. The question of which of the three words to use in a given context vexes some writers;
here’s an explanation of their relative roles.
Who, Whom, and Whose
Who and whom refer only to people, and whose almost always does so:
“I have a friend who can help.”
“Whom you associate with is your concern.”
“The person whose jacket was left behind is the likely culprit.”
(Whose is sometimes used to refer to an object, as in “Notice the car whose headlights are off.” This
awkward usage should be replaced by, for example, “Notice the car that has its headlights off” or, better,
“Notice the car with its headlights off.”)
That refers mostly to things, though a class or type of person is also sometimes referred to by this pronoun:
“He has the key that fits in this door.”
“This is a team that is going places.”
“He’s the kind of doctor that volunteers at a clinic on his day off.”
Even though the previous sentence is technically correct, it’s usually best to maintain a distinction between
people and not-people by using who in reference to a type of person: “He’s the kind of doctor who volunteers
at a clinic on his day off.” (The use of that in association with people itself, however, is well attested, as in “I
don’t like the kind of people that she hangs out with.”) But a class of people is always considered a thing, not
a person, so a sentence like “This is a team who is going places” is never correct.

Which, like that, refers to things, but a further consideration is that American English usage usually frowns
on this word when it appears in a restrictive, or essential, clause, such as “I chose the card which is blank.”
This sentence, which specifies a card among one or more others that are not blank, has a meaning distinct
from “I chose the card, which is blank,” which refers to a single card and then describes it. (This is an
example of a nonrestrictive, or nonessential, clause.)
To further clarify that distinction, the restrictive form is generally illustrated by using that in favor of which,
which is reserved for a nonrestrictive function, as in the preceding phrase. (One exception occurs when
which is preceded by another usage of that, as in the sentence “What is good is that which is natural.”)
(This form is sometimes called nonessential because the information that follows which is not required. In
the first sample sentence, which is better rendered “I chose the card that is blank,” the card’s blank state is
essential to the context. In “I chose the card, which is blank,” all we need to know is that the card was
chosen; its quality of blankness is incidental.)
Many writers and speakers of American English deplore the artificial distinction of
favoring that over whichin restrictive usage, but it is practical and well established — two valid criteria for
any variation in purely logical grammar.
Complete with who which and that
1. People ________ live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones.
2. Walden Pond, ______ was written in the mid-1800s, remains a popular book among romantic and
individualistic Americans.
3. She prefers to watch movies ______ make her cry.
4. He bought all the books ________ are required for the course.
5. In the crowd were several recruits _______ are regarded as excellent prospects for next year's team.
6. The police were able to find no evidence against her, _____ surprised no one who knows her well.
7. Tashonda Viereck's children, ______ all graduated from college, came home for her eightieth birthday.
8. Predictably, the students _____ did best were not the ones who stayed up all night studying.
9. She wanted to buy a scarf _______ would complement her blue eyes.
10. The answers, ________ you can find in the back of the book, are sometimes incorrect.

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