Physical Geology concepts.pdf


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“Light silicates” are light colored, ‘non-ferromagnesian’ minerals.
Feldspars - There are two general types:
Potassium Feldspar (commonly called “K-spar”); and plagioclase feldspar
Quartz
Muscovite – a mica
Clay minerals – a complex type of sheet silicate

Typically, “dark silicates” are ‘ferromagnesian’.
Olivine group – A dark greenish, high-temperature mineral often associated with mantle
conditions.
Pyroxene group – A common mineral type in basalt.
Amphibole group – A typical mineral type in intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Biotite – Dark mica.
Garnet – A nesosilicate common in metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks.